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(W^ CAT. NO. 232 3 

BR145 JHST" U, " VerS " y Ubrary 

Hf8 |?iXiiNiiin , i!SLf hurch of God r ,rom "W 


3 1924 029 245 128 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 













" The truth of the Lord endureth forever."— Psalm cxvii. 2. 

" Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, ■where 
is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls."— Jeremiah vi. 16, 

" Blessed are the poor in spirit : for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven."— Matthew v. 3. 

"Upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail 
against it." — Matthew xvi. 18. 

" It was needful for me to write uuto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly 
contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints."— Jude 3. 


" Signs op the Times " Office, 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, by 

Sylvester Hassell, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Electrotyped by 


New ¥obk. 


•' Search the Scriptures."— John v. 39. 

" To the law and to the testimony : if they speak not according to this word, it is 
because there is no light in them."— Isaiah viii. 20. 

" The footsteps of the flock."— Canticles i. 8. 

Genesis iii. 15, 21 ; iv. 4, 25, 26 ; v. 24 ; vi. 8, 9 ; xii. 1-3 ; xt. 6 ; xxxii. 24-32 ; Deuteronomy 
xxxii. 9, 10 , xxxiii. 29 ; Ruth i. 16, 17 ; 1 Kings xix. 18 ; Job i. 21 ; xix. 25, 26 ; Psalms i. 1-3 
viii. 2 ; xxxii. 5 ; xxxiv. 1, 18, 19 ; xl. 1-3 ; xlii. 2 ; lxxxlii. 3 ; cii. 17 ; ciii. 1-5 ; cvii. 1-32 
ex. 3 ; cxi. 9, 10 ; cxv. 1. 9-15 ; exxi. 1-8 ; exxii. 1-9 ; exxv. 1,2; exxvi. 1-6 ; exxx. 1-8 
exxxiri. 1-3 ; exxxyiii. 1-8 ; cxlv. 1-21 ; Isaiah xxxiii. 20 ; xli. 17-20 ; xlv. 17-19, 22-25 ; liii 
liv; lv; lrti. 15; lxi. 1-3, 10, 11; Jeremiah xyii. 5-8; xxxi. 3, 8, 9, 31-37; Ezekiel xxxvt 
25-27; Daniel i. 8; iii. 18; vi. 10; Jonah ii. 9; Hahakkuk iii. 17, 18; Zephaniah iii. 12 
Zechariah xii. 10-14 ; xiii. 1,7-9; Malachi iii. 16-18 ; iv. 2. 

Matthew v. 3-12, 43-48 ; vi. 6 ; vii. 12, 14, 24, 25 ; xi. 25-30 ; xxv. 40 ; xxviii. 18-20 ; Luke 
xii. 32; xviii. 14; Johni. 12, 13; iii. 3, 5, 7, 8; iv. 24; v. 25; vi. 37; viii. 32; x. 11, 26-28; xi. 
25-'.7 ; xiii. 35 ; xiv. 15-17 ; xvi. 13, 14 ; xviii. 36 ; Acts ii. 41, 42 ; v. 29 ; viii. 36-38 ; xvi. 31-34 
xvii. 11 ; xix. 1-5 ; xx. 33, 34 ; xxiv. 11-J6 ; xxvi. 13, 19 ; xxviii. 22 ; Romans iii. 19, 20, 27, 31 
v. 19, 21 ; viii. 14, 15, 28-39 ; xi. 2-7 ; 1 Corinthians i. 26-31 ; xiii. 4-13 ; 2 Corinthians iii. 7, 8 
vi. 16, 18; Galatians i. 6-12; ii. 19-21; iii. 10-13, 17, 18, 24, 25; v. 1-6; Ephesians i. 3-23; ii. 
1-22 ; Iv. 1-32 ; Philippians i. 6, 29 ; ii. 12, 13 ; iii. 3-15 ; Colossians i. 18 ; ii. 6-23 ; iii. 1-17 ; 2 
Timothy i. 9, 10 ; iii. 12 ; Titus ii. 11-14 ; Hebrews iv. 3, 9, 10 ; vi. 9-20 ; viii. 7-12 ; x. 5-25, 33, 
39; xi. 1-40; xii. 6-11, 18-24; xiii. 9; James i. 27; ii. 5, 26; 1 Peter i. 1-9; ii. 5, 9; iv. 12-14; 
1 John i. 6-10 ; iii. 14 ; iv. 7 ; v. 1-5 ; Revelation v. 9 ; vii. 13-17 ; xv. 2,3; xxi. 1-7. 


This book will be found benevolently iconoclastic,— seeking, with the Divine help, 
to deliver the people of God, for their good and His glory, from every form of idolatry, and 
thus to promote the pure, spiritual and acceptable worship of the Most High.— Exodus xx. 
3 ; 1 John v. 21 ; Matthew xv. 9 ; John iv. 24. 

Every doctrine defended by the Authors of this volume, and by all orthodox Old School 
or Primitive Baptists everywhere, is in perfect and Divine harmony with such gracious 
Scriptures as the following : Psalm cvii. ; Isaiah lv. ; Matthew v. 3-12 ; xi. 28-30 ; Reve- 
lation xxii. 17. 


" God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers 
by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, "whom he hath ap- 
pointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds ; who being the brightness 
of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word 
of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the 
Majesty on high."— Hebrews i. 1-3. 

By faith "the elders obtained a good report;" " choosing rather to suffer affliction 
with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season ; esteeming the 
reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt." " Who through faith 
subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of 
lions, quenched the violence of Are, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were 
made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens." "And 
others had trial of mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment : 
they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were 1 tempted, were slain with the sword : 
they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins ; being destitute, afflicted, tormented ; 
of whom the world was not worthy : they wandered in deserts, and mountains, and dens 
and caves of the earth."— Hebrews xi. 2, 25, 26, 33, 34, 36-38. 

" When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, 
then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory : and before him shall be gathered all na- 
tions : and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep 
from the goats. * * * And these shall go away into everlasting p uni shment : but the 
righteous into life eternal."— Matthew xxv. 31, 32, 46. 


"And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and 
some, pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the minis- 
try, for the edifying of the body of Christ : till we all come in the unity of the faith, and 
of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature 
of the fullness of Christ : that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and 
carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning crafti- 
ness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive ; but speaking the truth in love, may grow up 
into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ : from whom the whole body fitly 
joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the 
effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the 
edifying of itself in love."— Ephesians iv. 11-16. 


A hundred or a thousand years hence the good or the evil opinions of 
human beings with reference to this book will not be of the slightest im- 
portance to me ; while I shall be wholly interested in the approval or the 
disapproval of God. And, by reason of the entire uncertainty of the con- 
tinuance of this mortal life, such may become the state of my feelings at 
any moment. Such indeed have been my feelings, I believe, to a great 
extent, in the preparation of this volume. 

For the Preface, Introduction, and General History of the Church, no 
one but myself is responsible ; while of the Kehukee and Primitive Bap- 
tist History in the latter part of this work, with very little exception, my 
father is the sole author. 

It was the intention of the early members of the Kehukee Baptist 
Association to have its history written up and published at the close of 
each generation. The Association was organized A. D. 1765. The first 
history was written by Elders Lemuel Burkitt and Jesse Read, and pub- 
lished in 1803. The second history was written by Elder Joseph Biggs, 
and published in 1834. And my father, Elder Cushing Biggs Hassell, was 
in 1876 appointed by the Association to prepare the third history of the 
body, as well as a sketch of the History of the Church from the creation. 
After having written nearly all the Kehukee and special Primitive Bap- 
tist History, and the history of the Church from B. C. 4004 to A. D. 350, he 
passed from the scene of his earthly labors, April 11, 1880. I was ap- 
pointed by the Association in October, 1880, to complete the work. Upon 
the examination of my father's manuscript I found that the General His- 
tory of the Church needed considerable and laborious revision, which he 
designed, but did not live to accomplish. I have made this revision to the 
best of my ability, and I have also brought forward the history from A. 
D. 350 to A. D. 1885. 

My father traveled and preached extensively among the Old School 
or Primitive Baptists of nearly all parts of the United States from 1840 to 
1880, and was cordially received by them everywhere ; and if any one un- 
derstood their views he must have done so. He was, and I am, the Mod- 
erator of the Kehukee, the oldest Primitive Baptist Association in Amer- 
ica ; and, while this book does not profess to be the organ of the Primitive 
Baptists, still I am satisfied that the views of my father and myself on 
spiritual subjects are, in general, substantially the same as those of the 


great majority of our brethren. In regard to the religious innovations of 
post-apostolic times, with reference both to doctrine and to practice, the 
words of the Lord in Proverbs xxii. 28, Jeremiah i. 17-19, vi. 16, and 
Jude 3, have been especially and deeply impressed upon our minds. 

For about two years I earnestly endeavored, by private correspond- 
ence and notices in our religious periodicals, to obtain complete lists of all 
the Old School or Primitive Baptist Churches and Elders in the United 
States ; but so very few responded that the list is entirely too defective 
to be published. I have inserted in the history of the eighteenth century 
a list of all our churches of which I have been able to get any account, 
formed during that century. At the close of the Kehukee History is 
given the list of our associations in the United States, very much as left 
by my father. 

The most eminent of modern churcu historians have zealously devoted 
from thirty to fifty years to the accomplishment of their labors. The 
present work has occupied the careful attention of my father and myself 
about nine years, he having employed upon it about three-and-a-half, and 
I about five-and-a-half years. As we have had comparatively so short a 
period for the survey of the history of the church for nearly six thousand 
years, we have been absolutely compelled to avail ourselves extensively 
of the best results of investigations made by other men, indicating our 
indebtedness by quotation marks, and frequently giving the authors' 
names. We have aimed, not at a vain show of originality, but at utility ; 
and we have freely laid under contribution the best stores of religious 
knowledge on earth. It would require not only great intellectual and 
spiritual ability, but a long lifetime spent diligently in the great libraries 
of Europe, to write the history of the church as it ought to be, but never 
has been written. My father and I have, in general, at points where the 
truth is assailed, purposely used the very language and the reluctant 
admissions of such as occupy the highest positions among the enemies of 
the truth, so as effectually to silence the gainsayings of those who defend 
error with less information and less ability. We have dwelt sorrowfully, 
but emphatically and solemnly, upon the extravagant Pharisaism and the 
extraordinary religious superficiality of the nineteenth century. The 
world presses into the nominal church, multitudes compass sea and land to 
make proselytes, while the unfelt horror of spiritual death reigns through- 
out almost the entire extent of the civilized as well as the uncivilized pop- 
ulations of the globe. But while gross darkness covers the rich, proud 
and corrupt Egypt of the world, as of old, the few poor, humble and 
despised Israel of God are blessed with divine light in their dwellings ; 
and, to the spiritual mind, it is intensely interesting and edifying to 
observe the providential course and circumstances of that heavenly light 
as it comes down to us through the historical wilderness of the ages. 
Straight and narrow, high and holy, spiritual and divine is the mysterious 
path along which patriarchs and prophets, apostles and martyrs, and all 
the dear people of God have been led by the Spirit and providence of the 


Most High. The infallible Scriptures, illuminated by the Divine Spirit 
in our hearts, alone can enable us to discover that heavenly path, and to 
walk therein, and find rest to our souls. 

As is well known by those best acquainted with my conduct in accept- 
ing and carrying on the difficult and onerous task of revising and com- 
pleting this work, and in arranging for its publication, I have not been 
influenced by motives of worldly gain, but, as I trust, by a desire to pro- 
mote the cause of truth, even at a great sacrifice of my temporal interests ; 
and I hope that I have been divinely enabled in the compilation of the 
history, to rise above worldly considerations, and, in the solemn light of 
eternity and the consciousness of my great responsibility, to set forth 
what I believe to be the truth. I have not tried to write a popular or 
salable book. I seek neither the ephemeral applause nor the perishing 
riches of men ; and I hope that the fear of God has been implanted in my 
heart, and delivered me from the fear of the face of clay soon to moulder 
into dust. I have not written for the purpose of either pleasing or dis- 
pleasing men ; but I have endeavored, like an impartial witness, to state 
plainly, calmly and essentially " the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth," whether men like it or not. If the truth please them, I 
shall be glad, for nothing else can make them free ; if it displease them, I 
am not responsible. Tor the truth, however distasteful, I am not respon- 
sible ; but for accurately reporting what I am satisfied is the truth, I am 
responsible to God. While it is impossible, as Macaulay says, for history 
to give the whole truth, the best historians exhibit such parts of the truth 
as most nearly produce the effect of the whole, and seek to discover and 
explain the principles interpenetrating and underlying the facts. Such 
has been my view of the true province and object of history ; and this 
ideal I have endeavored, as best I could, to exemplify in the present work. 
I have labored to set forth the truth in creation, in history, and in 
Scripture. There is but one God, and He is equally the God of nature, of 
providence, and of grace, as everywhere recognized by the sacred writers ; 
and it is disloyalty to Him to deny or contemn His work in either of these 
great domains. May He always preserve me and my readers from such 

I lay no claim to inspiration or infallibility. I believe the Old and 
New Testament Scriptures to be absolutely the only inspired and infalli- 
ble book in human literature ; such is the fundamental doctrine of the 
Baptist Church and of the Protestant Reformation. By this divine stand- 
ard I desire the present volume and every other creatural work to be fin- 
ally tested— to be accepted if and when in accordance, and rejected if and 
when not in accordance, with the standard. " The best of the interpre- 
tations of the Bible are but the interpretations of fallible men." The 
right and duty of private judgment in the interpretation of the Scrip- 
tures is also a fundamental Baptist and Protestant doctrine ; such right I 
not only claim for myself, but I willingly allow to every other human 
being— only let each one remember and admit that no person and no set 


of persons now on earth are infallible. Papacy is equally offensive to 
reason and to faith. He who claims infallibility for himself or for any 
other man since the Apostolic Age, ceases to that extent to be a Baptist, 
or a Protestant, or a follower of Christ, and renounces those precious 
principles of religious liberty, in defense of which have flowed rivers 
of the best blood on earth. A proper knowledge of genuine church his- 
tory delivers us from the tyranny of both ancient and modern popes of 
every name, and directs us to the Bible as the only authoritative standard 
of faith and practice. Old School, Primitive, or Bible Baptists, should 
be the last people in the world to have a pope or popes among them. No 
book, no pamphlet, no periodical, no document of any kind, must be taken 
as a substitute for the Bible ; and no author, no editor, no preacher, no 
teacher, no writer, and no body of men must be substituted for Christ, 
who is the only Prophet, Priest, and King of His people. 

The great importance of church history is shown by the fact that it 
occupies two-thirds of the Bible. It has been called " the backbone and 
storehouse of theology, and the best commentary of Christianity itself. 
Next to the Holy Scriptures, which are themselves chiefly a history and 
depository of divine revelation, there is no ,stronger proof of the con- 
tinual presence of Cluist with his people, no more thorough vindication 
of Christianity, no richer source of spiritual wisdom and experience, no 
deeper incentive to virtue and piety, than the history of Christ's kingdom r 
as sublimely indicated by the eleventh chapter of the Epistle to the He- 
brews." — Prof. P. Schaff.* The history of the past gives us a more cor- 
rect knowledge of the present, and a more correct judgment as to the 
future. The history of the people of God " eminently illustrates the laws 
of the divine administration, evinces the truth of prophecy by showing 
its fulfillment, and, in due subordination to the study of the Scriptures and 
of our own hearts, furnishes the best school of human nature, although 
commonly postponed to that of frivolous society and superficial worldly 
wisdom. It tends to elevate and enlarge our views beyond the petty 
bounds of personal, sectarian and local interests ; to discourage bigotry, 
and moderate controversial bitterness, without impairing our attachment 
to the truth itself; and to suppress crude innovations and absurdities, 
both in theory and in practice, by showing that the same, in substance if 
not in form, have been canvassed and exploded centuries ago." — Prof. J. 
A. Alexander. 

* To such of my readers as may desire to pursue the study of church history, since the coming 
of Christ, beyond the limits of the present volume, I believe that I am doing a real service to say 
that the most recent, accurate, impartial, thorough, and satisfactory works on the subject with 
which I am familiar are the f ollowing by Prof. Philip Schaff, of New York : ' ' History of the 
Christian Church " (4 volumes already published, A. D. 1-1073— to be followed by others) • ' ' The 
Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical Notes 1 ' (3 vols.): and the Schaff-Herzog 
Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge" (3 vols.). As of especial interest and value to all loving 
students of the New Testament, I take sincere pleasure in recommending the first volume of his 
"History of the Christian Church, " entitled "Apostolic Christianity A. D. 1-100," which may be 
purchased separately, for $4, from the publishers, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. For a 
study of the vrioxncu authorities, J. C. L. Gieseler's Church History, in 5 vols., is indispensable to 
those acquainted with ancient and foreign languages. 

These commendatory remarks are made after a careful study of the best church histories pub- 
lished in Europe and America; and, like all similar remarks in the present volume, are entirely 
unsolicited on the part of the authors of the works recommended. 


A feature distinguishing Christianity from all other religions is its 
unique historical character— the religion and history being inseparably 
and supernaturally blended during a period of 4,100 years ; the very facts 
themselves being parables and symbols illustrating spiritual and eternal 
truths. In the midst of a depraved polytheistic world the God of the 
Universe, the God of History, the God of Grace, preserved for forty cen- 
turies the pure faith and worship of Himself, in the lines of Seth and 
Shem and Abraham, until, in accordance with His repeated promises and 
types recorded in the Old Testament Scriptures, He manifested His great 
and glorious salvation in the spotless life and atoning death and tri- 
umphant resurrection and ascension of His incarnate Son ; and then, in 
accordance with His purposes and declarations from the beginning, He 
dispersed the descendants of Abraham, with their ancient prophetic Scrip- 
tures, and sent his servants with the Scriptures of the New Testament, 
showing the fulfillment of the Old, among all the Gentile nations of the 
earth, and to the latter also mercifully displayed His spiritual, holy and 
everlasting salvation. " Holy men of God foresaw and foretold that the 
Gentile nations would come to worship the God of Judah, the Jehovah of 
Zion, at a period when nothing in the possible horizon of the times could 
have afforded the faintest indication of the wonderful future. To their 
minds the future was not as it is to other men, for they spoke of the com- 
ing ages just as the ages indeed have come." 

" Christ," says Prof. H. B. Smith, " is the centre of God's revelation and 
of man's redemption ; of Christian doctrine and of Christian history ; of 
Christian sects and of each believer's faith ; yea, of the very history of 
this our earth, Jesus Christ is the full, the radiant, the only centre — fitted 
to be such because He m the God-man and the Redeemer. Christ is the 
centre of the Christian system, and the doctrine respecting Christ in the 
heart of Christian theology. Christianity gives us all that philosophy 
aims after, and in a more perfect form ; it also gives us more than phil- 
osophy can give ; and this more that it gives is what man most needs, and 
what reason alone could never divine. And therefore we conclude that it 
is not within the scope of the human mind to conceive a system more 
complete, richer in all blessings. The highest ideas and ends which 
Teason can propound are really embraced, the deepest wants which man 
can know are truly satisfied, the sharpest antagonisms which the mind 
can propose are declared to be reconciled in the ideas, the means, and the 
ends which are contained in that revelation which centres in the person of 
Jesus Christ our Lord." 

May the God of all grace vouchsafe to bestow His all-important bless- 
ing upon these pages. Without Him neither writers nor readers can do 
anything acceptable in His holy sight. To his merciful, righteous and 
sovereign will, would I desire to commit myself, my labors, my natural 
and spiritual kindred, and all my fellow-creatures, both for time and for 
eternity. Sylvester Hassell. 

Wilson, N. C, February, 1886. 


Title of tills Work i 

Copyright ii 

Footsteps of tlie Flock Hi 

Special Notice to Every Beader iii 

Summary of Church History in Three Passages of Scripture iv 

The Edification of the Body of Christ iv 


The great object of the present volume the promotion of the cause of truth— Circum- 
stances of its compilation — The hest stores of religious knowledge, with proper ac- 
knowledgment, freely laid under contribution— The extraordinary Phariseeism and 
religious superficiality of the nineteenth century— The unique path of the church of 
God— The authors of this work lay no claim to inspiration or infallibility— The Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments the only inspired and infallible works in all 
literature — The Baptist and Protestant and Bible doctrine of the inalienable right and 
duty of private judgment in the interpretation of the Scriptures — Papacy equally offen- 
sive to reason and to faith — There must be no Popes among Bible Baptists — Value of 
church history— Christianity, above all others, a historical religion — Its facts symbolical 
of spiritual and eternal truths — Christ its centre and substance— Invocation of the all- 
important divine blessing upon these pages v— ix 

Table of Contents xi— xxi\r 


Incomparable character and value of the Bible— The utter failure of all the attempts 
of criticism, science and philosophy to invalidate a single one of its statements— The 
objections of its enemies carnal and theoretical, and abundantly refuted by more com- 
petent authorities— The designedly rudimentary, preparatory and typical nature of the 
Old Testament or evening dispensation, the introduction to the spiritual, final, New- 
Testament or morning dispensation of the militant church — The Hebrew Scriptures 
utterly distinct in tone and essence, spirit and monotheism, from those of heathen an- 
tiquity—Monotheism and expiatory sacrifice parts of the primitive religion, but entirely 
corrupted among all ancient peoples except the Hebrews— Christ the substance and the 
chief witness of the truth of the Old as well as of the New Testament— The dissolution 
of the fundamental hypotheses of the Tubingen criticism— Not Paul, but Jesus, the 
author of Christianity— The gospels, as well as the epistles, written in the first century— 
The dates and characteristics of each gospel— The authenticity and the transcendent 
spirituality and importance of the gospel of John— Bible miracles the divine credentials 
of inspired teachers— The silliness of the so-called Apocryphal " Gospels"— No history 
more certainly true than the Acts of the Apostles— All the real discoveries of science 
corroborate and illustrate the truth of the sacred Scriptures, while demonstrating the 
falsity of all heathen religions— Prof. Arnold Guyot's dying testimony to the perfect 
truth of the Mosaic record of creation— Man knows not even the alphabet of the volume 
of Nature, whose Author is God— Man's science never to be substituted for God's revela- 
tion—The universe presupposes the existence of an eternal, infinite and holy creative 
Spirit— Utter irrationality, immorality, inconsistency, senility and unscientific character 
of materialistic, agnostic, atheistic, chance evolution— Godless human philosophy a 
wilderness of darkness— Summary of the religious history of the Hamitic, Japhetic and 
Shemitic races— The decrease of vital and increase of formal godliness in the latter days, 
foretold in the Scriptures— The Obscure Age, A. D. 70—100, the dark, impenetrable gulf 
in which Divine Providence forever buried all claims to a merely material succession or 
churches or ministers— A spiritual succession found in most of the centuries of the 
Christian era— The spiritual marks of God's people by which they may be traced through 
the ages-The principles which they have generally professed-The unspeakable solem- 
nity of human life 




Seal of God upwi the Bible— The Divine Trinity— Perfect harmony of the scriptural 
and the scientific accounts of creation— Inadequacy of evolution— Biogenesis — Vanity 
and folly of PanGnostic agnosticism— Professors Dawson, Dana, Guyot and Kerr— 
Modesty of true science— Mosaic record — Assyriology— Existence, character and names 
of God— Jehovah, the unchangeable God of the covenant, and His church— Bara and 
Asa?t— Origin of 3in and Satan— Language of the Bible phenomenal— The two methods of 
reconciling Genesis and Geology— Work of each creative day— The ever-living God the 
only Author of life— Essential distinction between man and all other earthly creatures— 
The latter earth-born and earth-bound ; but man animated by the breath of God, and 
created for eternity— Man has but two constituent elements, soul and body— No human 
being knows whether creationism or tradueianism is true— Unity and recentness of the 
human race — Science shows that the gulf between man and the ape widens as we ascend 
to their origin --Chronology — Samaritan Pentateuch— Septuagint version of the Old 
Testament— God the Author of nature and the Bible — Spiritual meaning of the first and 
second chapters of Genesis— The Sabbath — Symbolical use of numbers in Scripture— Re- 
spects in which in an was made in the image of God— Formation of Eve — Marriage . 23 — 49 



Garden of Eden— The tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil— 
The mysterious principle of representation — The law — Thetempter — The transgression — 
Nature of sin -The penalties— The sword-like flame and the cherubim— The promise — 
The seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent— The final triumph of Christ and His 
people — Intermarriage of Sethites and Cainites— Consequent increase of depravity — 
God's warnings- -The ark — The flood — Comparison of the antediluvian and the present 
times— God's covenant with Noah — Flesh allowed for food, but blood forbidden — Murder 
prohibited — Power of inflicting death given the civil magistrate— Noah's three sons— 
The history «>I their descendants for all time prophetically given by Noah— Confusion of 
tongues at Babel— Consequent dispersion of mankind over the earth — Shortening of 
human life- -Job— His time, coimtry and trials— Abraham— His family, and call, and 
change of location and of name— Melchizedek — Polygamy— Ishmael— Circumcision— De- 
struction of Sodom and Gomorrah— Lot — The great trial of Abraham's faith— Sarah's 
death— Abraham's character and death 50—71 



Isaac and his two sons— Jacob— His dream — Significance of dreams— Jacob's marriage 
and twel T o sons— His wrestle with the angel of God— Peace with Esau — His settlement 
first at SUechem and then at Bethel— Isaac's death— Joseph— A forcible type of Christ- 
Sold into Egypt— God prospers him— Makes him ruler over Egypt— Joseph settles his 
kindred in Goshen— Wonderful increase of the Israelites— Jacob's dying prophecy of 
Christ- -Moses — His spiritual training in the desert — His call — Plagues upon the Egyp- 
tians— Paschal supper— Departure of the Israelites from Egypt — Destruction of Pharaoh 
and his host— Elim— Manna— Water from the rock— Battle with Amalek — Giving of the 
law at Sinai — Golden calf — Wilderness wanderings — The tabernacle — Its furniture and 
spiritual meaning— The sacrifices and their spiritual meaning— The day of atonement— 
The three annual festivals— The marvelous correspondence of types and antitypes— The 
specialty and ceremonial efficacy of every Levitical atonement annihilates the Armlnian 
Idea of the indefinite and conditional nature of Christ's atonement; — Number of men of 
war— Aaron's death— Sihon, king of the Amorites, and Og, king of Bashan, defeated, and 
their country occupied by Israel— Balak and Balaam— Death of Moses— Joshua succeeds 
him— Spiritual meaning of wilderness sojourn— Fall of Jericho and Ai— The Gibeonites — 
Slaughter of the Amorites— Standing still of the sun and moon— The Israelites chosen of 
God to execute His righteous judgments on the wicked Canaanites— The most of Canaan 
subdued by Joshua — His farewell exhortation and death 72 — 107 



Canaan— Its extent, peculiar situation, boundaries and unrivaled excellence— De- 
clension and oppression of Israel— The fifteen judges— Ruth and Boaz— The ark of the 
covenant— The prophets and the prophecies of Scripture— The fulfillment of these pro- 
ductions proves the divine inspiration of the Bible, and the foreknowledge and predesti- 


nation of God— Sons of the prophets ; they could not be made prophets by their teachers— 
The Theocracy— Saul— Ishbosheth— David— His enemies, sins, repentance and forgive- 
ness— Solomon— The temple ; its spiritual meaning— Revolt of the ten tribes under Jero- 
boam—Idolatry and sad declension of Israel— The ten tribes carried into captivity in 
Assyria— Heathen settlement of Samaria— Peculiarity of the Samaritans— Rehoboam's 
reign over Judah— Invasion of 8hishak,.king.of Egypt— Abijah— Righteous reigns of Asa 
and Jehoshaphat— Wicked reign and wretched end of Jehoram— Ahaziah— Usurpation of 
Athaliah— Jehoiada, the High Priest— Joash— Murder of Zechariah, the High Priest— 
Amaziah — Jonah— Uzziah's long reign — The prophets Zechariah, Joel, Isaiah, Hosea and 
Amos — Jotham's reign — The abominable idolatry of king Ahaz— The righteous reign of — Exceedingly wicked reign of Manasseh— His captivity and repentance — 
Amon— Josiah, the last pious king of Judah— The prophets Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Nahuni 
and Habakkuk— Jehoahaz— Jehoiakim— Babylonish captivity of Judah— Daniel and his 
three companions— Jehoiachim— Ezekiel and Mordecai— Zedekiah, the nineteenth and 
last king of Judah— The Governor Gedaliah— Johanan carries Jeremiah down to Egypt, 
where the prophet dies— Duration of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah— A summary of 
their spiritual history — True Israelites — The Lamentations of Jeremiah— The desolation 
of Israel — Reflections — As the kings, so the people— Necessity of the prophetic order — 
Books of the Old Testament thus far written 108—136 



The land of Judah enjoys her Sabbaths— The ten lost tribes— Nebuchadnezzar— Judah 
and Israel reunited in captivity— Daniel and his three friends— Life and prophecies of 
Ezekiel — Daniel resembles Joseph— His characteristics— Authenticity of the book of 
Daniel— The prophet was sustained by divine faith— In his second and seventh chapters 
he predicts the four great world-kingdoms, to be followed by Christ's kingdom— We live 
under the divisions of the fourth universal empire— The fiery furnace— Nebuchadnezzar 
humbled and changed by the almighty power of God— Evil-Merodach— Belshazzar— 
Handwriting on the wall— Awful doom of the impenitent sinner— Faithfulness of Daniel -- 
God's servants are not covetous— Isaiah's wonderful prophecies, one hundred and 
seventy-four years beforehand, in regard to the details of the fall of Babylon— Darius 
the Median— Cyrus the Persian— Daniel's fearless devotion to his God— Similar steadfast 
adherence of Bible Baptists to God— Gabriel's revelations to Daniel, in the ninth chap- 
ter—The Messiah to come in seventy weeks (from the command to restore Jerusalem), 
to suffer for others, make an end of sin, and bring in everlasting righteousness ; and ther 
the Jewish State-Church, with its capital city, to be destroyed— Exact fulfillment of the 
prophecy in Jesus of Nazareth— Remarkable confession of the Jewish chief Rabbi, Simon 
Luzzato— Sir Isaac Newton's view— Christ refers Daniel's "abomination of desolation 
to the Roman conquest of Jerusalem— Deliverance of all the Christians from the unex- 
ampled horrors of the final siege, In accordance with Christ's admonition to them- So at 
last all God's people will be saved, while all His enemies will be destroyed— The Messiah 
universally expected on earth during the first century of the Christian era— After Daniel s 
humble confession of sin, Christ is revealed to him— Events predicted in the eighth, 
eleventh and twelfth chapters of Daniel— Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, the Old Testament 
antichrist, the product of the highest ancient civilization ; a type of the New Testament 
antichrist of the last days, who will be a product of the highest modern civilization— 
Signs of these times— We are verging on the period of the last great apostasy— Time 
dissolves and eternity opens in the last chapter of Daniel-The Jews cured of material 
idolatry by the Babylonish captivity— Dealings of God with the heathen— The king s 
heart in the hands of the Lord-The Medo-Persian kings, Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes, 
order the return of the Jews to Jerusalem-Some of all the tribes, hut chiefly members 
of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi, return-Rebuilding of the temple under 
Zerubbabel— Haggai's prophecy of the coming of the Desire of all nations to the second 
tenrole, fuelled in Christ^Esfher^Ezra and Nehemiah-Illnmination of the opening 
and the closing pages of the Old Testament with the light of the Sun of Righteousness- 
The Apocrypha-Josephus-Ezekiel's three great overtiirnmgs, after which He should 
come whose right it was to reign-Spirituality of God's worship 137-159 



The Jews under the Graeco-Macedonian empire-Visit of Alexander the Great to 
Terusalem-Palestine a province of the Graeco-Egyptian kingdom-The High Prie*t 
Onial-limon the Just-Eleazar-Ptolemy Philadelphus-The Septuagmt, or Greek Old 
T? s tament^AntiochiisIV., Epiphanes, of Syria, attempts to destroy the people and the 
worship f ofGod-Hii horrible end-Revolt of the Maccabees against Syrian tyranny and 
Warohlmy-Chasidim and Zadikira; Sadducees and Pharisees-The Asmonean Prmces- 
The Snes-Pompey captures Jerusalem and enters the Holy of Holies-Establishes 
five SaXdrims^ntipater appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judea, B. C. 47- 


His son, Herod the Great, made Governor of Galilee and Ccele-Syria— Obtains the favor 
of Mark Antony — Contest between Antigonus and Hyreanus — Herod flees to Masada, to 
Egypt, and to Rome — Made by Antony and Octavius king of Judea, 40 B. C. — Attacks 
Jerusalem, and is defeated — Marries Mariamne, granddaughter both of Aristobulus and 
Hyreanus— Jerusalem taken— Herod installed king of Judea, B. C. 37— Upheld by Rome- 
Adorns the second temple— His great jealousy and cruelty — An inhuman monster- 
Murders many of his own family, and the infants of Bethlehem— His terrible illness and 
death— Work of sin and of grace under the old dispensation— Wars and idolatry — Human 
depravity— Faith and suffering of God's people— The Old Testament Canon— In the Old 
Testament the New is concealed, and in the New the Old is revealed— The Old the type, 
the New the antitype — Pre-ordained connection between the two — The Old the shadowy , 
and the New the clear, revelation of the same great essential truths : the holiness of 
God, the heinousness of sin, and the only method of God's spiritual and eternal salva- 
tion—The law our pedagogue to bring us to Christ — Its imperfect, preparatory and 
onerous nature — Its outward ordinances carnalized by national Israel — God destroys the 
outward by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar— Preparation for the introduction of a spiritual 
kingdom on earth — The gospel of realities supersedes forever the gospel of shadows : the 
spiritual takes the place of the material— The spiritual church of Christ the true theoc- 
racy : an organized community of kings and priests, subject, in religious matters, to no 
earthly potentate or aristocracy— False typology — Judaizing errors of Romanists and 
Protestants: hierarchism, formalism, traditionalism, sacerdotalism and sacramental- 
Ism — Unscriptural perversion of the doctrine of personal, unconditional, eternal elec- 
tion—All the Old Testament Messianic prophecies perfeotly fulfilled in Jesus of Naz- 
areth 160—180 




The New Testament— Rise of the Sun of Righteousness— Mission of the angel Gabriel 
to Mary— Birth of Jesus— Adoration of the shepherds— Exact date of Christ's birth— Born 
in the fullness of the time during aperiod of universal peace— Jesus, at the age of twelve, 
disputes in the temple with the doctors of the law— Baptized, at the age of thirty, by 
John the Baptist in the Jordan— Approving presence of the Father and the Spirit— The 
ministry of John the Baptist— Christ sends out the twelve Apostles and seventy disciples 
to preach— The numbers gathered in by them but few— The Apostles are the spiritual 
judges of Israel, and have no successors, except their own inspired writings— The mar- 
velous life and teachings and sufferings of Christ; — His incomparable perfections— Why 
He chose poor and illiterate Apostles — His death, resurrection and ascension— Necessity 
of His sufferings— The supernatural darkness at His death— The same body was crucified, 
raised again, and glorified— The doctrine of Christ— The judicial law designed for the 
special government of the ancient Hebrew nation— The ceremonial law a preflguration 
of Christ, and fulfilled and ended in Him— The moral law perfectly kept by Him for His 
people, in whose hearts He graciously writes the same noly law— The entire eternal 
salvation of the church based upon the perfect righteousness of Christ; — The Day of 
Pentecost— The first church in Jerusalem a Baptist Church of baptized believers— Each 
primitive church a little Republic— Diligence and success of the Apostles in preaching 
the word— God still able to convert sinners— Appointment of seven deacons at Jerusa- 
lem—Martyrdom of Stephen — Philip preaches in Samaria and to the eunuch— The two 
classes of conversion illustrated by that of Saul of Tarsus and that of Cornelius the cen- 
turion—Both the effect of sovereign and efficacious grace — All true conversions are 
miracles— The most devout saved only by Christ's atonement — All true devotion the 
work of God's Spirit— Remarks on the Gospels and the Epistles— Christianity, as estab- 
lished by Christ, perfect 181—213 



Nero's persecution of Christians— The destruction of Jerusalem— The awful calami- 
ties of the Jews, as predicted by Moses and Christ— The escape of the Christians from 
Jerusalem to Pella, m accordance with Christ's warning direction— Dispersion of the 
Jews over all the world, according to the predictions of Moses, and their continued dis- 
tinctiveness as a people, to prove to the world the truth of the Old Testament, and for 
the fulfillment of prophecies still future— They are to return to the Lord in the latter 
days— Persecution of the Christians under Domitian— Death of John, the last Anostle— 
The spiritual nature of Christ's kingdom-The Petrine, Pauline and Johannine neriods 
of the apostolic age— Lives, labors and teachings of Peter, Paul and John— James the 
Lord's brother, and the Apostle James— Gnosticism— The Revelation, or Apocalypse— 


tem e n a ^S!i« nts ?ltl l e "ook-Theseyen cnurches of Asia-The destruction of Jerusa- 
ffener'af ^n^i^^+^T?* * he de8t ™ c ti°n of the world-The Apocalypse gives the 
fc^ls.,f/n^™ t »« tU6 ^ lv l ue 1 s °Jfr nmeilt - Tlle Preterist, futurist aid historical 
BeoDlemid?rtS^»?^=^?^ theo .°P in Sof clrist-Intended to console God's 
?r A^othTS-S? i gre 5* tria } 8 ' ^ th , ^ the cer 'ain prospect of final victory-The prophecies 
St f»™^h B S.rf fP^^ 1 -^, ™ J 11 " 1 MerimZ-Tte Dragon, Beast and Fafse Pro- 
£«* wS 1 feSf U t> Aa1 l"^ Mlt ?r T I >e flrat beast a Persecuting worid-power-The sec- 
Sl™ m«Ji 9 &^ Mystery Babylon, a more oppressive pseudo-religious 
JnThr^^ff^fA 11 ^ 116 "^ ha S? a J? d forehead-The number 666-The destruction of 
8U«i .™S^i 8 mv God s People-The time unknown to creatures-The Millennium-The 
SH a l Si^STr ™ e 8ecolld P/rsonal coming of Christ-The general resurrection and 
.SaJn? fSwT? 11 ,? m ? T 2 y , °L Qod SlorWed in the everlasting salvation of His people, 
and His justice vindicated in the everlasting punishment of the wicked— Union of Christ 
and His church ^ _ _ 214 268 



Twelve characteristics of the apostolic church of the first century, with a history of 
the observance and the perversions of these features in succeeding ages— The apostolic 
age pre-eminently the age of the Holy Spirit, and the standard of all succeeding ages in 
doctrine and discipline— Twelve marks of the apostolic church : 1. A regenerated church 
membership— History of the unscriptural Catholic practice of infant baptism, the princi- 
ple of which involves the horrible doctrine of the everlasting damnation of all unbap- 
tized children who die In infancy. 2. The baptism (by which, of course, is meant the 
tmmeraiore— the word " baptism " means nothing else) of believers in water, in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost— History of the unscriptural Roman 
Catholic substitute of sprinkling or pouring for baptism— Man has no right to change the 
perfect ordinances of God— Bapto, baptizo, louo, nipto, rantiso, cheo and Tcathanzo, as 
used in the New Testament— Tabal and macliats, as used in the Old Testament— The 
Greek preposition en— Baptism not intended to represent the mysterious mode of the 
communication of the Spirit, but a burial and resurreotion with Christ— Much water— 
The large baptisteries of the early centuries — The most of the apostolic expressions re- 
garding baptism set aside by sprinkling or pouring— The origin of the Baptists, says 
Mosheim, hidden in the remote depths of antiquity. 3. The frequent observance, by 
baptized and orderly-walking believers, of the Lord's Supper j the bread representing 
the broken body, and the wine the shed blood of their precious Redeemer — The spiritual 
origin and nourishment of the Divine life — The Lord's Supper a symbolic ordinance, and 
not a sacrament or seal of salvation, or effective means of grace — History of the idol- 
atrous doctrine — Open and close communion. 4. The maintenance of strict discipline — 
Gibbon's testimony to the pure and austere morals of the early Christians — Ananias and 
Sapphira — The Corinthian offender excluded, and after repentance restored by the 
church — The brethren took part with the Apostles and Elders in the conference at Jeru- 
salem — Hymeneus and Alexander excluded for denying the doctrine of the resurrection— 
Need of genuine brotherly love for the prevention and cure of offenses— Different treat 
ment of private or personal and public or moral offenses— Necessity of a tender, faithful, 
scriptural discipline in the churches. 5. The independent or congregational polity or 
government of each local church, subject only to the Headship of Christ— Kakal and 
ecclesta — The local church the highest and last ecclesiastical authority on earth, accord- 
ing to the teaching of Christ— Ecclesiastical monarchies and oligarchies of worldly and 
unscriptural origin— Each true scriptural church, in its independence, a breakwater 
against the countless tides of error, strife and corruption— These churches are united 
not by mechanical, but by spiritual bonds, and have always corresponded with each 
other, on terms of perfect equality, by brotherly letters and messengers— No New Test 
anient authority for an organic union of churches, or for the legislative or disciplinary 
powers of Associations, Synods, Councils, Conferences or Conventions— The apostolic 
church not a copy of the humanly-invented Jewish synagogue, and not governed by 
Elders — All Christ's people are kings and priests, and He is their only Master. 6. The 
complete separation of Church and State — Emancipation from the unscriptural tradi- 
tions and commandments ofmen — The typical Jewish Church-State power superseded 
by the nnworldly, spiritual church of the New Testament— The alliance of " Church " and 
State, since the coming of Christ, always productive of corruption and persecution — 
Fifty millions of human beings murdered by Papal Rome, armed with the sword of the 
civil magistrate ; the same power of life and death still claimed by the Pope — The princi- 
ple of the union of " Church " and State adopted by Protestants, but always repudiated 
by Baptists— The First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, forbidding 
Congress to make any law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free 
exercise thereof, adopted mainly through Baptist influence— Washington's, Locke's, 
Newton's and Story's testimonies to the Baptists as the friends of liberty— The peculiar 
and inestimable privilege of religious liberty enjoyed by the people of the United States. 
7. The general poverty, illiteracy, obscurity, and afflicted and persecuted condition of 
the members— The Old Testament Prophets, John the Baptist, Christ and His Apostles, 


and the primitive disciples, and the peopled God during the last eighteen .centuries. 
8. The fraternal equality oi the ministry as well as of the membership—Only two classes 
of church officers, Bishops, or Elders, or Pastors, and Deacons— The Apostles were ex- 
traordinary foundation officers, princes sitting upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve 
tribes of Israel, and are, in their writings, their own perpetual successors— ine utDer 
baselessness of all claims to a material succession from the Apostles— AU scholars aomii; 
that, in the New Testament, the terms Bishop, and Presbyter or Elder, and castor, 
designate the same class of church officers— In the second century the Bishop simply 
the presiding officer among the Presbyters of a church, the Pastor of a single congrega- 
tion—Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, A. D. 248-258, the father of Diocesan Episcopacy , and 
of Romanism— Leo I., A. D. 440-461, the first Pope, in the real sense of the word— 1 he 
False Decretals of the ninth century— Brief History of Papal encroachments— The Apos- 
tles were clothed with humility— Ordination— So-called " confirmation "—The class or 
official distinction between teaching and ruling Elders not in the New Testament, but 
invented by Calvin in the third edition of his institutes— Deacons— Evangelists. 9. A 
humble, God-called aud God-qualifled ministry, mostly destitute of human training— 
The foolish things of the world chosen of God to confound the wise, that the glory may 
be His— Paul, when called to the service of Christ, conferred not with flesh and blood, 
and was made by God an able minister of the New Testament, not of the letter, which 
Mlleth, but of the Spirit, which giveth life— Sons or companies of the Prophets— The 
history of Theological Seminaries— Spurgeon's experience — The learned religionists of 
Judea crucified Christ— Ministers should search the Scriptures in humble dependence 
upon God for enlightenment. 10. An unsalaried ministry, helped by the voluntary con- 
tributions of their churches, but also laboring more or less for their own support ; freely 
receiving of God, and freely giving of their spiritual things to their brethren, while the 
latter also freely ministered of their carnal substance to them— The true ministry are 
not hirelings, preaching for filthy lucre's sake— The noble, self-denying, Christ-like ex- 
ample of Paul— Salaries attract unqualified men into the ministry— Unstipulated volun- 
tary contributions to the ministry practiced for the first three centuries. 11. The sending 
forth of the ministry by the Holy Spirit, and their going forth, whithersoever the Lord 
directed, in simple dependence upon Him, to preach the gospel to every creature, and 
to shepherd the lambs and sheep of Christ— The twelve Apostles and seventy Disciples — 
The gospel, and not the preaching of it, the power of God unto salvation to believers — 
No man able to do the quickening work of the Divine Spirit; — The Apostles went forth as 
directed, not by man, but by the Spirit, who alone knows where His elect and redeemed 
people are — And, as directed by Christ, when they were persecuted in one city they fled 
to another, and thus they traversed the Roman Empire — The true ministry, since the 
apostolic age, have gone forth in the same manner. 12. Separation from all worldly, 
men-made, money-based religious organizations, corruptly uniting believers and unbe- 
lievers, for the avowed object of converting the world — Ancient Israel forbidden to con- 
federate with the heathen nations for any purpose — The church the only society organ- 
ized or authorized by Christ and His Apostles, and perfectly adapted for all the purposes 
of God toward spiritual Israel— The especial corruption of professedly religious organ- 
izations based upon money, the god of this world, and the love of which is a root of all 
evil — All these modern human inventions and institutions utterly unknown in the 
apostolic and primitive churches— Not by worldly might and power, but by the Spirit of 
the Lord of hosts, did the word of God, in the first century, grow mightily and pre- 
vail—No religious institutions of men found in the New Testament, and all to be re- 
jected 269—326 



History of the doctrine of grace, and of scriptural and unscriptural missions— Bible 
Baptists not fatalists, or rationalists, but scriptural predestinarians — The Greek Ar- 
minian anthropology the doctrine of the dead Greek Catholic " Church," and, since the 
sixth century, of the Roman Catholic " Church "—The first Protestant reformers decid- 
edly rejected this false doctrine, bnt retained many Romish unscriptural traditions- 
Baptists have no succession from Rome, and are the only thorough-going, consistent 
antagonists of Romanism— The Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterian, Calvinisfic Methodist 
and Wesleyan Methodist communions— Superior moral results of Bible predestinarianism 
—The almost total departure of Protestants and New School Baptists from this doctrine 
during the last hundred years, and the sad moral results— The nineteenth century pre- 
eminently the century of religious profession and pride— Vice and crime increasing with 
the increase of religious profession, at least In the United States— Modern evangeliza- 
tion—The prevalence of Arminianism among the most of the anti-Romanists of the Dark 
Ages, and among the early Baptists of modern times— The first Predestinarian Baptist 
Church formed in 1633, in London— The most of Baptists since that time have professed 
predestinarianism— All are Arminians by nature— Babes in Christ need grace to establish 
them in the doctrine of God our Savior— All human authority fallible and imperfecta 
The Scriptures the only infallible authority— The soundness of the devout and learned 
English Baptist ministers, John Skepp, John Brine and John Gill, of the eighteenth cen- 


nf pvni Co ^ ert Ar minianism of Andrew Fuller— Long and bitter controversy— Prevalence 
TiaXtM™' aud consequent large ingathering of goats into the " sheepfold"— The first 
Sffri Iarr Society— Modern missiouers, unlike the Apostles and primitive min- 

J,. i«S ve mo J e faitn ln m< "i and human learning and money than in God— Modern 
Vi7a A^2. ry m Jl ods deriv( 3<l, not from the New Testament, but from the Eoman Catho- 
lics, especially the Jesuits, the most zealous and successful men-made Missionaries in 
Mr w £ — n- c k, m ? tn °ds no sign of spiritual life— Bemarkable and candid admissions of 
fir' *• Bainbridge, a "Missionary Baptist" preacher, who has recently visited a 
tnousand Protestant mission stations— More than two-thirds of the " Christian Church" 
practically antiimssionary— Miserably small annual contributions of the advocates of 
*oreign Missions, averaging less than three cents apiece— Prayer needed as well as 
money— Missionary" criticism of Paul's methods— Christ's example— The heathens 
more honest than professing Christians— The warlike and self-aggrandizing course ol' 
Protestant Ungland— Partial material resemblance of the nineteenth to the first century ; 
tod s purposes of grace— Infidelity disseminated by professing Christians in Japan, 
China and India— Salaries and qualifications of foreign missionaries— There should be 
less reliance on means and methods, and more on God— Number and cost of heathen 
converts— Time needed to convert the world— Testimony of the greatest of Southern 
Baptist Missionaries to the scripturalness of Primitive Baptist principles, who, though 
stigmatized as autinrissionaries, are the most active, self-denying, scriptural home 
missionaries in the United States, traveling tens and hundreds of thousands of miles 
without Missionary Boards or Funds, as directed by the Spirit and providence of God, as 
did the Apostles and the ministers of all the early centuries— Far more than human 
means or money the world needs a Pentecostal baptism of God's Holy Spirit— Unscrip- 
turalness of modern "Missions," and scripturalness of Primitive Baptist position . .327—366 



Second^ Century. The age of inspiration and infallible teaching ended— The ten great 
persecutions — Letters of Pliny and Trajan— Pliny's testimony to the excellent character 
of the Christians— The infidel Celsus a prototype of the inhdels of the nineteenth cen- 
tury—The Pagans persecuted Christians because the latter, maintaining the exclusive 
truth of their own religion, would not worship the Pagan idols— Primitive Baptists of 
to-day are exactly like the Christians of the second century in non-fellowshiping the 
worshipers of idols— Establishment of the first Theological Seminary, at Alexaudria, 
Egypt, A. D. 180— Its gross corruption of Christian doctrine— Neo-Platonism— Gnosti- 
cism — Origen — Plotinus— Tertullian— Montanists— Church at Pella— Ebionites or Naza- 
renes— Christians persecuted as atheists, and as the causes of public calamities— Igna- 
tius — Irenaeus — Condition and manners of the Christians of the second century — Gibbon's 
testimony— No infant baptism— The churches were Baptist. Third Century. Eapid 
growth of errors in faith and practice— Persecution of faithful Christians— Episcopal 
aggrandizement — Birth of Eoman Catholicism— Sabellianism— Manichaeism— Porphyry 
—No historical record of an infant baptism in the first three centuries. Fourth Century. 
The tenth, last and greatest persecution of Christians by Pagan Borne, under Diocletian 
and Galerius— Accession of Constantine— His nominal " conversion " to Christianity— He 
patronizes Catholics, and persecutes Donatists and others— The Arian controversy- 
Council of Nicaea— The seven so-called (Ecumenical Councils— Constantine unites 
" Church " and State— He inaugurates the corrupting and unscriptural practice of paying 
regular salaries to ministers, thus making them hirelings— Controversial bitterness- 
Unfathomable depths of the Godhead— Enormities of Eoman Catholicism— Baptism of 
unconverted youths— Tertullian, Novatian, and their followers— The Donatists— Julian 
the apostate— The Circumcelliones— Constantine establishes Sunday as a partial day of 
res t— With the people of God during the first three centuries, all times and places sacred- 
Origin of the Catholic "Forms of Prayer," pictures in houses of worship, clerical celi- 
bacy, and funeral sermons— Council of Constantinople— The first legal shedding of blood 
for " heresy "—Increasing corruption with the increasing profession, without the posses- 
sion, of Christianity .357— 392 



Fifth Century. Characteristics— Increasing idolatry and corruption— Barbarian inva- 
sions—Professing civilized "Christians" more corrupt than barbarian heathens— In- 
crease of formalism— " Pillar saints "—Worship of the elements of the communion, 
" saints " and relics— The Augustinian, Pelagian and Semi-Pelagian controversies in 
reeard to sin and grace— Arminianism— Consistency, scripturalness, and the admirable 
mnrni results of the Pauline or Augustinian or Calvinistic doctrine of salvation by grace 
^one-Life a clear indivisible, Divine gift, totally distinct from death-Spiritual life is 
eternal life-Cbri st Himself is the Life of His people-God's Spirit works in His children 
all their holy willing and doing, all their repentance, faith, love and obedience— He that 


hath the Son hath life ; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life— Science illus- 
trates and confirms this doctrine— Augustine's sacramentalism and persecution of the 
Donatists— The imperfection of human knowledge— Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon— 
Nestorianisin— Eutyehianisra— Foundation of the Greek Catholic oligarchy and of the 
Soman Catholic monarchy— John Chrysostom— Jerome— The British and Irish churches— 
"Christmas" established. Sixth Century. Characteristics— Increasing superstition, idol- 
atry and corruption— Pretended conversion of northern barbarians— Monophysite con- 
troversies—Fifth General Council, at Constantinople— Justinian— His conquests, laws 
and buildings— He requires all infants to be baptized, and persecutes "heretics" and 
Pagans—The people of God flee to deserts and mountains, especially in northern Italy, 
southern France and northern Spain— The titles "Pope," "Universal Bishop" and 
"Sovereign Pontiff"— Gregory I. sends " missionaries " to convert England— Corrupting 
compromises — Yule and Easter — Papal Rome imitates imperial Rome — The Welsh (chris- 
tians refuse alliance with Rome— The so-called Culdees essentially Roman Catholics — 
Benedictines— The birth of Christ made a chronological epoch 393 — 411 



Characteristics of the Middle or Dark Ages : Traditionalism, superstition, salvation 
by works, vice and crime. Seventh Century. Thousands of Welsh Christians slain by 
heathen Saxons instigated by Roman Catholics— The Church of England, the daughter 
of the Church of Rome, founded by Theodore, the Popish Archbishop of Canterbury— 
The Monothelitic controversy— The Sixth General Council, at Constantinople— The 
Quinisextan Council of Constantinople the perpetual apple of discord between the Greek 
and Roman Catholic communions — Roman Catholic persecution of the Jews in Spain — 
Rise, progress and character of Mohammedanism — The Paulicians, and the Catholic per- 
secutions of them. Eighth Century. Repulse of Mohammedans by Charles Martel— 
Foundation of the temporal power of the Pope of Rome— Severance of Roman and Greek 
Catholic communions — Charlemagne — Baptism or death offered to the barbarians — Boni- 
face, the Roman Catholic "Apostle" of Germany — Ecclesiastical alliance of Rome, 
France, Germany and England — Iconoclastic controversy — John of Damascus — Corrupt 
Catholic doctrines and practices. Ninth Century. Increase of ignorance, idolatry, super- 
stition and corruption— Continuance of nominal conversion, or civilization, of barbarians 
—Division of the empire of Charlemagne— The Forged Papal Decrees, the foundation of 
Papal supremacy over the national "churches" — The Papal Pornocracy — Increase of 
monasticism, priestly celibacy and corruption— Final establishment of image-worship 
among the Greek Catholics— Increase of relic-worship— Transubstantiation— The North- 
men—Great persecution of the Paulicians by the Greek Catholics— Gottsehalk's doctrine 
of double predestination— John Scotus Erigena— Claudius of Turin advocates a pure 
spiritual Chjistianity, and was probably the forerunner of the Waldenses. Tenth Cen- 
tury. Midnight of the Dark Ages— Politics, religion and morals all adrift— Ignorance, 
vice and crime almost universal throughout " Christendom," while Arabic literature 
flourished in Mohammedan Spain— The so-called " Holy Roman Empire " revived— Con- 
tinuance of the Roman Catholic " conversion" of barbarians— Great wealth and corrup- 
tion of the " clergy "—The first Roman Catholic " baptism of a bell " and " canonization 
of a saint "—Multiplication of false relics— Increased dependence on works and increased 
corruption— End of the world expected A. D. 1000— Almost universal consternation and 
demoralization— The Paulicians spread over Europe. Eleventh Century. But little light 
visible in the thick darkness— Building of castles and Gothic cathedrals— Anselm— The 
Scholastic Theology— Berengar of Tours— Transubstantiation and consubstantiation— 
Sumnia Tbeologise of Thomas Aquinas— Final rupture of Roman and Greek Catholic 
communions— Popes Sylvester II., Nicholas II. and Gregory VII.— The latter enforces 
priestly celibacy, and inaugurates the Controversy of Investitures— He humiliates the 
German Emperor, Henry IV., at Canossa— The great era of Papal Rome, 1050-1299 A. D.— 
Ubiquitous and tremendous dominion of Roman Catholicism— Religious Orders, Purga- 
tory, Abbeys, Cathedrals, Universities, Confessional, Inquisition, Excommunication and 
Interdict— The Crusades— The Cathari 412 433 



Tioelfth Century. Increase of Roman Catholic wealth, superstition, corruption and 
"conversions" by Are and sword— Second and Third Crusades— The doctrine of the 
" Immaculate Conception " of Mary— The seven Roman Catholic " Sacraments "—Bishops 
only Vicars of the Pope— Tithes— Withholding cup from the " laity "—Supremacy of tra- 
dition—Thomas a Beckett— First persecution, in England, for " heresy " — Tne Anti-sacer- 
dotalists— Petrobrusians, Henricians, Arnoldists, Albigenses and Waldenses were prede- 
cessors of the Baptists. Thirteenth Century. Culmination of Papal power, pretension 
and Theology— Fourth Crusade— Latin conquest and loss of Constantinople— Children's 
Crusade— Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Crusades— Roman Catholic Crusades against the 


Moors in Spain, and against Prussia and the Albigenses-Franciscans and Dominicans 
Roman Catholic missionaries "—Hundreds of religious institutions founded by Roman 
Catholicism-The Inquisition-Works of supererogation -Sale of indulgences to sin- 
" Laymen" prohibited from possessing or reading the Bible, and from discussing doc- 
trine— Penance by flagellation— Magna Charta— House of Commons— Pragmatic sanction 
—Galilean liberties— Unprecedented pretension and fall of Pope Boniface VIII.— The 
Pantheistic "Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit "—Bible Baptists are Pauline 
Antinonuans — The Waldenses 434—450 



Fourteenth Century. The "Babylonish Captivity" of tile Papacy— Profligacy and ex- 
tortion of the Popes— John XXII.— The Fratricelli-Knight Templars— The great Western 
Schisni ; the head of Antichrist cloven in twain— Sale of " church" offices, and of pardons 
for sins — Multiplication of "Jubilees" — All the commandments condensed into one: 
" Give Gold "— Rienzi— Revival of Pagan literature and profligacy— The Black Death- 
Roman Catholic persecution of Jews— The Poles compelled to submit to baptism— The 
first Roman Catholic legalization of sprinkling or pouring for baptism— The Lollards— 
Milicz, Conrad and Matthias— Thomas Bradwardine, the highest of supralapsarian pre- 
destiuarians— John Wycliffe, " the Morning Star of the Reformation "—First translation 
of the entire Scriptures into English. Fifteenth Century. Greatest corruption in doctrine 
and practice— Providential preparation for the Protestant Reformation— The General 
Councils of Pisa, Constance and Basel— John XXIII., "the Incarnate Devil "—Martin 
V.— Eugenius IV. — Felix V.— The three councils showed the necessity of the reformation, 
or rather regeneration, of Roman Catholicism, but they utterly failed to effect such 
renovation— Nicholas V. designs the "Vatican" and "St. Peter's"— The Humanists- 
Pagan Popes— Sixtus IV.— Innocent VIII.— Alexander VI., the wickedest of all the Popes 
—Caesar Borgia— Machiavelli— Rome the centre of the rottenness of the world— First 
English statute for burning" heretics," remaining in force 276 years— William Sautre the 
first person burned— John Badby the second person burned — Death the penalty for read- 
ing the Scriptures in the mother tongue— Persecution of the Lollards, or Wyclifntes— 
They flee into other countries— Secret worship— Execution of Sir John Oldcastle— Burn- 
ing of Hus and Jerome of Prague — Roman Catholic crusade against the Bohemians — 
Resistance of the latter— Calixtines and Taborites— The Bohemian Brethren— Feudal 
and priestly oppressions of the poor— Dreadful persecution of the Waldenses by the 
Roman Catholics— Savonarola— The Spanish Inquisition— Persecution of the Jews, Moors 
and Morescoes in Spain — Invention of printing — Discovery of America and of a marine 
route to India— Mosheim's, and Ypeig and Dermont's testimonies to the antiquity and 
scripturalness of the Baptists— The long night of the Dark Ages drawing to aclose. . 451—471 



The sixteenth century, next to the first century, the richest and deepest in church 
history— The century of the early stormy morning— Building of "St. Peter's " by the sale 
of indulgences to sin— Augustinianism of all genuine and successful church reformation 
— Martin Luther's trumpet-blast of the sovereignty of Divine grace, and justification by 
faith alone— Counter-blast of Rome — Reformed Inquisition— Jesuits— Council of Trent — 
Protestant and Catholic persecutions of "Ana "-Baptists— Excesses at Munster— Popes 
Julius II. and Leo X. — Cost of " St. Peter's "— Tetzel— A price for every sin, past or future 
—Life of Luther— His Pauline experience— His ninety-five Theses— Protestant Reforma- 
tion begun— Contest between the Pope and Luther— Diet of Worms— Luther under the 
ban of the Empire— Ten generations involved in revolution— Luther at the Wartburg— 
Translates the New Testament into German, and afterward the Old Testament^-During 
the first period of his Christian life he came near being a Baptist, but gradually inclined 
to sacramentalism— Recalled to Wittenberg by the excesses of some reformers— The 
Peasants' war— Luther's wrong course— Thomas Munzer— The "Ana "-Baptists not re- 
sponsible for the Peasants' war— Luther marries a former nun— His controversy with 
Erasmus on the Freedom of the Will— President Edwards on the Will— Luther's errors 
and death— Long religious wars between Roman Catholics and Protestants— Philip Mel- 
ancthon— Three great principles of the Protestant Reformation— Charles V.— Formula 
of Concord— Ulrich Zwingli— His controversy with Luther at Marburg— John CEcolam- 
padius— Henry Bullinger— Oswald Myconius— William Farel— John Calvin, the ablest 
theologian of the Reformation— His conversion, and " Institutes of the Christian Re- 
ligion"— His invention of the Presbyterian Church polity— His grossly antichristian 
severity— Servetus— Bolsec— Calvin's sincerity, unworldliness and death— His Hebrew 
spirit— His doctrine of Predestination— The Reformation an Augustinian reaction from 
Romanist Semi-Pelagianism and idolatry— Calvin recast Augustinianism in its Protest- 
ant form— God's permissive decree of sin— Supralapsarianism never incorporated in any 


church Confession of Faith— Predestinarianism in accordance with the stern facts ; the 
two-edged sword of Divine Justice— The sharp point being the Eternal Decree, and the 
two keen edges, Free Grace and Salvation by Faith— Unequalled moral effects of this 
doctrine— Calvin's errors— Beza— The Satanic and unrivalled antichristianity of Eoman 
Catholicism— Intolerance of Protestants— Birth of the Lutheran, Episcopalian and Pres- 
byterian "Churches"— Macaulay on "Apostolical Succession "—Henry VIII.— Edward 
VI.— The thirty-nine Articles— Bloody Mary— Elizabeth— Spanish Armada— Wealth of the 
"Church of England"— The "Ana "-Baptists and Mennonites— Munzer, Hoffman, Mat- 
thiesen and Bockhold— Muuster— The true Baptists— Their poverty, peacef ulness, minis- 
try and persecutions— Hubmaier— Menno Simons— Earliest Baptist Confessions of Faith 
—The persecuting Protestants were Predestinarians, while the persecuted Baptists of 
this century were Arminians, but the latter strenuously maintained the spirituality of 
the church— The principles and practices of the Bohemians and Waldenses corrupted by 
the Protestants 472—506 



Continued storm and persecution— The Thirty Years' War in Germany— The Puritan 
Revolution in England— Cromwell— Stuarts restored— Revolution of 1688— Religious tol- 
eration—Turks repulsed— Secularization of politics— Expulsion of Huguenots from France 
—The King James version of the Bible— Independents, Baptists and Friends— Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faith— Expulsion of Jesuits from Japan— The pretended "conver- 
sions " of heathen in the East Indies by the Dutch— John Eliot — " Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in New England "— " Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge " — 
Rapid growth of Armintanism — Rise of modern philosophy, latitudinarianism, rational- 
ism and pantheism— James Arminius— Original Armiman creed— Many Arminians be- 
came Pelagians and Arians— Characteristics of modern philosophy— Blaise Pascal — 
Milton, Newton, Locke, Grotius and Leibnitz— Truth mutilated between Christ's first 
and second comings — Synod of Dort — Persecution of Arminians — The Jesuits — The first 
Missionary Board (the " Propaganda") established by Pope Gregory XV. in 1622— The 
first Missionary College established by Pope Urban VIII. in 1627— Roman Catholic per- 
secutions of Protestants and Waldenses— The "Church of England" the servile and 
efficient agent of tyranny— The Independents— Pilgrim fathers— Puritans— The " Church 
of England" in the American colonies— Persecutions of Scotch Covenanters, Quakers 
and Baptists— The last man burned in England for his religion, Edward Wightman, a 
Baptist— Imprisonment substituted for burning— Act of Uniformity— Conventicle Act— 
Five-Mile Act— Second Conventicle Act— Severe persecution of Dissenters in England, 
and In Massachusetts and Virginia- — Baptist Churches, principles, practices and minis- 
ters—Laying of hands on all baptized believers— Roger Williams— Feet-Washing— John 
Bunyan— William Kiffln— Judge Jeffries— Benjamin Keach— Hansard Knollys 507— 538 



Lurid calm followed by rationalistic storm— Arianism, Pelagianism, philosophism, 
materialism and atheism— Moral chaos— Voltaire — Bolingbroke— Frederic the Great- 
Deism— Rationalism— French Revolution— Immanuel Kant— Writings of Butler, Lardner, 
Paley and Watson— Dead formalism— Moral essays for sermons— Suppression of Jesuits 
—General religious toleration, with occasional persecution of Dissenters—" Hyper-Cal- 
vinism "—Andrew Fuller's " Gospel Worthy of all Acceptation "—Pietism— Moravianism 
—Methodism— Swedenliorgianism— Shakers— Sandemanians— Modern Protestant Mis- 
sions—The Missionary Societies of Protestantism a substitute for the Religious Orders of 
Roman Catholicism— Sunday Schools— Extermination of Jesuits in China— The German 
Rationalists, Ernesti, Michaelis and Semler— Anglicanism in England and America— 
Romaine— Toplady— John Newton— Cowper— Milner— Richard and Rowland Hill- 
Thomas Scott— My own first hope in Christ— Speculative and practical Antinomians— 
Apostolic proportion of doctrinal preaching— John Wesley— Charles Wesley— Congrega 
tioualists— Isaac Watts— Philip Doddridge— Matthew Henry— Presbyterians— Jonathan 
Edwards— George Whitefleld— Wide-spread predestinarian revival in America— Three- 
fourths of the American churches predestinarian in 1776— Another predestinarian revival 
-Peculiarities of American Church History— The American Baptist Churches- Welsh 
Tract Church— Hopewell— Kingwood— Kehukee— Southampton— Bryan's— Elders Am- 
brose and Thomas P. Dudley— Primitive Baptist Associations— Two causes of Baptist 
success : a spiritual membership and a spiritual ministry-The Bible their sole authority 
—The doctrinal belief of the Philadelphia Association— The Trinity— Freeness of God's 
grace— The fall of man— God not the author or approver of sin— Effectual calling— Con- 
demnation of the doctrine of universal atonement, and of the use of distilled Honors as 
a beverage-Difference between legal and gospel repentance— Warning against the new 
system of divinity— Condemnation of Universalism— Final perseverance of the saints— 


Diffeience between the law and the gospel— The Lord' s Day— Modern Protestant Mis- 
sions admitted to have been derived from Papal Rome— Gill's Commentary on the Bible 
recommended by the Philadelphia Association In 1807— Tlie qualifications of a gospel 
minister— Reading sermonsuot preaching— Apostolical character of the first propagation 
of the gospel in America— Persecutions of Baptists and Quakers in Virginia and Massa- 
chusetts—God's methods of spreading His gospel exactly the same in the eighteenth 
century as in the first century, and why not the same in the nineteenth century '! . . .634—577 



Day advancing, but abounding ungodliness and impending judgments— Almost uni- 
versal skepticism— Man his own god— A spiritual worship of the true God stigmatized 
as behind the times— Faith and reverence needed— The most composite and heterogene- 
ous of all the centuries— Political, social, industrial, scientific, moral and religious fea- 
tures — Effects of alcohol— Blasphemous culmination of Roman Catholicism — Some of 
God's people even yet in Rome— Sunday Schools— Protracted meetings— Theological 
Seminaries— Hireling shepherds— All the commandments, as in the Dark Ages, reduced 
to one, " Give Gold " — Assyriology and Egyptology— Lutheran and Anglican " churches " 
—Religions unions and societies— Home and Foreign " Missions "—Growing infidelity— 
A very small remnant according to the election of grace— More than fifty "isms"— Mid- 
night storm of atheistic materialism— Internationalism— The gospel of Christ the only 
remedy— The Laodicean age— The three downward steps of Modern Advanced Thought- 
Old Catholics— Reformed Episcopalians— Scottish " Free Church"— Old and New School 
Presbyterians— Northern and Southern Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists— Old and 
New School Baptists — Unitarians — Universalists— Literal as well as spiritual truth of 
Scripture— Tennyson— Pantheism and atheism— Schleiermacher — Atheistic Agnosticism 
—Strauss— Renan— J. S. Mill— Carlyle — Herbert Spencer— " Church of England "—Five- 
minute sermons — Tractarianism— Ritualism — Broad-churchism — Privy Council — Evan- 
gelical Alliance— Unionistic spirit — Almost universal Arminianism— The piping times of 
peace— Juvenile discipleship — "Church" entertainments— The Mixed Multitude— The 
" Church " courting the World— Departure from primitive purity of doctrine and practice 
— " Modern Christianity a Civilized Heathenism "—Mediaeval architecture— Catholic and 
Protestant Missions— Self-supporting, industrial and medical Missions— China Inland 
Mission— Ministers with whom preaching is a money-making business exert but little 
influence for good upon the heathen- The advocates of modern Missions contiibute, on 
an average, but three cents apiece per year to save a thousand million perishing heathen 
souls — The peculiar spiritual blessings of the Anglo-Saxon race — " Christian Connection " 
— " Disciples of Christ "—Plymouth Brethren— Winebrennerians— Mormons— Second Ad- 
ventists— Irvingites— Modern moneyed Missions— Spiritualists— Modern socialism— Wm. 
Huntington — Robert Hall — Richard Watson— English Evangelicals— John Newton- 
Richard Cecil— Thomas Scott— Comparative conservatism of Presbyterians, Independ- 
ents and Baptists — 230 new translations of the Bible — Anglo-American Revision — King 
James's Version — Geneva Bible — Recent ehanges in original text, conjectural, prema- 
ture, and the most of them unnecessary, inexpedient and worthless— English Strict 
Baptists— Wm. Gadsby— J. C. Philpot— The Old School or Primitive Baptists in the United 
States— John Lei and — Wilson Thompson — Two-Seedism— Charge of Arianism— Charge of 
lack of benevolence — Quality of membership more important than quantity — Age of 
works and Missions and infidelity— Religious statistics of the world— Number of Bibles 
in the world— Progress of morality— Increase of crime and of religious profession in the 
United States since 1850 — Divinity and omnipotence of Christ — His gospel the power of 
God unto salvation — Indispensable need of the Holy Ghost — Science a child : Revelation 
the perfect man — Corrupting idolatry of money — Need of the grand old Calvinistic truths 
of the Reformation— Scriptural predestination and election— God's permission, fore- 
knowledge and overruling of sin— Unworldliness and unselfishness of true religion- 
Apostolic faith and practice of Old School or Primitive Baptists— "Rock of Ages" . .578—660 



Adherence to the faith once delivered to the saints— Black-Rockism and Kehukeeism 
—Object of the present History to show who are the true Primitive Baptists— The four 
oldest Baptist Associations in America— The seven churches first composing the Kehukee 
Association— At first General and then Particular Baptists— Paul Palmer— Elders Van- 
horn and Miller — The Bible the only infallible standard of faith and practice— The old 
London Confession of Faith, of 1689— Church Covenant and Rules of Decorum— Early 
ministers — Regular and Separate Baptists— United Baptists— Ten churches; 1,581 mem- 
bers—Articles of Faith adopted in 1777, and still maintained— Two sessions per year— No 
session in 1780 and 1781, on account of the Revolutionary War— Rules of Decorum for the 
Association — The Association only a collection of churches, and an advisory council, 
having no power to govern (he churches— The church the highest ecclesiastical power 


on eartli— Associations convenient methods of brotherly correspondence and intercourse 
—The Bible, the Baptist Confession of Faith— Creeds convenient summaries to explain 
views to others— Why Bible Baptists believe and love their Articles of Faith— Queries 
received and answered— Four annual " General Conferences "—Four annual " Occasional 
Associations "—Elder John Leland present in 1785— Petition against an alliance of Church 
and State— Qualifications, license and ordination of a gospel minister— Certificate of or- 
dination— Frequenting Masonic Lodges, disorder — Two sessions per year— Not contribu- 
ting to the support of the ministry, covetousness— Elder Isaac Backus present in 1789— 
Union between Regulars and Separates completed— Constitution of the Kehukee Asso- 
cia ion— Minutes first printed "n 1789 ; 51 churches, 3.944 members— First Circular Letter 
wrtltten in 1790— Itinerant preaching— Virginia Portsmouth Association set off in 1790 ; 
Neuse Association, in 1793 — Monthly pray er-meetings for a revival of religion — Plans for 
itinerant preaching abandoned — Extensive revivals of religion in 1801-3 — Zeal not accord- 
ing to knowledge— Union Meetings— Their object and constitution ■ 661—719 



1,200 Baptist Churches in the United States, with more than 100,000 members— The 
Query_ on Missions, submitted by Elder Martin Ross, the source of divisions and ani- 
mosities from 1803 to 1827— Committee appointed— The new Missionary scheme partially 
and feebly adopted— Missionary Convention at Cashie M. H. — Chowan Association set 
off in 1805— Relations of the Virginia Portsmouth, the Neuse and the Chowan Associations 
to the Kehukee — " Meeting of General Correspondence," in 1811 — Constitution of said 
" Meeting'" disapproved by the Kehukee Association — Changes proposed — Report of the 
Philadelphia Board of Baptist Foreign Missions received in 1815— No more funds to be 
sent by the Kehukee Association to the " General Meeting "—Delegates to said " Meet- 
ing " discontinued in 1816— Baptist Board of Foreign Missions born m 1814 — Circular Ad- 
dress of the Baptist " General Convention " — Second rebuke to members visiting Masonic 
Lodges— Declaration of the Reformed Baptist Churches of N. C., in 1826— Remarkable 
session of 1827— Unanimous and cordial rejection of all money-based religious institu- 
tions—Black Rock— Country Line Association — Elder Joshua Lawrence — Departure of 
New School Baptists from apostolic doctrine and practice— Decision of 1827 reaffirmed in 
1828 and 1829— Elder C. B. Hassell— Correspondence discontinued with the Neuse and 
Chowan and taken up with the Little River and Nauhunty Associations— Elder Joseph 
Biggs appointed to write the continuation of the Kehukee History from 1803— Tar River 
Association 720—746 



Causes of the division among the Baptists in the nineteenth century— False doctrine 
ied to false practice— Confidence lost in God and placed on man— Phariseeism and per- 
secution—Portsmouth, Chowan, Neuse and Tar River Associations— Sharp contention- 
Recent attempts of the New School to prove themselves Old School Baptists— New 
Pseudo-Religious Institutions have divided the Baptists— Armlnianism of Missionary 
Baptists— Fusion with other societies and the world— Modern Missionism not conceived 
in North Carolina till 1803— So-called "Missionaries" in disorder, and excluded from the 
fellowship of the true church— David Benedict's " Fifty Years Among the Baptists "— 
His unimpeachable testimony to the novelty of the entire Missionary machinery among 
Baptists— Almost incredible changes, he says, among the Baptists in his day— Springing 
up of Mission, Mite, Tract and Bible Societies, Sunday Schools, Theological Colleges, 
Written Sermons, Delicate and Salaried Ministers, Excited Meetings, Efforts for Large 
Numerical Gains in Membership, and Frequent Changes of Ministers— No money-collect- 
ing agents in the whole Baptist field fifty years ago, says Benedict in i860— A broad dis- 
tinction then between the church and the world— Baptists did not go to law with one 
another— They were familiar with the Scriptures— Pews free— A ssociaflons the only large 
meetings— No money-hunting agents at Associations— Non-intercourse with Pedobap- 
tists— An uneducated ministry— Conversion of Adoniran Judson and Luther Rice to 
Baptist sentiments—" Baptist Triennial Convention "— " Primitive " as far back as 1814— 
Missionary dissensions, avarice and ambition— Fullerite Arminianisin— The old Baptist 
divines strong Calvinists— Charges of fatalism on the one hand, and of salvation by 
works on the other— Fullerite changes in style of preaching— Lowering of the standard 
of orthodoxy— Ministerial manners and eloquence more regarded now than doctrine- 
Contrast of the Old-Fashioned and the New-Fashioned Baptists, as described by David 
Benedict— The terms "Brother" and "Sister" formerly much used among Baptists- 
Ministers were called " Elders "—So-called " revivals " few and far between— New meas- 
ures of recent times— Rising for prayers— Protracted meetings— Popular revival minis, 
ters— Converts by wholesale— Great changes in Associations— Money qualification for 
membership in Missionary Conventions— Formerly Baptists contended for a God-called 


and God-qualified ministry— Recent and secular origin of Sunday Schools, since made an 
engine of priestcraft— Adoniram Judson's " Golden Calf " 747—776 



A lesolution in 1840 not to countenance " Missionary " preachers— Almost a famine 
from storms In eastern N. C. in 1842, but the Association well accommodated— Elder 
James Osbourn, of Baltimore, being solicited, issues a Hymn Book— Elder Joshua Law- 
rence—Elder Joseph Biggs— Circular Letter on Ministerial Support— Last Circular Letter, 
by appointment, written in 1846— The "Primitive Baptist" periodical— Petition, Memo- 
rial and Remonstrance to the Legislature of N. C. and to the Congress of the U. 8. against 
the incorporation of Religious Societies, and against paid chaplaincies in the Army and 
Navy and Congress — Elder Wilson Thompson's Address to the Regular Baptists in the 
U. S., appended to the Minutes of 1850— Elder W. Thompson visits the Association in 
1852— Voluntary Circular Letter of Elder R. D. Hart in 1854— Elder Thomas Biggs— Elder 
C. B. Hassell first chosen Moderator in 1867 — Elder John Stadler— The question of con- 
tinuing the Kehukee History brought up in 1860, and referred to the churches— The war 
between the States— Primitive Baptists not at all divided by the war— Elder William 
Hyman — Elder R. C. Leachman — Centennial Meeting of Kehukee Association in 1865 — 
The church of Christ not divided — In 1872 a standing committee appointed to arrange 
for preaching— In 1873 from 10,000 to 13,000 persons estimated to be present at Cross 
Roads — The resumption of the Kehukee History again considered in 1875— In 1876 Elder 
C. B. Hassell appointed to write the ancient history of the church, and bring down the 
Kehukee History to date ; the book to contain some 600 pages, and to cost not more than 
$2 — Subscription papers ordered to be distributed — Elder John Stamper — Great labor in 
writing a conscientious history of thousands of years — Elder S. Hassell appointed in 1880 
to complete the History— The Association instruct Elder 8. Hassell in 1881 to call upon 
such subscribers as were willing to prepay the price of the book to secure its publica- 
tion—Elders C. B. Hassell, J. W. Purvis, C. T. Crank and Gilbert Beebe— Elder Clayton 
Moore — The 120th Annual Session of the Kehukee Association in 1885 at Beargrass — Isaiah 
i. 9 the subject of the Introductory Sermon— The History to be printed, Providence per- 
mitting, in 1886 — Separate Associations for White and Colored churches— 41 churches, 
1,891 members, 32 Elders and 4 Licentiates— Elders R. H. Harriss and R. Tucker. . .777— 828 



1. Presbyterian baptism— 2. Difference in judgment about water-baptism— 3. Suspi- 
cion of fault in a member— 4. Proof s of true ministry— 5. Marriage of servants— 6. Break- 
ing marriage of servants— 7. Worldly evidence against a member— 8. Feet-Washing— 9. 
Causes of a civil nature — 10. Suspension from cominunion— 11. Publication of excommu- 
nication— 12. Support of the ministry— 13. Rending one's self from the church— 14. Vol- 
untary absence from communion— 15. Christian marriages— lfi. Attendance of servants 
on family worship— 17. Restoration of Deacon to office— 18. Trial of gifts— 19. Receiving 
members excluded from other churches at a distance— 20. Essentials of communion— 
21. Right of pastor to dismission— 22. Unanimityin call to pastorate— 23. Rightof women 
to speak in conference— 24. Administration of Lord's Supper to one person alone— 25. 
Frequenting Masonic Lodges— 26. Corroboration of worldly evidence— 27. A Presbytery 
—28. Covetousness in neglecting the support of the ministry— 29. Work of the Deacon— 
30. Right of pastorless churches to receive and exclude members— 31. " Christening " 
children— 32. Respective duties of ministers and churches— 33. Testimony of but one 
witness against a member— 34. Family worship— 35. Ordination of Deacons— 36. Missions 
—37 The "bringing up of children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord— 38. Ar- 
minianism— 39. Letters, without delegates, to the Association— 40. Publishing the re- 
ligious appointments of other denominations— 41. Attending the preaching of excluded 
persons— 42. Letters of dismission— 43. Course in regard to unedifying ministers— 44. 
Members not in fellowship— 45. Race-paths and five batteries— 46. Withdrawal from a 
church — 47. Inviting ministers of other denominations to occupy our pulpits— 48. Ad- 
ministration of Lord's Supper by one not an ordained minister— 49. Reception of mem- 
bers by a church having no male members— 50. Receiving a member on an experience 
written by a " Missionary " 829—834 



Essentials of a church— Reception of members— Number of members— Meetings for 
business and worship— Articles of faith— Education— Theological Schools— Itinerancy, 


scriptural and unscriptural— Abominations of some "Modern Missions "—Reversal of 
the gospel rule— Making a trade of religion— Ministerial aggrandizement— Mystery Ba- 
bylon and her daughters— Secret Societies— Moral Reform Societies—" Sabbath " Schools 
—Persecution— Feet-Washing among Primitive Baptists 836 — 8(l7 



Beargrass— Bethlehem, in Tyrrell Co.— Bethlehem, Pasquotank Co.— Beaverdam— 
Briery Swamp (Grindoll Creek)— Castalia— Conoho— Conetoe— Concord— Coinjock— Cross 
Roads— Daniel's— Deep Creek— Elim— Falls of Tar River— Flat Swamp— Flatty Creek - 
Great Swamp — Hickory Rock — Hopeland — Jamesville (Picot) — Kehukee— Lawrence's — 
Lebanon— Morattock— North Creek— Peach Tree— Providence— Pungo— Rocky Swamp- 
Sandy Grove— Sappony — Skewarkey— South Mattamuskeet— South Quay— Sparta — Smith- 
wick's Creek— Spring Green— Tarborough— White Plains— Williams s 848—879 



Covenanted Baptists of Canada — Primitive Baptists in the United States — Alabama- 
Arkansas— California — Delaware — Florida — Georgia— Illinois — Indiana — Iowa — Kansas- 
Kentucky— Louisiana— Maine— Massachusetts— Maryland— Mississippi— Missouri— New 
Jersey— New York— North Carolina— Ohio— Oregon— Pennsylvania— South Carolina- 
Tennessee— Texas— Virginia— West Virginia— Wisconsin 880—926 


Life of Elder C. B. Hassell— Autobiography of Elder Gilbert Beebe— Elder G. Beebe'e 
Editorial on "Ecclesiastical History and Church Creeds "—Absolute Predestination of 
All Things— The Celestial Railroad— Final Notice 927—964 

Alphabetical Index 965—1008 


The Bible is of incomparably more value than all the literature of the 
world. Composed of sixty-six books, which are not literally, but spirit- 
ually united, written in all the forms of literary composition, during a 
period of at least sixteen centuries, by about forty inspired authors, in all 
the ranks of society, from the highest to the lowest, in Egypt, Arabia, 
Palestine, Babylon, Asia Minor, Greece' and Rome, indited in three lan- 
guages, Hebrew, Chaldee and Greek, and translated into about three 
hundred languages, it unfolds the history of the world and of the church 
from the beginning to the end of time, contains " the spiritual biography 
of every human heart," authoritatively declares the character of God and 
of His salvation, and portrays the opposite conditions of the two divisions 
of the human race in eternity. It is of equal interest and profit " to king 
and beggar, to philosopher and child." 

During the eighteen centuries that have elapsed since the close of the 
Scripture canon, not a single statement of the written word of God has 
been disproved by any human discovery. All the attempts of scoffers and 
critics and historians and scientists and philosophers to throw discredit 
upon the inspired volume have only rebounded upon themselves, and 
illustrated the impiety, virulence, ignorance, shallowness, and conceited- 
ness of their authors. Next after the assaults of the first three centuries 
upon the Christian Church, the most vigorous, learned, and persistent ef- 
forts to undermine the religion of the Bible have been made by some 
votaries of (1) Criticism, (2) Science, and (3) Philosophy during the last 
hundred years. Led on by the enmity of the unrenewed and unspiritual 
mind against God, and by the strategy of the prince of the power of the 
air, these assailant of divine revelation have left the solid ground- work of 
facts, and pretentiously soared into the aerial regions of speculation and 
conjecture, and, by the ordination of the Most High, they have become so 
bereft of that common sense or reason which they idolize, as to suppose 
themselves able by their unsubstantial gossamer theories to overturn the 
everlasting foundations of the Zion of our God. Eliminate the guess- 
work from their baseless fabrics, and all their splendid structures are at 
once reduced to airy nothingness. " The path of every possible hostile 
theory has been pursued to its utmost limit and has returned upon itself." 
The conjectures have been changed as often as the seasons, and are either 
admitted to be mere assumptions, or have been abandoned by their authors 


or their successors. Along all the lines of intellectual skepticism a disas- 
trous retreat is sounding. As in ancient times, so now, a few men raised 
by God to occupy the very highest eminences of human thought have be- 
come valiant champions for the truth of the Scriptures, and are gifted 
with wisdom to rout the armies of the aliens. We know, however, from 
the Scriptures, that these broken hosts will be rallied by the arch-enemy 
again, but that their final overthrow by the power of God will be signal 
and complete. 

1. Criticism.— "Niebuhr, the founder of modern historical criti- 
cism, recognized the atheistic unbelief of his day as a species of demo- 
niacal frenzy." 

As the evening precedes the morning in each of the six creative days, 
so the Old Testament, the evening dispensation of the world, preceded 
the New Testament, the morning dispensation. Malachi, the last Old 
Testament prophet, expressly predicts, in his last chapter, the rising of 
the Sun of Righteousness with healing in his wings. Four hundred years 
afterwards that blessed and glorious Sun did arise in the person of Jesus 
of Nazareth, the incarnate Son of God, and usher in the heavenly morning 
of the Gospel Day. Let it never be forgotten, however, that the Old Tes- 
tament was the first or evening dispensation — shadowy, rudimentary, in- 
troductory, insufficient, imperfect, external, local, formal, temporal, typi- 
cal and prophetic, though, with interruptions, continually rising in in- 
wardness and spirituality, the feeble light of God's revelation gradually 
increasing from the protevangelium in Eden to the perfect day. In the 
dim light of the old economy, men could not see clearly — " it was difficult 
to discriminate between evil persons and evil principles— there was much 
prevalence of personal revenge, a kind of wild justice less evil than tor- 
pidity of conscience — prudential motives and temporal rewards were 
prominent — the dispensation was, not wholly, but predominantly a sys- 
tem of law and justice, and achieved its triumph in demonstrating (as 
God had designed) its own failure, aud in thus preparing the way for a 
better, a higher, a brighter, a perfect and a final dispensation." Under 
the inscrutable ordination of the Most High, the nocturnal heavens of the 
ancient heathen world were enshrouded in black aud heavy clouds — the 
obscure rays of nature and providence, to their sin-blinded, proud, fool- 
ish, and idolatrous minds (Romans i. 20-32) became almost totally eclipsed 
—and pandemonium reigned throughout Gentile civilization. But, in the 
land of God's chosen people, under divine ordination, the clouds were 
more or less rolled away, and the moon and stars appeared and poured 
down their heavenly light ; the types and prophecies fragmentarily yet 
multifariously declared to spiritual Israel the nature of God and His sal- 
vation, and the old patriarchs and elders walked haltingly, yet trustingly, 
with God, feeling themselves to be strangers and pilgrims on earth, and 
looking for a better, even a heavenly country. Gradually the ceremonial 
law was distinguished from and subordinated to the moral law; mere 
formalism in religion was denounced in the most scathing terms ; the 


necessity of a hearty spiritual worship of God was tremendously empha- 
sized; and the poor, humble and needy soul was directed to the 
Holy One of Israel as the Lord his Righteousness, his Redeemer, 
Ms Strength, and his Salvation, who was to he manifested in human 
flesh, and smitten by the sword of divine justice for the transgres- 
sions of His covenant people, make an end of their sins, make recon- 
ciliation for their iniquities, and bring in for them an everlasting right- 
eousness, and then to re-ascend, as the King of glory, to His eternal 
throne ; and, in unchanging faithfulness, as time rolled on, to gather 
around Him all the jewels of His mercy in that blessed land whose walls 
are salvation and whose gates are praise ; where the Lord shall be their 
everlasting light, and the days of their mourning shall be ended. " The 
unrivaled loftiness, authority, directness, and pungency of the Old Testa- 
ment Prophets, as well as of the New Testament Apostles, strikes the 
spiritual mind as a voice from within the veil." 

The religious books of the ancient Hebrews are utterly distinct in 
their tone and essence, their spirit and monotheism, from those of all 
other ancient peoples. The religions of the most cultivated ancient 
heathens, the Egyptians and the Greeks, degenerated into the most mul- 
titudinous and debasing polytheism, the Egyptians deifying brutes, and 
the Greeks making gods of such crimes as drunkenness, fraud, sen- 
suality, .and murder. The Decalogue is, on the other hand, the moral 
core of the Hebrew Scriptures which represent God as the High and 
Holy One that inhabiteth eternity. The freshly exhumed and deciphered 
monuments of ancient Assyria and Egypt are furnishing daily corrobora- 
tion of the historical truth of the Old Testament Scriptures. The origi- 
nal Iranian or Persian religion of dualism, teaching that there were two 
original, uncreated, creative spirits, one good and the other evil, ap- 
proached more nearly, both in theory and in purity, to the Hebrew mono- 
theism, but it became mixed and corrupted with Magism, or the worship of 
the elements. " Monotheism and expiatory sacrifice," says Prof. George 
Rawlinson, of Oxford University, " were parts of the primitive religion, 
and except among the Hebrews, these principles were everywhere vari- 
ously corrupted through the manifold and multiform deterioration of 
human nature in different races and places." " All the founders of the 
false religions of the world," says the Duke of Argyle in his magnificent 
work on the " Unity of Nature," " were themselves nothing but Reformers ; 
and the. reforms they instituted have themselves all more or less again 
yielded to new developments of decay. From Brahminical Pantheism 
Buddhistic Atheism was an extreme revolt; but the latter has become 
equally idolatrous and degraded. Scholars who have begun their search 
into the origin of religion in the full acceptance Of what may be called 
the savage theory of the origin of man— who, captivated by a plausible 
generalization, have taken it for granted that the farther we go back in 
time the more certainly do we find all religion assuming one or other of 
the gross and idolatrous forms which have been indiscriminately grouped 


under the designation of Fetishism— have been driven from this belief by- 
discovering to their surprise that facts do not support the theory. They 
have found on the contrary, that up to the farthest limits which are 
reached by records which are properly historical, and far beyond those 
limits to the remotest distance which is attained by evidence founded on 
the analysis of human speech, the religious conceptions of men are seen, 
as we go back in time, to have been not coarser and coarser, but simpler, 
purer, higher — so that the very oldest conceptions of the divine Being -of 
which we have any certain evidence are the simplest a ml the best of all — the very 
oldest Egyptian and Hindoo compositions speaking of God in the sublime 
language which forms the opening of the Lord's Prayer ; and it has been 
ascertained that, to some extent, these pure, primitive, monotheistic con- 
ceptions still survive even among the degraded and idolatrous tribes of 

Herbert Spencer, of England, the chief human god of nineteenth cen- 
tury infidelity, the impersonation of the most horrible blasphemy of the 
God of the Bible, the man who pretends to be-the most earnest and suc- 
cessful of all seekers after truth, in his last book, entitled " Ecclesiastical 
Institutions," published in 1886, wherein he professes to derive the re- 
ligion of mankind from dreams and ghosts, shows an utter ignorance or a 
willful suppression of the fact of the primitive monotheism of the humanrace 
— a fact now thoroughly established and admitted by the ablest scholars 
in the world — a fact which completely undermines and annihilates the 
very foundation of all his false theory of the evolution of religion. 

The composition of the New Testament in the first century of the 
Christian era inevitably implies not only the pre-existence of the Old 
Testament for hundreds of years before that time, but the reverent belief 
of Christ and His Apostles in the divine inspiration of the Old Testament. 
Christ is both the main substance and the chief witness and guarantor of 
the truth of the Old Testament Scriptures. Believers before the flood 
dimly beheld Him as the suffering but victorious seed of the woman. 
Abraham rejoicingly saw Him as his own seed in whom all the families of 
the earth were to be blessed. Jacob viewed Him as the descendant of his 
son Judah, the Shiloh, unto whom the gathering of the people should be. 
Moses saw Him as the Prophet whom the Lord God would raise up like 
unto him, from among his brethren, to whom they were to give ear. Job, 
in the depth of his afflictions, beheld Him as his Divine Redeemer, who 
should stand at the latter day upon the earth. David saw Him as his own 
Son and the Son of God, the anointed King of Zion, yet agonizing before 
God, and pierced in His hands and feet by the assembly of the wicked, 
and going down into the dust of death, but not seeing corruption, and 
rising from all the humiliation of His earthly life, and passing, as the 
King of Glory, within the everlasting gates, and sitting down on the right 
hand of God, the almighty and gentle Shepherd of Israel, ruling in the 
midst of His enemies, making His people willing in the day of His power, 
making them lie down in green pastures, leading them beside the still 


waters, restoring their souls, leading them in the paths of righteousness 
for His name's sake, accompanying them all the days of their lives with 
His goodness and mercy, giving them the victory over every foe, even 
death, and making them dwell in the house of the Lord forever. Isaiah 
beheld Him as Immanuel, God with us, a child born, a son given, whose ' 
name was Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the Everlasting 
Father and the Prince of Peace, the sure foimdation-stone laid in Zion, 
tried and precious, and as the man of sorrows and acquainted with grief, 
bruised for our iniquities and healing us with His stripes. Jeremiah saw 
Him as the Lord our Righteousness. Ezekiel beheld Him as a man and 
yet as the Lord, of a bright, fiery appearance, seated upon a sapphire 
throne, and encircled with a rainbow. Daniel saw Him as a little stone 
cut out of the mountain, breaking in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, 
the silver, and the gold of Nebuchadnezzar's image, and as the Son of 
man coming with the clouds of heaven to the Ancient of days, and acquir- 
ing universal and everlasting dominion, and as Messiah the Prince, who 
should come to the holy city, and be cut off but not for Himself, and 
should make an end of sins, and bring in an everlasting righteousness, 
and seal up the vision and prophecy, a short time before the destruction 
of the city and sanctuary. Micah beheld Him as the Ruler of Israel* 
whose goings forth had been from everlasting, coming out of Bethlehem- 
Ephratah. Haggai saw Him as the Desire of all nations, coming to the 
second temple, and filling it with greater spiritual glory than the first 
temple, and in that place giving peace. Zechariah saw Him as the King 
of Zion, just and having salvation, lowly, and riding upon a colt the foal 
of an ass into Jerusalem, betrayed for thirty pieces of silver, pierced by 
the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, but bringing them 
to mourn with a great and solitary mourning for Him, and opening to 
them a fountain for sin and for uncleanness — as the Shepherd of God, a 
man, and yet the equal of the Lord of hosts, smitten by the sword of God, 
who then turns his hand of mercy upon the little ones. And Malachi be- 
held Him as the Messenger of the covenant, the Lord suddenly coming to 
His temple, and purifying the sons of Levi as gold and silver in the 
furnace, that they might offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness, 
and as the Sun of Righteousness arising, unto all that fear His name, with 
healing in His wings. And Jesus always refers, in the most reverential 
manner, to the Hebrew Scriptures as the infallible, the literally and per- 
fectly true testimony of God. The same books of the Old Testament that 
we now receive were then received by the Jews and by Christ as canoni- 
cal and inspired. Christ, in His sayings recorded in the New Testament, 
alludes to every period of the Old Dispensation. " He speaks of the 
creation of man, the institution of marriage, the death of Abel, the flood 
in the days of Noah, the destruction of Sodom, the history of Abraham, 
the appearance of God in the burning bush, the manna in the wilderness, 
the miracle of the brazen serpent, the wanderings of David, the glory of 
Solomon, the ministry of Elijah and Elisha, the sign of Jonah, and the 


martyrdom of Zechariah— events which embrace the whole range of the 
Jewish record." Whatever, therefore, may be said by self-constituted, pre- 
tentious, ungodly and ignorant critics in regard to what they presume to call 
the incredible myths of the Bible, the children of God may be as perfectly 
assured of the literal truth of every word of the Old Testament, as well as of 
the New Testament, as if every word had been written by the Lord Jesus 
Christ Himself. 

"The Fourfold Gospel is the central portion of divine revelation. 
Into it, as a reservoir, all the foregoing revelations pour their full tide ; 
and out of it, as a fountain, flow all subsequent revelations. The gen- 
uineness of the Pour Gospels is attested by a mass of evidence, external 
and internal, altogether unparalleled and quite overpowering. No work 
of classical antiquity, even the most undoubted, is half so well attested, 
or can lay claim, one might say, to a tithe of the evidence which the Gos- 
pels possess. Every ancient writer referring to the Gospels possessed all 
four of them. Their genuineness and apostolic authority are attested by 
the evidence, in the second century, of Papias, Iremeus, the author of the 
Muratorian Fragment, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen, who 
expressly name them; and by the evidence of the Syriac and the old 
Latin versions of them ; and by the evidence, in the latter part of the first 
century and in the second century, of Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Igna- 
tius, Polycarp, the author of the Epistle to Diognetus and Justin Martyr, 
who quote from or refer to them ; by the Jewish Greek in which they are 
written, and which could have been written only in the first century ; by 
the accurate and numerous incidental allusions which they make to the 
geography and topography of Palestine ; the mixed political condition of 
the people, their manners and customs, religious principles, observances 
and prejudices, and the sects and parties into which they were divided ; 
by the great number of undesigned coincidences between them ; by the 
altogether unprecedented character of Christ, as the Divine and suffering 
Savior of men from sin, which they describe, and which no human mind 
<ould ever have imagined unless it had been a reality ; by the fact that, 
outside of the Christ whom they portray, there is no harbor of refuge for 
the tossed and weary soul ; and by their fresh and undying vigor triumph- 
antly surviving every form of antagonism for eighteen centuries."— 
David Brown, in Jamieson, Fausset and Brown's Bible Commentary. 

It seems certain that at least the Four Gospels, the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, thirteen Epistles of Paul, the first Epistle of Peter, and the first 
Epistle of John, were in general public use in the churches after the mid- 
dle of the second century. 

The fundamental hypotheses of the (German) Tubingen criticism— 
the most respectable and formidable critical assault ever made upon the 
New Testament— have entirely dissolved under later and more careful 
researches, so that the members of that theological school have fled to 
secular fields. The composition of all the four gospels, as well as of the 
epistles, must be referred to the first century, to eye-witnesses and ear- 


■witnesses of the life of Christ ; not Paul, hut Jesus, was the author of 
Christianity, and there were no radically antagonistic Pauline and Petrine 
parties in the Apostolic Church. 

In his "Beginnings of Christianity," Prof. G. P. Fisher, of Yale Col- 
lege, clearly points out three unmistakable " water-marks of age " in the 
New Testament writings, proving that they were composed in the first 
century of the Christian era : 1st. The Apostles' fleshly expectation of 
the speedy coming of Christ in final judgment upon the world. 2d. The 
entire absence of any distinction between the terms presbyter (or elder) 
and bishop (or overseer)— such distinction arising early in the second cen- 
tury ; and 3d. The New Testament allusions to only two formidable per- 
versions of Christianity, the Judaizirig and the Gnostic, both of which 
developed into open heresy in the second century. 

As admitted by the highest legal authorities, thoroughly trained in ex- 
amining evidence, the few trifling variations (apparent but not real con- 
tradictions) of the evangelists confirm, instead of weakening, their testi- 
mony, by proving them to have been independent witnesses, between 
whom there was no collusion. " More formal analytical biographies could 
not possibly have equalled the four gospels in presenting an authentic 
and vivid portraiture of Christ ; the authors are lost in the subject ; they 
attempt no studied delineation of Jesus, but allow Him, in all their nar- 
ratives, to stand in the foreground, and speak and act for Himself." This 
is of course the very next thing to the reader's living on earth when 
Christ was in the flesh, and actually hearing His words and seeing His 

The latest and ablest scholars place the four gospels in the following 
chronological order of composition : Mark, Matthew, Luke and John ; 
Mark and Matthew having been written before A. D. 70, Luke before A. 
D. 80, and John before A. D. 100. " They are plain, unadorned reports of 
facts in the life of Christ, impressed by a fourfold repetition ; especially 
the great facts of the death and resurrection of Christ are rehearsed to 
us four times in the minuteness of circumstantial detail. The sense of 
reality revives within us in reading the gospels, which furnish an effectual 
antidote against abstraction and speculation. The gospels give us four 
aspects of Christ, though but one portrait ; in Matthew He is, predomi- 
nantly, the Eoyal Lawgiver ; in Mark, the Mighty Worker ; in Luke, the 
Friend of man ; in John, the Son of God. Matthew, the Hebrew gospel, 
is the true commencement of the New Testament ; it represents Jesus as 
the son of David, the son of Abraham, and continually refers to the fulfill- 
ment of the Old Testament Scriptures. Mark, Peter's gospel, represents 
Jesus, as Peter said to Cornelius, as anointed with the Holy Ghost and 
power, going about doing good and healing all oppressed with the devil ; 
it is the gospel of action — rapid, vigorous and vivid. Luke, Paul's gos- 
pel, presents Jesus, not as the son of Abraham only, but as the son of 
Adam ; it seems broader in its human sympathy, and is pre-eminently a 
gospel for the Gentiles — the gospel of the Son of Man, its key-note being 


mercy ; the gospel for women, dwelling upon Elizabeth, the Virgin Mary, 
Anna, Martha and her sister Mary, and the female disciples who minis- 
tered to Christ and His Apostles ; the gospel lor children, dwelling upon 
the birth and youth of John the Baptist and of Jesus ; and the gospel of 
sacred poetry, the first two chapters being a paradise of fragrant flowers, 
where the air is resonant with the sweet melodies of heavenly gladness 
and thanksgiving ; the gospel of Luke, says the infidel Renan, is the 
most beautiful hook in the world."— T. D. Bernard. 

The gospel of John dwells especially upon the divine and eternal 
glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. Because of this fact, and of its recording 
the astounding miracle of the resurrection of Lazarus, and on account of 
its containing several long spiritual discourses of Christ, the especial 
malevolence of modern skeptics has been directed against the authenticity 
of this gospel, and it has been most learnedly and laboriously attempted 
to relegate its composition to the latter part of the second century and to 
some unknown and unreliable author. But critics have been forced to re- 
treat from A. D. 170 to about A. D. 100, as the time when it was known 
and used by the church— that is, to the lifetime, if not of John himself, 
of many of his friends, upon whom such a work, if spurious, could not 
have been imposed. The internal proof of its authenticity is stronger 
than that of any classical work of antiquity. Its general structure and 
contents furnish a convincing argument for its strict historical truth. It 
contains more touches of an eye-witness than any other of the gospels ; 
it is more observant of chronological order, and, confessedly, the most 
valuable for consultation in the scientific construction of the Savior's 
history. It alone gives an adequate explanation of the manner and time 
in which Christ's death was brought about (by His raising Lazarus from 
the dead, near Jerusalem, after the latter had been dead four days, and 
thus presenting the strongest proof of His own divinity, and offending the 
Jewish rulers more than ever before). Even Baur, the founder of the 
Tubingen school, admits that the author of the fourth gospel was a man 
of remarkable mind, of an elevated spirit, and penetrated with a warm 
adoring faith in Christ as the Son of God, and the Savior of the world, 
and he compares him with the Apostle Paul. Surely such a man could 
not have fabricated a life of his Master. Baur and Keim give the gos- 
pel of John the highest praise as a philosophy of religion. " Going from 
the first to the second century," says Professor Fisher, " is passing into a 
far different atmosphere, descending from the heights of inspiration to 
the level of ordinary and often of feeble thinking, so that setting a work 
| like the fourth gospel in the second century is a literary anachronism." 
No man but the Apostle John could have written it. " If he did not write 
it," says Neander, " then its authorship is the greatest of enigmas." 
" Through the Fourth Gospel, while the Apostle John is never mentioned 
by name, there moves an unnamed, veiled form, which sometimes comes 
forward, yet without the veil being entirely lifted ; the author must have 
■well known who this person was, and he must have been the person him- 


self, whom it was the whole joy of his life to know that Jesus loved, hut 
who modestly .and delicately suppresses his own name." The authenticity 
of this Gospel was abundantly acknowledged in the second century, and 
was not disputed till the nineteenth century ; the first epistle of John is 
remarkably similar, and must have been by the same author. The most 
radical critics admit that the Apocalypse or Revelation was written by the 
Apostle John; and they maintain that the Fourth Gospel is so much 
purer, calmer, and more grammatical Greek, that it could not have had 
the same author. But the latest and profoundest scholars believe that 
the Apocalypse was written by John, as Boanerges, a son of thunder, 
about A. D. 69, after the Neronian persecution (Rev. vi. 9-11), and amid 
the terrible and portentous events just before the destruction of Jeru- 
salem (Rev. xi. 1-14) ; and that the Fourth Gospel was written by him 
some twenty or thirty years afterwards, when he had been residing many 
years in the Grecian cities of Asia Minor, and had acquired a much freer 
use of the Greek language, and when he was in extreme old age, and, 
with memory refreshed by the Divine Spirit, according to Christ's latest 
promises, he was occupied with tranquil and delightful reminiscences of 
his beloved Lord. Similarly, Paul's Thessalonian Epistles, which are 
eschatological, like the Apocalypse, and are, in our New Testament, 
appropriately the last in order of his epistles to seven churches, were 
written first. The Apocalypse was, excepting the gospel and epistles of 
John, and possibly the gospel of Luke and the Acts, the last written of 
all the books of the New Testament. The John of the Apocalypse and of 
the Fourth Gospel differ no more than the Socrates of Xenophon and of 
Plato. John was the first and last of the glorious company of the Apos- 
tles, the chosen one of the chosen three of the chosen twelve, the bosom 
friend of Jesus, the protector of His widowed mother, the survivor of all 
the Apostles, the Apostle of love, which is the greatest of Christian vir- 
tues. " He was pre-eminently qualified to give to the church the inside 
view of that most wonderful person that ever walked on earth. In his 
early life he had absorbed the deepest words of his Master, and treasured 
them in a faithful heart ; in extreme old age, yet with the fire and vigor 
of manhood, he reproduced them under the influence of the Holy Spirit, 
who dwelt in him and led him into the unerring truth." " John's Gos- 
pel," says Prof. Philip Schaff, in Ms most valuable "History of the Chris- 
tian Church," " is the golden sunset of the age of inspiration, and sheds 
its lustre into the second and all the succeeding centuries of the church. 
It is as simple as a child and sublime as a seraph, gentle as a lamb and 
bold as an eagle, deep as the sea and high as the heavens— the most orig- 
inal, the most important, and the most influential book in all literature 
It lifts the veil from the Holy of Holies, and reveals the glory of the Only 
Begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. It unites in harmony the 
deepest knowledge and the purest love of Christ. While pure Greek in 
vocabulary and grammar, it is thoroughly Hebrew in temper and spirit, 
even more so than any other book, and can be almost literally translated 


into Hebrew without losing its force or beauty. It has the childlike sim- 
plicity, the artlessness, the imaginativeness, the directness, the circum- 
stantiality and the rhythmical parallelism which characterize the writings 
of the Old Testament. The sentences are short and weighty, co-ordi- 
nated, not subordinated. There are no involved periods, no connecting 
links, no logical argumentation, but a succession of self -evident truths 
declared as from immediate intuition. There breathes through this book 
an air of calmness and serenity, of peace and repose, that seems to come 
from the eternal mansions of heaven." 

The first century of the Christian era was, above all others in human 
history, the age of miracles. Many miracles are recorded in the Old Tes- 
tament, but many more, performed by Christ and His Apostles, are re- 
corded in the New. The denial of the possibility of a miracle or the 
supernatural in the universe, is a sheer assumption or arrogation of om- 
niscience, and the equivalent of atheism. Science does not know what 
either matter or force is, and is therefore incompetent to deny what Om- 
nipotence can effect with or upon them. The will of man may change the 
combinations of natural laws to accomplish its purposes ; much more may 
the Divine will. The high and worthy object of the miracles recorded 
in the Bible was to testify to the divine commission of those inspired 
teachers who wrought them. As to even the New Testament miracles be- 
ing myths, as imagined by Strauss, whose theory would annihilate all 
history, later and deeper historical research has shown that the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era, when Christ and His Apostles lived on earth and 
the New Testament was composed, was the most critical and skeptical 
age of the world up to the sixteenth century after Christ — the age of 
Tacitus, the most philosophical uninspired historian that ever lived — the 
period of the old age and decline of the ancient world, when childish 
stories were not believed. 

" No other gospels than our four canonical ones were accepted by the 
church teachers and the great body of Christian people in the second cen- 
tury; the silliness and clumsiness of the so-called apocryphal gospels, 
which deal mainly with the mother, the nativity and the infancy of Jesus, 
set off the perfection of the true gospels." 

The numberless undesigned coincidences in the Acts of the Apostles 
and in Paul's epistles, as shown in Paley's " Horse Paulina?," afford an 
unanswerable argument for the genuineness both of the Acts and of those 
epistles. No ancient history has so many surprising internal proofs of 
having been written by a careful and accurate contemporary author as the 
A ctss of the Apostles. Even Baur admitted the genuineness of Paul's f our 
. '-epistles, to the Romans, the Corinthians and the Galatians ; and his suc- 
cessors have admitted the genuineness of several others of Paul's epistles. 

2. Science.— If it was not below the dignity of God to do His won- 
derful works in nature as well as in grace, certainly it cannot be below 
the dignity of even His most intelligent and holy creatures to investigate 
such works in order to see in them the reflection of their Creator's glory. 


The Scriptures make numerous allusions to the works of God in nature, 
and refer to the kingdom of nature as an image or type of the kingdom 
of grace. No discovery of science invalidates, but all corroborate and 
illustrate the truth of the sacred Scriptures. While the faith of God's 
elect does not and should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the 
power of God, it is well enough, in order to help dissipate the vaporings 
of carnal reason, to know that in the Bodleian Library at Oxford is de- 
posited a manifesto, drawn up and signed at the meeting of the British 
Scientific Association in 1865, by 617 scientific men, including some of the 
very highest eminence, declaring their belief in the truth of the Holy 
Scriptures and the harmony of the Scriptures with all the natural sciences. 
The most eminent professors ia the Universities of Halle, Bonn and Ber- 
lin have taken an emphatic stand for the truth of the Bible against Ger- 
man rationalism and infidelity. While the utter falsity of all heathen 
religions is demonstrated by the absolute monstrosity of their cosmogonies 
or accounts of creation, the wonderful coincidence of the order of fifteen 
creative events in Genesis and in science furnishes, according to the law 
of permutations, 1,307,674,368,000 probabilities that God made a special 
revelation to Moses of the facts which the latter records, against only one 
probability that He did not make such revelation. 

Prof. Arnold Guyot, of Princeton College, who has had no superior 
as a scientist in America, says in his last work (published in 1884) on 
" Creation, or the Biblical Cosmogony in the Light of Modern Science :" 
" The conclusions of the so-called modern, higher criticism, whose object 
is to shake the faith in the authenticity of the book of Genesis, have 
often been fully refuted by more competent men than their authors. The 
best explanation which science is now able to give of the creation of the 
universe and the earth, is also that which best explains, in all its details, 
the first chapter of Genesis, and does it justice. Whatever modifications 
in our present view of the development of the universe and the globe may 
be expected from new discoveries, the prominent features of this vast 
picture will remain, and these only are delineated in the admirable ac- 
count of Genesis. The same divine hand which lifted, for Daniel and 
Isaiah, the veil which covered the tableau of the time to come, unveiled 
to the eyes of the author of Genesis, by a series of graphic visions and 
pictures, the earliest ages of creation. Thus, Moses was the prophet of 
the past, as Daniel and Isaiah and many others were the prophets of the 
future." Scientists, like the founders of the pagan religions, make con- 
stant mistakes even in their own chosen an d limited departments of in-/ 
vestigation ; but the inspired writers of the Bible never make any mis- 
takes in either natural or spiritural matters. Science simply measures the 
conditions of natural phenomena, and differs, not in kind, but only in de- 
gree, from every man's knowledge, and does not at all solve the mystery 
of our relationship to the unseen and eternal. " These scientific individ- 
uals," says Thomas Carlyle in his " Sartor Resartus," "have been nowhere 
but where we also are ; have seen some handbreadths deeper than we see 


into the Deep that is infinite, without bottom as without shore. Man 
knows not the Alphabet of the Volume of Nature, whose Author and 
Writer is God. This fair Universe is in very deed the star-domed City of 
God ; and through every star, through every grass-blade, and most 
through every living soul, the glory of a present God still beams. But 
Nature, which is the time-vesture of God, and reveals Him to the wise, 
hides Him from the foolish." 

Science goes quite beyond its province in attempting to explain the 
first origin or the final destiny of things, and destroys itself in substitut- 
ing vain imagination for sober truth. Such a course marks the decay of 
the truly scientific spirit. Even Darwin admits that the actual transmu- 
tation of one species into another is not historical, but only inferential. 
The science of to-day, like the science of past ages, furnishes not the 
slightest evidence of the self-origination and self-maintenance of the 
universe independently of God. The drapery or setting of the super- 
natural in Scripture, the correctness of the numberless allusions to geogra- 
phy, chronology, history, literature, law and government, customs and 
manners, is receiving stronger confirmation every day by scientific re- 
search ; and no skeptic has ever been able to satisfy himself, much less 
any one else, in his impossible attempt to dissever the natural from the 
supernatural in Scripture. " The time over which scientific observations 
can travel," says Mr. C. H. Spurgeon in his " Clew of the Maze," "even 
if it be extended into ages, is but as a watch in the night compared with 
the eternity of God ; and the range of human observation is but as a drop 
of the bucket compared with the circle of the heavens ; and therefore it 
may turn out, in a thousand instances, that there are more things in 
heaven and earth than were ever dreamed of in the most accurate phi- 
losophy of scientists. If it ever comes to a matter of decision whether we 
shall believe OooVs revelation or mail's science, we sliall unhesitatingly cry, 
" ' Let God be true, and every man a liar.' " 

3. Philosophy.— The greatest supernatural event recorded in Srip- 
ture is the creation of the universe. As Immanuel Kant, the profoundest 
of German philosophers, demonstrates in his " Critique of Pure Reason," 
the universe pre-supposes, for both its origin and continuance, an 
almighty, intelligent, righteous, infinite, eternal Spirit, whose purposes 
embrace and provide for all events, and who is Himself a Person, and 
who may receive personal worship and affection, and reveal Himself to 
His creatures by personal manifestations. Every man of common sense, 
whether ancient or modern, heathen or Christian, sees design in nature. 
It would be far more reasonable to consider a watch an accidental coming 
together of pieces of metal than to regard the human body or the solar 
system or the universe as accidental. The vigintillions of probabilities 
against the fortuitous meeting of all the molecules in all the organs of all 
the creatures on the earth make it as certain as mathematics can make it 
that these creatures were brought into being by a wise and powerful Crea- 
tor. A materialistic, pantheistic, atheistic or agnostic theory of the spon- 


taneous evolution of all things out of nothing — a theory ignoring com- 
mon sense, hypostasizing logical abstractions into real agents, obliterat- 
ing all the distinction between Creator and creature, force and law, mind 
and matter, life and death, consciousness and unconsciousness, right and 
wrong, good and evil — instead of illuminating, intensifies the darkness 
-which envelops the Great First Cause, by substituting a mysterious, un- 
caused, omnific star-dust for God. A system of godless evolution is but 
a mass of unproved and unprovable assumptions, and is rejected by very 
many most eminent scientists asabundle-of romantic dreams. As ably^ 
shown by President Noah Porter, of Yale College, this theory destroys 
conscience, degrades man, strangles science, subjects all things to blind 
chance, makes the educated more sejfish and the uneducated more discon- 
tented, is pretentious, dogmatic, specious, sophistical, incoherent and 
immoral ; is not practically believed by those who maintain it, and who 
thus only amuse themselves with ingenious and frivolous speculations, 
brilliant but shallow kaleidoscopic fancies; and, finally, as plainly set 
forth by President J. W. Dawson, of Montreal University, it commits 
theoretical suicide, disproving itself, by exhibiting, in its present nominal 
acceptance, not a progression, but a retrogression to the crudest and most 
uncritical human cosmogonies found in ancient heathen philosophy and 
poetry, seeking to string all our vast stores of knowledge upon the thread 
of an antiquated hypothesis, and indicating, if it were really believed, 
that the human mind has fallen into a state of senility, and in its dotage 
mistakes for science the imaginations which were the dreams of its 
youth. Agnostic or chance evolution rests on two subordinate hypotheses, 
equally unverified and unverifiable — spontaneous generation (pronounced 
even by Darwin absolutely inconceivable, and by Huxley and Tyndall 
altogether unproved), and transmutation of species (pronounced by the. 
profound biologist Mivart irrational and puerile). It is impossible to 
prove the physical descent of species from each other. The unity be- 
tween them is not material but immaterial— the unity of plan in the mind 
of the Creator. Dr. Beale, the foremost microscopist of the English- 
speaking world, declares that Huxley's protoplasmic theories are in fla- 
grant contradiction with the facts; that no one has proved or can prove 
that life and mind are in any way related to chemistry and mechanics. 
The able and learned English scientist, Dr. Elam, says: "That such 
verbal hocus-pocus should be received as science will one day be regarded 
as evidence of the low state of intelligence in the nineteenth century." 
" If a man is a materialist," says Professor Tholuck, " we Germans think 
he is not educated." 

" The assumptiom of atoms," says the distinguished philosopher, Sir 
William Thomson, " can explain no property of body which has not pre- 
viously been attributed to the atoms themselves." Says Prof. J. C. Max- 
well, of Cambridge University, England : " No theory of evolution can 
be found to account for the similarity of the molecules throughout all 
time, and throughout the whole region of the stellar universe ; for evolu- 


tion necessarily implies continuous change, and the molecule is incapable 
of growth or decay, of generation or destruction (so far as human obser- 
vation extends). The exact equality of each molecule to all others of the 
game kind precludes the idea of its being eternal and self- existent, and 
proves that matter must have been created. The molecules of matter 
continue this day as they were created, perfect in number, and measure, 
and weight ; and from the ineffaceable characters impressed on them we 
may learn that those aspirations after truth in statement, and justice in . 
action, which we reckon among our noblest attributes as men, are ours 
because they are the essential constituents of the image of Him who in the 
beginning created not only the heavens and the earth, but the materials 
out of which heaven and earth consist." " Such is the true outcome of 
the deepest, the most exact, and the most recent science of our age. A 
grander utterance has not come from the mind of a philosopher since the 
days when Newton concluded his Principia by his immortal scholium on 
the majestic personality of the Creator and Lord of the Universe." 
" How came the atoms or molecules to be what they are 1 Who preserves 
to them their absolute identity, notwithstanding their infinite variety f 
Who endowed them with their inalienable properties 1 This, and every 
other fact in nature must previously have been a thought of God. Nature 
is full of plan, and yet she plans not ; she is only plastic to a plan. Mor- 
phology and teleology are but revelations of plan, and, as such, have 
guided to the most splendid of scientific discoveries. Where science 
assumes a use, religion affirms an author. The prints of divine fore- 
thought are scattered over the face of universal nature, and the convic- 
tions of a Great First Cause which they engender, are ploughed into the 
very subsoil of the human mind." — S. Wainwright. 

"The processes of the negative philosophy," says the Duke of 
Argyll, "systematically suppress more than one-half of the facts of 
nature; and as systematically they silence more than one-half of the 
faculties of man. Moreover, the faculties which they especially try to 
silence are the very highest faculties of discernment which nature gives 
to us. In the physical sciences we know what results would follow from 
such methods of treatment; every fact has to be carefully kept and 
weighed, and even then our results are imperfect. Yet in the far more 
difficult work of interpreting the vast system of nature, with all its im- 
measurable wealth of mind, the agnostic philosophy deliberately sets 
aside everything that is kindred with the highest parts of our own moral 
and intellectual structure. These are all absolutely excluded from the 
meanings and the sequences— from the anticipations and the analogies of 
creation. To those who have grasped the great doctrine of the unity of 
nature, and have sounded the depth of its meaning and the sweep of its 
applications, this method of inquiry will appear self -condemned." 

" Men of science," says Mr. Charles Kingsley, " are finding more and 
more— below their facts, below all phenomena which the scalpel and the 
microscope can show— a something nameless, invisible, imponderable, yet 


seemingly omnipresent and omnipotent, retreating before them deeper and 
deeper, the deeper they delve — the mysterious and truly miraculous ele- 
ment in nature which is always escaping them, though they cannot es- 
cape it— that of which it was written of old, ' Whither shall I go from Thy 
presence, or whither shall I flee from Thy Spirit t '" In the modern doc- 
trine of the conservation of energy, and the convertibility of forces, 
science insists, with increasing emphasis, that all kinds of force are but 
forms or manifestations of some one central force, issuing from some one 
fountain-head of power. Sir John Herschel has not hesitated to say that 
it is but reasonable to regard the force of gravitation as the direct or indi- 
rect result of a consciousness or a will existing somewhere. Such an 
omnipresent and omniflc will is required much more to account for the 
world of mind than even the world of matter. In his masterly discourse, 
" As Regards Protoplasm," bristling in fact and crushing in argument, 
Dr. J. H. Stirling, of Edinburgh, finely and axiomatically remarks: 
" This universe is not an accidental cavity, into which an accidental dust 
has been accidentally swept into heaps for the accidental evolution of 
the majestic spectacle of organic and inorganic life. That majestic spec- 
tacle is a spectacle as plainly for the eye of reason as any diagram of 
mathematics. That majestic spectacle conld have been constructed, was 
constructed, only in reason, for reason, and by reason." 

The entire agnostic literature is but a demonstration of the truth of 
the Apostle Paul's declaration, that " The world by wisdom knows not God," 
and that " The natural man cannot know the things of the Spirit of God, for 
they are spiritually discerned.'''' — 1 Cor. i. 21 ; ii. 14. A godless human phi- 
losophy is a wilderness, in which "the pupils hold the sieves while their 
masters milk the he goats," and which ends in darkness and death and 
nihilism. We need the light of heaven to shine in this darkness, and 
direct our footsteps to a " land of rest, with green fields and living 
rivers." — J. McCosh. "It is true," says Francis Bacon, "that a little 
philosophy inclineth man's mind to atheism ; but depth in philosophy 
bringeth men's minds about to religion. For while the mind of man 
looketh upon second causes scattered, it may sometimes rest in them, and 
go no further; but when it beholdeth the chain of them, confederate and 
linked together, it must needs fly to Providence and Deity." 

" The evidences of the truthfulness of the Bible are written where 
its enemies can never destroy them — in the very framework of the uni- 
verse ; in the earth and in the sky ; in the stones and in the stars ; in the 
experiences of millions of human hearts, and in all the records of human 
history."— G. S. Bailey. 

President J. W. Dawson, in his "Origin of the World," presents the 
following learned summary of the religious history of the human race : 

" The Turanian or Hamitic races (including the Mongolians of North- 
ern Asia, the American Indians, and the oldest historical populations of 
Western Asia and of Europe), are remarkable for their permanent and 
stationary forms of civilization or barbarism, and for the languages least 


developed in grammatical structure. These people had and still have 
traditions of the creation and early history of man similar to those in the 
earlier Biblical books ; but the connection of their religions with that of 
the Bible breaks off from the time of Abraham ; and the earlier portions 
of revelation which they possessed became disintegrated into a polythe- 
ism which takes very largely the form of animism, or of attributing some 
special spiritual indwelling to all natural objects, and also that of worship 
of ancestors and heroes. The portion of primitive theological belief to 
which they have clung most persistently is the doctrine of the immortality 
of the soul, which in all their religious beliefs occupies a prominent place, 
and has always been connected with special attention to rites of sepulture 
and monuments to the dead. Their version of the revelation of creation 
appears" most distinctly in the sacred book of the Quiches of Central 
America, and in the creation myths of the Mexicans, Iroquois, Algon- 
quins, and other North American tribes ; and it has been handed down to 
us through the Semitic Assyrians from the ancient Chaldseo-Turanian 
population of the valley of the Euphrates. 

" The Aryan or Japhetic races (including the Hindoos, Persians, Medes, 
Scythians, Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Celts, Teutons and Slavonians— 
the modern Europeans, in general, and their descendants), have been re- 
markable for their changeable and versatile character. Their religious 
ideas in primitive times appear to have been not dissimilar from those of 
the Turanians ; and the Hindoos, Persians, Greeks, Scandinavians and 
Celts have all gone some length in developing and modifying these, 
apparently by purely human imaginative and intellectual materials. But 
all these developments were defective in a moral point of view, and had 
lost the stability and rational basis which proceed from monotheism. 
Hence they have given way before other and higher faiths ; and, at this 
day the more advanced nations of the Aryan or Japhetic stock have 
adopted the Semitic faith ; and, as Noah long ago predicted, ' dwell in 
the tents of Shem.' No indigenous account of the genesis of things re- 
mains among the Aryan races, with the exception of that in the Avesta, 
and in some ancient Hindoo hymns, and these are merely variations of 
the Turanian or Semitic cosmogony. God has given to the Aryans no 
special revelations of His will, and they would have been left to grope for 
themselves along the paths of science and philosophy, but for the advent 
among them of the prophets of ' Jehovah, the God of Shem ! ' 

"It is to (the Hebrew branch of) the Semitic race that God has been 
most liberal in his gift of inspiration. Gathering up and treasuring the old 
common inheritance of religion, and eliminating from it the accretions of 
superstition, the children of Abraham at one time stood alone, or almost 
alone, as adherents of a belief in one God the Creator. Their theology 
was added to from age to age by a succession of prophets, all working in 
one line of development, till it culminated in the appearance of Jesus 
Christ, and then proceeded to expand itself over the other races. Among 
them it has undergone two remarkable phases of retrograde development 


—the one in Mohammedanism, which carries it hack to a resemblance to 
its own earlier patriarchal stage, the other in Roman and Greek ecclesias- 
ticism, which have taken it back to the Levitical system, along with a 
strong color of paganism. Still its original documents survive, and retain 
their hold on large portions of the more enlightened Aryan nations, while 
through their means these documents have entered on a new career of 
conquest among the Semites and Turanians. They are, however, it must 
be admitted, among the Aryan races of Europe, growing in a somewhat 
uncongenial soil ; partly because of the materialistic organization of these 
races, and partly because of the abundant remains of heathenism which 
still linger among them ; and it is possible that they may not realize their 
full triumphs over humanity till the Semitic races return to the position 
of Abraham, and erect again in the world the standard of monotheistic 
faith, under the auspices of a purified Christianity."— Romans xi. 12-15. 

It is a mournful prediction of the inspired writers that, in the latter 
days, formal godliness should increase, while vital godliness should de- 
cline ; and yet the entire New Testament is a fervent protestation against 
the bondage of forms as a species of self -righteousness, and a declaration 
of the all-sufficiency of Christ and the essential spirituality of His religion. 
To represent our acceptance with God as conditioned upon human works, 
either apart from or along with faith, Paul regarded as a fatal error, as a 
dishonor to Christ, because setting the ground of salvation, either in whole 
or in part, outside of Christ ; it would imply that man might truly believe 
in Christ and still be in his sins and unsaved ;. it would imply that the 
work of redemption was not finished by Jesus on the cross. " The false 
Jewish theory of the law as a source of life and salvation, is deeply im- 
bedded in every natural heart; and, therefore, to combat this funda- 
mental, universal and capital error, God raised up His most eminent 
Apostle, who was designedly born out of due time, and who did not even 
know Christ after the flesh, but only saw Him in glory, that he might give 
the church the highest spiritual instruction — who had full experience, in 
his own heart and life, of the false Judaistic theory — and who was sud- 
denly converted to the gospel that he might teach, with the greatest dis- 
tinctness, the contrast between salvation sought by law through works, 
and salvation found by grace through faith, and the mighty change in the 
world within when the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus makes a 
man free from the law of sin and death." — T. D. Bernard, in " The Pro- 
gress of Doctrine in the New Testament." 

"A believing and attentive reader of the New Testament could not 
have expected that the history of the church after the close of the Scrip- 
ture canon would have been essentially different from what it has been. 
The closing words of Paul, Peter, Jude and John forbode direful tribula- 
tion for the people of God ; the distant hills are black with the gathering 
multitudes of Apollyon's forces ; and the last exhortations of those faithful 
soldiers, as they are about to fall at their posts, call on their comrades and 
those who are to follow them to endure hardness as good soldiers of Jesus 


Christ, to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, to 
be faithful unto death." Opposed and persecuted by the world and its 
religions, they have, like the prophets and Apostles of old, been slandered, 
reviled, tortured, put to death, with every imaginable device of cruelty ; 
the survivors have wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins, in deserts 
and mountains and dens and caves of the earth, destitute, afflicted, tor- 
mented. But by heaven-born and heavon-bound faith they endured, as 
seeing Him who is invisible, and choosing rather to suffer affliction in the 
service of God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin fur a season, having 
respect unto the recompense of the reward. Thus has the Most High 
never left Himself without a witness on the earth. 

The period of the history of the church of God from the creation to 
A. D. 100 is not only more than two-thirds of the entire period from the 
creation to the present time, but it is incomparably the most important 
part of church history ; because we have the infallible light of the Holy 
Scriptures to guide us during that period, pointing out, without any mis- 
take, the path of the true servants of God, their labors and sufferings, 
their errors and chastisements, their repentance and salvation. During the 
remaining period, from A. D. 100 to 1885, I have earnestly endeavored, 
in tracing the footsteps of the flock of Christ, to be entirely guided, not 
by the unscriptural writings and opinions of fallible men, but by the light 
of Divine revelation. The humanly ascribed titles of spiritual father, 
confessor, doctor, rabbi, pope, cardinal, archdeacon, archbishop, rever- 
end, etc., which are utterly out of place, and unscriptural, and worthless 
in the kingdom of God, have exercised no influence m the composition of 
this volume. The tracing of God's spiritual or hidden people through 
the wilderness of the eighteen centuries since the apostolic age is of 
course a most difficult undertaking ; and I do not suppose, neither do I 
claim, that I have made absolutely no mistakes in this delicate and im- 
portant delineation. The Scriptures mentioned under " Footsteps of the 
Flock," before the Preface, have been, with the aid of the Divine Spirit, 
as I hope, my chief guide. As for a nominal, natural, outward, or me- 
chanical succession, the God of providence and grace, eighteen centuries 
ago, forever buried all such claims in the dark, impenetrable gulf of the 
secidum obscurant, or obscure age, immediately succeeding the death of 
the leading Apostles and the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 70, and ex- 
tending to A. D. 100, as freely acknowledged by the ablest scholars of 
Europe ; the irreconcilable inconsistencies and contradictions of the lead- 
ing Roman Catholic authorities in regard to the pretended Romish suc- 
cession during this period furnish a sufficient illustration of this fact. 
According to the entire tenor of the New Testament Scriptures, what we 
are to look for is, not such outward succession, but a spiritual succession of 
principles, of inward, vital, heartfelt religion. Names are nothing, prin- 
ciples are everything, in the true kingdom of God. In all ages and 
countries, that people who, in all spiritual matters, acknowledge Christ as 
their only Head and King, form a part of the true church of God. They 


nave mostly been dissenters from " state churches " and political religions 
—Christ having declared that His kingdom is not of this world ; and, like 
the prophets and Apostles and Christ Himself, and as he predicted, they 
have been hated, slandered and persecuted to the death by worldly re- 
ligionists, not only by heathens and Mohammedans, but even far more 
numerously by professed Christians, both Papists and Protestants (Matt. 
v. 10-12; xxiii. 34; Mark x. 30; Luke xxi. 12; John v. 16; xv. 18-21 ; xvi. 
33 ; Acts vii. 52 ; viii. 1 ; ix. 5 ; xiv. 22 ; Gal. iv. 29 ; 2 Cor. iv. 9 ; 2 Tim. iii. 
11, 12 ; Heb. xi. 35-38 ; Rev. vii. 14 ; xii. 13 ; xiii. 7, 15, 17 ; xvii. 6 ; xx. 4) ; 
and, instead of persecuting their enemies in return, they have returned 
good for evil and prayed for them. — Matt. v. 44-48; Luke xxiii. 34; Acts 
vii. 60 ; Rom. xii. 14, 18-21 ; 1 Cor. iv. 12 ; xiii. 4-8 ; 1 Pet. ii. 23 ; iii. 9. So 
the inoffensive lamb and dove and sheep, used in the Scriptures to repre- 
sent the Son and the Spirit and the people of God, are slain and devoured 
by predaceous animals and birds. These persecuted people of God have 
had, since the first century, a variety of names, generally given them by 
their enemies,- and derived from their location, or from some of their 
leading ministers, or from some doctrine or practice of theirs which dis- 
tinguished them from worldly religionists. Until the Protestant Reforma- 
tion in the sixteenth century, they were known as Montanists, Tertullian- 
ists, Novatians, Donatists, Paulicians, Petrobrusians, Henricians, Arnold- 
ists, Waldenses, Albigenses, United Brethren of Bohemia, and Lollards ;. 
many of these were called by the general name of Ana-Baptists (or Re- 
Baptizers), because they did not acknowledge the scripturalness or validity 
of infant baptism, and therefore baptized (Pffidobaptists said they bap- 
tized again) those who joined them on a profession of faith. While these 
various classes of people differed in minor particulars, and while some of 
them were in much darkness and error on certain points of truth, they 
yet held substantially to the same general doctrine and practice— insisting, 
above all, upon the spirituality of the church of God and her heavenly obli- 
gation to walk in humble and loving obedience to all His holy commandments, 
both in an individual and a church capacity, and not in obedience to the un- 
scriptural traditions and commandments of men. For the last 365 years 
(since A. D. 1520) they have been called Baptists (for about the first 100 
years of this period, also Ana-Baptists), because they baptized (that is, 
immersed in water, in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy 
Ghost) all who, upon a credible profession of their repentance towards 
God and faith in Christ, desired to unite with them in a church capacity. 
The cardinal tenets of Bible Baptists— being also those held by the apos- 
tolic churches, as set forth in the New Testament, and those held, in the 
main, by the people of God in former times, are : The exclusive and su- 
preme authority of the Holy Scriptures ; the exclusive headship of Christ 
over His church ; the three-oneness of God as Father, Son and Spirit ; the 
total depravity of all mankind since the' fall of Adam ; the special and 
effectual electing love of God the Father, redeeming love of God the Son, 
and regenerating love of God the Spirit, manifested, in due time, to all 


the vessels of mercy ; the baptism of believers, and the partaking of the 
Lord's supper by those properly baptized and in gospel order ; salvation 
by grace and faith alone; a regenerated and orderly-walking church 
membership ; the universal priesthood and brotherhood of believers ; the 
divine call and divine qualification and equality of the ministry, who feed 
and care for the flock of God among them, not for filthy lucre, but of a 
ready mind, nor as being lords over God's heritage, but as ensamples to 
the flock ; the independence and yet cordial brotherly association of gospel 
churches; the separation of the church from the world, and the non- 
alliance of the former with the latter in any kinds of religious institu- 
tions — such corrupting associations being pointedly forbidden in both the 
Old and New Testament Scriptures (Exod. xii. 38 with Num. xi. 4-6 ; Exod. 
xxxiv. 12-16 ; Deut. vii. 1-11 ; 2 Chron. xviii. 1-0 with six. 2 ; Ezra ix. 1-15 ; 
Neh. xiii. 1-3, 23-31 ; Psalm xxvi. 4, 5 ; lvi. 35-43 ; Isa. viii. 12 ; Acts viii. 20, 
21 ; 2 Cor. vi. 14-18) ; the separation of church and state ; the liberty of 
every human being, so far as other people are concerned, to worship God 
according to the dictates of his own conscience ; the resurrection of the 
bodies both of the just and the unjust ; the final and general judgment 
of the world by the Lord Jesus Christ ; the everlasting blessedness of the 
righteous, and the everlasting punishment of the wicked. 

In giving the history of the church since the birth of Christ I have 
divided the periods into centuries, the oldest, simplest, and clearest 
method. All methods of division are more or less arbitrary, artificial and 
mechanical. The modern German periodologies are endlessly diversified, 
inconsistent, and confused, and almost destroy any profitable comparison 
with each other. 

As portrayed by the Scriptures of infallible truth, how unspeakably 
solemn is the condition of man, as he stands upon these mortal shores, 
before launching upon the great ocean of Eternity ! As testified by the 
Inspired Word, he has entered upon an everlasting career, either of hap- 
piness or of misery. Beyond the portals of natural death, into which he 
may at any moment be ushered, his estate will be unchangeable. " What 
shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul f 
Or what shall he give in exchange for his soul !" is the momentous in- 
quiry of God manifest in the flesh. May the Lord Jesus, by His blessed 
Spirit of grace, seal this most solemn question upon our hearts and upon 
those of our fellow-men ; give us to realize the vanity of earthly things, 
and the supreme and transcendent importance of our spiritual and eternal 
interests ; lead us, under a deep sense of our sinfulness, with weeping 
and supplication, to the throne of His mercy; enable us to count all 
things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our 
Lord, and to behold Him, by an eye of faith, as pierced and dying for 
our sins and rising for our justification ; may He shed abroad His renew- 
ing and transforming love in our hearts, and elevate our thoughts and 
affections above the corrupting and fading shadows of this world to the 
pure and enduring realities of heaven ; may He create within us a desire 


to identify ourselves with His afflicted, lowly, despised, and persecuted 
church and people ; enable us to adorn the doctrine of God our Savior 
by loving obedience to all His holy commandments, and thus prepare us. 
for a blissful and eternal communion with Himself in the General Assem- 
bly and Church of the First-Born, who are written in heaven. 



" In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." * 

Thus God puts His seal upon the forehead of the Bible. Thus, in the 
volume of Inspiration, with the first breath of His mouth, He destroys 
forever the deadly errors of polytheism, pantheism, atheism, deism, 
materialism, agnosticism, accidentalism, evolutionism, positivism, natur- 
alism, rationalism, dualism, two-seedism, fatalism, nihilism, pessimism, 
idolatry and superstition. This one statement of the Scriptures is of in- 
finitely more value than all the words of all the uninspired men that ever 
lived. It transports us at once above all human science and tradition 
and philosophy, above the dark, interminable, labyrinthine wanderings 
of the natural mind, beyond the bounds of time to the clear divine depths 
of the ancient eternity. It declares to us, in language of the sublimest 
simplicity and truthfulness, that "In the beginning,' 1 ' 1 at a period of the 
distant past unknown to mortals, " God," Elohim, the Almighty Trinity, f 

* The leading Scriptures referring to the Creation are :— Job xxxviii.-xli. ; Psalms viii., xix., 
civ.; Proverbs viii. 23-31 ; Isaiah xl. 12-31 : John i. 1-10 ; Colossians i. 16, 17 ; Hebrews i. 2, 3 : xi. 3. 
The following Scriptures tell us what God did before the Creation :— Matthew xxv. 34 ; Epheaians 
1 4 ; 2 Timothy i. 9. 

t Trinitarianism is essentially distinct from Trit heism, the first affirming' the Three-Oneness of 
God, and the second declaring that there are Three Gods. No Christian can be a Tritheist. The 
Oneness of God is the most certain fact and the most prominent article of revelation in all the 
book of Scripture and the book of Nature ; yet the Thbee-fold nature of this Oneness— the 
Trinity or Thbee-Oneness of God— is the second most prominent and important fact revealed in 
the Scriptures. It would be of no consequence to me that the great body of God's people from 
the beginning of the Christian era have held this doctrine, that all the oldest Baptist Confessions 
of Faith declare a belief in the Trinity of God, that ninety-nine-hundredths of the Primitive Bap- 
tists in the United States believe it, or even that my father believed it— if I did not think the doc- 
trine to be unmistakably taught in the Scriptures. The doctrine of the Trinity is obscurely re- 
vealed from the beginning of Genesis to the end of Malachi, and it is clearly revealed from the first 
of Matthew to the last of Bevelation. It underlies and penetrates the whole of Christian experi- 
ence from its beginning in the past eternity to its consummation in the eternity to come. The 
entire cause of the poor sinner's salvation is the electing love of God the Father, the redeeming 
love of God the Son, and the regenerating love of God the Spirit. Thirty times in the first chapter 
of Genesis— twenty- two hundred times in the Old Testament— is the plurality of the divine nature 
declared by the use of the word Elohim (which literally means The Mighty Ones) as the name of 
God (Elohim being the plural form of Ml, The Mighty One— not the dual form, meaning but two 
'or a pair, but plural, and the simplest plural oneness that is not two-fold is three-fold'), and in all 
theBe instances, where Elohim, referring to God, is the subject of a verb, or where a pronoun is 
used in reference to Elohim (except rarely, when there is an alluBion to polytheism), the verb and 
pronoun are in the singular number, proving the unity or oneness of the Divine plurality, as is 
also proved by the plural noun Elohim being combined with the singular noun Jehovah (the two 
names together being translated Lord God), twenty times in the second and third chapters of 
Genesis, and nearly three hundred times in the Old Testament. The plural unity of the divine 
nature is further shown by Genesis i. 26 : iii. 22 ; xi. 7 : Isaiah vi. 3, 8 ; Numbers vi. 24, 26, compared 
with 2 Corinthians xiii. 14 ; Exodus iii. 2, 6 ; Psalms ii ; xlv. 6, 7 ; ex. ; Isaiah ix. 6 ; Jeremiah xxin. 
6 : Zechariah xii. 10 ; xiii. 7 : Malachi iii. 1-4, compared with Matthew iii. 11, 12 ; Genesis l. 2 ; yi. 3.- 
Psalms civ. 30 ; exxxix. 7 ; Job xxvi. 13 ; Isaiah xlviii. 16 ; Matthew i. 18-25 : iii. 18-17 ; xxvm. 19 ; John 


Father, Word, and Spirit, the alone Eternal, Self -Existent Being, by an 
act of His sovereign will, and for the manifestation of His own glory 
(Col. i. 16; Rev. iv. 11), the highest conceivable motive, "created the 
heaven and the earth, 1 ' produced from non-existence the entire universe of 
matter and of mind (Acts xvii. 24.) Not one atom, not one spirit, through 
all the infinity of space, but owes its origin to God. Atoms, to which 
science reduces all matter, have, with their determinate weights and vol- 
umes, all the properties of "manufactured articles," and cannot, therefore, 
be eternal and self- existent, says Sir John Herschel, the finest* scientific 
intellect of the nineteenth century. The material forces, says the 
learned and accurate Carpenter, must, in the ultimate resort, be an ex- 
pression of will. Spirit unerringly points away from matter to a spiritual 
Father, God, says Dr. Emil du Bois-Reymond, the greatest* of living 

The ablest* minds have always referred the seen universe to an un- 
seen spiritual source ; and the facts of the seen universe continually direct 
the true scientific mind to that unseen Spirit. "Without revelation," 
says Prof. Tayler Lewis, " science is a valley of dry bones, and philosophy 
a land of darkness." All natural discoveries and theories, so far as 
eternity is concerned, have well been called " an awful nothingness." 

The spontaneous evolution of nothing into atoms, force and spirit, is 

xv. 26 : 1 John v. 7 ; Revelation i. 5, 6, 10 : xxii. 1, P, 17. It is not strictly Scriptural language to say 
that there are three -persona in the Godhead, although the primitive meaning of the term -person 
is character : and it seems to me being ' ' wise above what is written " to pay that the Three-One- 
nessofGodis a Three-Oneness, not oj' inward nature, but only of outward manifestation. God is 
unchangeably the same in both time and eternity. Christ says that there is an otherness as well as 
a oneness in the Godhead (John xiv. 9, 16, 28) ; and, unless this language of Christ be true, I fail 
utterly to see how there can be a real Father, a real Son and a real Spirit proceeding from Father 
and Son ; how the Father could send the Son and the Spirit into the world ; how the Son could 
pray to the Father and be answered by the Father ; how Christ could use the pronoun " I " in ref- 
erence to Himself, and ' ' Thou " in reference to the Father, and ' * He " in reference to the Spirit ; 
how, while Jesus was being baptized in Jordan, the Spirit descended as a dove upon Him, and the 
Father spoke to Him from heaven ; how Christ could require His disciples to baptize believers in 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Spirit; and how, after He re-ascended to glory, 
He could sit down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. These facts thoroughly satisfy my 
mind that there is an eternal Threeness as weU as an eternal Oneness in the divine nature— that 
there is something resembling a personal distinction between Father and Son and Spirit, while the 
distinction is not the same as that generaUy understood between persons, because Father and Son 
and Spirit are one. The nature of the Divine Being is the deepest mystery in all the universe, ana 
it eminently becomes all finite, fallible, and fallen creatures like ourselves, not to speculate upon 
the existence of the incomprehensible God— much less to persecute other mortals who cannot 
exactly pronounce our own favorite shibboleths on this unfathomable subject ; but to receive with 
childlike meekness and faith all that is revealed in the Scriptures in reference to God, our 
Heavenly Father, our Elder Brother, and our Blessed Comforter. We cannot understand how the 
Lord Jesus Christ can be, at the same time, perfect man and perfect God ; yet we believe in this 
duality of His nature. We cannot understand, though we are quite conscious of, the two-fold 
elements of our own nature, soul and body. In our present state, we understand nothing per- 
fectly—we know only in part ; but this does not prevent our believing thousands of facts, all of 
which are imperfectly understood. We no more understand the eternity, omnipresence, omni- 
potence and omniscience of God than we understand the Trinity of His being- but still we believe 
all these to be attributes of the Most High. ' ' The doctrine of the Trinity," says Prof. Philip 
Schaff, the most accurate and reliable of uninspired church historians, ' ' has been looked upon in 
all ages as the sacred symbol and the fundamental doctrine of the Christian church with the 
denial of which the divinity of Christ and the Holy Spirit, and the divine character of the work of 
• redemption and sanctification, fall to the ground. It distinguishes in the one and indivisible 
essence of God three hypostases or persons; at the same time allowing for the insufficiency of all 
human conception and words to describe such an unfathomable mystery. Sabellius is by far the 
most original, profound and ingenious of the ante-Nicene Unitarians, and his system the most 
plausible rival of orthodox Tnnitananism [it is alBO the least objectionable form of Unitarian- 
ism.] It revives from time to time in various modifications. It differs from the orthodox standard 
mainly in denying the trinity of essence and the permanence of the trinity of manifestation • mak- 
ing Father. Son and Holy Ghost only temporary phenomena, which fulfill their mission and re- 
turn into the abstract monad." A very few of our highly esteemed ministers and brethren seem 
to favor something like this view : but I do not believe that it is the view of one in a hundred of 
the Primitive Baptists in the United States. «uu.*i.c« w 

* In all things Christ must have the pre-eminence.— Colossians i. 18. 


the height of unscientific absurdity. " In prosecuting investigations into 
the origin of things," says President McCosh, "science comes to walls of 
adamant, which will not fall down at its command, and which if it tries 
to break through, will only prostrate it, and cause it to exhibit its weak- 
ness before the world." It cannot account for the origin of these five 
things : 1st, Matter with its forces ; 2d, life ; 3d, animal sensation or feel- 
ing ; 4th, mind ; 5th, conscience. 

Biogenesis, or the production of life only from life, is now the ac- 
cepted doctrine of science. No creature power can span that gulf of 
all gulf s— the mighty gulf between death and life. The answer to the 
riddle of life, says Tennyson, is 

" Behind the veil, behind the veil." 
To get rid of the necessity of an ever-living personal God, the unbeliever 
is actually reduced to the supreme folly of assuming that all matter is, 
in some sense, alive, conscious and immortal.— Stewart and Tait's Unseen 
Universe, pp. 248, 243. " Since the days of Democritus, atheism has run 
for shelter to the doctrine of atoms. Although the microscope has never 
made an approach to this mysterious domain, never having brought to 
light an atom, or a molecule, or even a molecular combination, yet here 
in this utterly unknown region, a false science pretends to find life, con- 
sciousness, memory, thought, imagination, reason, will — all that con- 
stitutes personality or individuality in our present state of being." 
" Science," says Dawson, " does not show the origin of new species, but 
only of new sub-species, varieties and races. The influence of a struggle 
for existence is greatly exaggerated by the Darwinian school ; it gives 
chiefly depauperated and degraded forms." The " survival of the fittest " 
has no other meaning than the " survival of the survivor," and explains 
nothing. In seeking to trace the genesis of man, evolutionists agree that 
some of the indispensable links in the chain are buried beneath sub- 
merged continents. But the most recent and accurate science declares 
that the same gulf which is found to-day between man and the ape goes 
back with undiminished breadth and depth to the first period of the age 
of mammals. 

Darwin, the leading naturalist of Europe, though he, contrary to 
human experience, reason and revelation, seeks to derive all animate be- 
ings from three or four, or even one species, yet admits that God must 
have created the first species. Herbert Spencer, the chief infidel philoso- 
pher of this century, dares not attempt to explain, in his pretentious 
Biology and Psychology, the first appearance of life or of mind, and con- 
fesses that he finds, beneath all phenomena, evidence of an unknown and 
unknowable power.* In a region of thick darkness he would kindly al- 

* Nineteenth-century Agnosticism (or religious know-nothingism) was first suggested in the 
antinomies of Kant, and was first taught in England by two ardent philosophic theists, Hamilton 
and Mansel, in the ethical spirit of Kant, but, as President Porter well remarks, has been traves- 
tied materialized and de-moralized by Spencer. Agnostic philosophy has as much reason to pro- 
nounce the mind of man unknown ana unknowable, because it cannot be discovered by scientific 
instruments, as to pronounce God unknown and unknowable because He cannot be so discovered. 
A real, an intelligent, and a morally -governed universe points unmistakably to a real, an intelll- 


low us the Athenian privilege of erecting an altar to the Great Unknown. 
Huxley, while acknowledging the unequalled morality of the Bible, would 
have the worship, at that altar, chiefly of the silent sort. And Tyndall, 
though pronouncing the first chapter of Genesis "a beautiful myth," de- 
clares that " no atheistic reasoning can dislodge religion from the human 

Neither of these four infidels is a geologist; and it is geology, more 
than any other science, that refers to the events described in the first 
chapter of Genesis. The three leading * American geologists, President 
J. W. Dawson, of McGill University, Montreal, Canada, Professor James 
D. Dana, of Yale College, Connecticut, and Professor Arnold Guyot, of 
Princeton College, New Jersey, as well as Professor W. C. Kerr, the late 
learned State Geologist of North Carolina, writing in the year 1882 to the 
junior author of this work, avow their unshaken belief in the perfect scien- 
tific accuracy of the first chapter of Genesis. 

If accurate, as undoubtedly it is, then it was a revelation from God 
to man, whether made first to Moses or to Adam or to Enoch ; for none 
but God knew of these events. And this divine revelation, made at least 
3,000 years before the rise of geology, stamps the whole book, of which it 
is the only appropriate and inseparable introduction, as divine. The 
manifest purpose of the Scriptures is not scientific, but much higher — it 
is moral and religious. " The first verse of the inspired volume places 
God, as the one all-sufficient Creator, on a height infinitely above every 
other being ; and it is well fitted to remind us of our dependence on Him, 
of our responsibility to Him, and of our obligation to submit to His 
authority, and to live for His glory." 

No fact of science is opposed to any statement of the Bible ; it is only 
the fallible, ever-changing, self-contradictory theories of some scientific 
men that are so opposed. Accurate observers are sometimes very inaccu- 
rate reasoners. The utter absurdity and inconsistency of some of the 
latest theories of scientists may be plainly seen by reference to A. Wil- 
ford Hall's Problem of Human Life Mere and Hereafter, Judge J. B. 
Stallo's Concepts and Theories of Modern Physics, the 38th volume of the 
International Scientific Series, published in 1882, and Samuel Wainwright's 
Scientific Sophisms, published in 1883. 

"With all their scientific attainments," says Schellen (Spectrum 
Analysis, pp. 337-8), "the deepest astronomical thinkers have, in regard 
to the stars, the same feeling as the little child : 
'"Twinkle, twinkle, little star, 
How I wonder what you are ! ' " 

gent, and a moral Creator and Governor. A child may know something truly of God but an angel 
cannot know Him fully. " They who know the least of him," admirably remarks President 
MeCosh, "have in this the most valuable of all knowledge ; they who know the most know but 
little after all of his glorious perfections." In the hands of a few inaccurate, dogmatic and unre- 
liable leaders, and their weak, ignorant and credulous followers. Agnosticism (know-nothingism) 
has turned into Gnosticism, or Pan- Gnosticism (know-all-ism), whose arrogant pretensions to 
omniscience are, in the minds of all thinkingmen, as ridiculous as they are incredible. 

* In all things Christ must have the pre-eminence.— Colossians i. 18. 


In reference to all the most interesting and important truths of the 
stellar worlds, the skies are as silent to men as of old. 

The theories (not the facts) of geology seem to violate the laws of 
logic in basing inferences upon local, partial and negative evidence, and 
to commit the fallacy of the vicious circle in deducing the age of strata 
from the age of the contained fossils, and then deducing the age of the 
fossils from the age of the containing strata. And theoretical astronomy 
and geology are at swords' points to-day in regard to both the internal 
fluidity and the antiquity of the earth. Geology maintains that the earth 
consists of a thin crust or shell full of an intensely heated molten mass ; 
while astronomy maintains that the visible crust of the earth is only one- 
half as dense and solid as the interior. Geology has been insisting that the 
earth is at least a thousand million years old, and even now maintains 
that it is a hundred millions ; while mathematical astronomy inexorably 
reduces the age of the earth to about twenty or even less than ten million 
years.— Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th edition, vol. 10, p. 227. Thus the 
uniformitarian theory, which Sir Charles Lyell spent his whole life to 
prove, has to be abandoned, and the announcement is made in the highest 
scientific circles that the whole foundation of theoretical geology must be 
reconstructed. With the reduction of the earth's age, and the overthrow 
of uniformitarianism, the entire system of an accidental godless evolution 
falls to the ground. Thus Jehovah still sets the swords of the Midianites 
against each other, and vindicates His cause on earth. 

True science is always modest. Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest* 
scientist that ever lived, said, a short time before his death, " I do not 
know what I may appear to the world ; but to myself I seem to have been 
only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and 
then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, while the 
great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me." He did not seem 
to fear that, if he had been permitted to navigate that ocean, he would 
have been in danger of making shipwreck of his faith. He was a 
firm believer in the inspiration of the Scriptures. Humboldt, the most 
distinguished savant of the present century, admits that the challenge of 
God to Job (Job xxxviii.-xli.)has never yet been answered. As in ancient 
Ernies, man is "of yesterday, and knows nothing." — Job viii. 9. "If any 
man think that he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought 
to know." — 1 Cor. viii. 2. " Now we see through a glass darkly, and 
know" only "in part." — 1 Cor. xiii. 12. So that humility is the cardinal 
virtue as well of reason as of revelation. 

Moses, the meekest and greatest character in all antiquity before the 
coming of Christ, and a prophet like unto Christ (Num. xii. 3; Deut. xviii. 
15), was the undoubted author of the Pentateuch (including Genesis), and 
the lawgiver of Israel and civilization. Christ gives Moses and the other 
Old Testament writers all the weight of His own divine authority. — Matt. 

* In all things Christ must have the pre-eminence.— Colossians ■. 18. 


xvii. 3 ; Luke xxiv. 44. "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," says 
the glorified Abraham, " neither will they he persuaded though one rose 
from the dead."— Luke xvi. 81. The Bible is the great standing miracle 
of history. 

The Mosaic narrative of creation is the oldest of human records, the 
original of all cosmogonies, incomparably superior to all the monstrous 
pagan and infidel evolutionary cosmogonies, which derive all objects from 
one unaided and eternal nature, while Genesis represents God as the Great 
First Cause and Governor of nature. " In its great antiquity, its unac- 
countableness, its serene truthfulness, its unapproachable sublimity, its 
divine majesty and ineffable holiness, the Mosaic record towers high and 
forever above all human productions." 

The old monumental Assyrian records, lately recovered and deci- 
phered by G. Smith, H. Eawlinson and A. H. Sayce, while corrupted with 
many human and polytheistic errors, substantially confirm the Mosaic ac- 
counts of the creation, man's original innocence, temptation, fall and 
curse, and his subsequent great depravity, and the deluge; just as the 
leading facts of Exodus are corroborated by the monuments of Egypt. 

The creation of the universe was a series of stupendous miracles or 
supernatural acts, surpassing and introducing all the other natural mira- 
cles of the Bible. So science finds infinite depths in nature, inexplicable 
mysteries or miracles everywhere. For He who first made still upholds 
all things by His omnipresent and omnipotent power, and the world by 
wisdom knows Him not. — Heb. i. 3^; 1 Cor. i. 21. " Through faith we un- 
derstand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things 
which are seen were not made of things which do appear." — Heb. xi. 3. 
And "the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are 
clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His 
eternal power and Godhead ; so that they [men] are without excuse." — 
Bom. i. 20. "I had rather believe," says Bacon, "all the fables in the 
Legend, the Talmud and the Alcoran, than that this universal frame is 
without a mind." Even Cicero remarks that "those works of nature 
which require the minds of so many philosophers to explore them could 
not have existed without some greater mind at the bottom." The exis- 
tence of God has been believed by the greatest minds that have ever ap- 
peared on earth— Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, 
Bacon, Copernicus, Kepler, Euler, Newton, Leibnitz, Shakespeare, Butler, 
Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hall, Johnson, Kant, Napoleon, Coleridge, 
Davy, Chalmers, Miller, Faraday, Herschel, Guizot, Maury and Agassiz, 
in addition to the gifted characters mentioned in the Scriptures. It is, 
according to the Psalmist, only the "fool" who " says in his heart, There 
is no God."— Psalm xiv. 1. Infidelity or atheism has its seat, not so 
much in the head as in the heart. " The argument of Butler's Analogy 
is," says John Stuart Mill, the representative infidel of England, " from 
its own point of view, conclusive ; the Christian religion is open to no ob- 
jections, either moral or intellectual, which do not apply at least equally 


to the common theory of deism." And so the leading American infidel 
confesses that if there be a God of nature, the God of the Bible is He.— 
North American Review, vol. cxxxiii., No. 2, p. 113. 

Haeckel, of Germany, runs full tilt against the common sense of the 
whole human race in maintaining the dysteleology or purposelessness of 
all things. Countless instances of design throughout the universe demon- 
strate not only the existence, but the infinite power, wisdom, goodness 
and holiness of the supreme, designing, creative Spirit. The unity of the 
Great First Cause is proved by the unity of plan, purpose and result ; and 
the omnipresence, omnipotence, immutability and perfection of God are" 
shown by the universal operation of His unchanging laws. 

Three of the leading peculiarities of the character of God, as vividly 
portrayed to us in the first chapter of Genesis, and also in the remainder 
of the Bible, are His individual personality, His infinite sovereignty, and 
His almighty power. Instead of an unconscious impersonal force, He is 
as strictly a person as was Adam. He creates, He speaks, He sees, He 
hears, (Psalm xciv. 9, 10,) He enters into a covenant with man, and pun- 
ishes man for his disobedience. With no being to counsel Him, (Isaiah 
xl. 13,) He creates and fashions all things, sun, moon, stars, world, plants, 
animals and men, according to His own will and pleasure (Rev. iv. 11 ; 
Daniel iv. 25, 35 ; 1 Timothy vi. 15 ; Romans ix. 15-26) ; and He has but to 
Speak and it is done, to command and it stands fast. — Psalm xxxiii. 9. 

According to the infallible testimony of the inspired volume, God is 
the Most High and the Most Holy; inhabiting eternity; immeasurably 
transcending in rank and in moral purity all the orders of His creation, 
men, angels, archangels, cherubim, seraphim, thrones, dominions, princi- 
palities and powers; dwelling in light unapproachable; and reigning 
sovereignly and majestically over the universe forever and forevermore, 
through all the eternities of the eternities. " Contrasted with the living 
ideas of these sublime reverberations, the interminable rows of concep- 
tionless decimals used by science, our millions and billions, are like the 
barren x y z of a frigid algebraic computation, as compared with the end- 
less *e-echoings of Handel's Hallelujah Chorus." 

There is a deep and instructive significance in the names of God and 
Christ given in the Bible. I find that, of the 9,788 times that the names 
translated God or Lord occur in the Old Testament, Elohim (God) occurs 
2,225 times, Jehovah (Lord) 6,521 times, Jehovah Elohim (Lord God) 298 
times, and other* Hebrew names of God 744 times ; and that, of the 3,232 
times that the names translated God or Lord or Christ or Jesus occur in 
the ftew Testament, Theos (Elohim or God) occurs 1,277 times, Kurios 
(Jehovah or Lord) 691 times, Jesus (Jehovah-Savior) 709 times, Christ 
(Messiah or Anointed) 304 times, Jesus Christ 197 times, Christ Jesus 47 
times, and other Greek names of God 7 times. Or, of the 13,020 times that 
the divine name occurs in the Bible, 6,521 plus 298 plus 691 plus 709 plus 

* Three of the other oldest divine names in Genesis are El Giant (the Eternal), El Shadrlai (the 
Omnipresent), and El Elioun (the Most Hitfh), corresponding to time, space and decree. 


197 plus 47, or 8,463 times (which is about two-thirds of all the times it 
occurs), it either is or contains the name Jehovah or its equivalent.* 

EloMm (Theos or God) signifies Almighty, and is the general name of 
God in relation to the world, as the Creator, Sustainer and Governor of 
all things. It occurs thirty times in the first chapter of Genesis, and is 
the only name of God in that chapter. It is in the plural number, the 
plural of majesty and the plural of essence (including Father, Word and 
Spirit— Gen. i. 26; iii. 22; xi. 7; Matt, xxviii. 19); and, though plural, it 
is, when referring to the true God, always, with the rarest exceptions, 
where there is a partial reference to polytheism, joined to a singular verb r 
showing the unity of the Godhead. So Christ is the general name of the 
Messiah or Mediator. 

But Jehovah's (Kurios or Lord) signifies, according to God's own in- 
terpretation, I Am That I Am (Exodus iii. 14), that is, the Eternal Un- 
changeable Being (Malachi iii. 6; James i. 17 ; Kev. i. 8), the Covenant- 
God (Gen. ii. 16, 17; xv. 18; Numbers x. 33), and is the nearer, tenderer, 
more personal name that God bears towards all His chosen people; it 
occurs in the phrase Jehovah Elohim (Lord God), showing that Jehovah 
and Elohim are but different names of the same Being — twenty times in 
the second and third chapters of Genesis. So Jesus (Jehovah-Savior) is 
the nearer, tenderer, and more personal name of the Mediator ; and, being 
one with Jehovah (John x. 30), He is " the same yesterday, and to-day, 
and forever " (Heb. xiii. 8.) Indeed, it was the " Angel of Jehovah," or 
Christ, who appeared and spoke to Moses out of the burning bush (Exod. 
iii. 2), and in the fourteenth verse is called God, and announces as His 
name I Am Tliat I Am, and who said to the Jews, " Before Abraham 
was, I Am" (John viii. 58.) 

Thus 8,463 times in the Bible is the everlasting unchangeableness 
of God towards His dear children affirmed even in the Divine Name ; God 
" abideth faithful, and cannot deny Himself '" (2 Tim. ii. 13.) The Moon, 
representing the Church, may apparently change, and is always thus chang- 
ing; t but the Sun of Righteousness, which arises with healing in His wings 
upon all that fear His name (Malachi iv. 2), shines with the same resplen- 
dence forever. Having loved Israel with an everlasting love, God draws her 

*The theories of the various authorship of Genesis, as based on the use of the two names, 
Elnhim and Jehovah, are full of self-contradiction, absurdity and impossibility— McCaul in Aids 
to Faith, pp. 220-8: Lanoe's Genesis, pp. 105-9. 

t This incommunicable name of the God of Israel the Jews feared to pronounce, and called it 
simply ' ' the name, " or " the name of four letters " (yodh he vav he), the great and terrible 
name," "the peculiar name," 'the separate name," and shsm kamtnepkorash, "the name re- 
vealed." In reading, they always substituted for it the word Adonai, Lord, 

t Notwithstanding the Moon's phases, or changes of appearance, caused by her roundness, 
opacity derivation of all her light from the Sun, and her monthly rotation upon her axis, she is 
probably the most fixed, unchanging conservative body in nature— so should the church be ■ not- 
withstanding her frequent changes of frames and feelings, still her doctrine and practice and de- 
votion to the cause of God should be absolutely unchangeable. While the Sun causeB the purif y- 
ing currents of the air, the Moon is the chief cause of the tidal ocean waves which constantly 
cleanse the inpouring rivers of their pollutions. This office of an ever-active sanitary commis- 
sioner is one of the most important functions that the Moon subserves towards the earth— so the 
church, like the salt of the earth, should keep her garments unspotted from the world and thus 
exercise a salutary influence upon those without. Her light, which all comes from the Sun of 
Righteousness, should shine in the night of the world, so that men may see her good worlrs and 
glorify her Father in heaven. n UU «,««i 


with his loving -kindness, makes an everlasting covenant with her, ordered in 
all things and sure, puts His fear and law in her mind and heart, forgives 
and forgets her sins, to the praise of His glorious grace, rejoices to do her 
good, and declares that ivith His whole heart and soul He will assuredly plant 
her in the heavenly Canaan ( Jer. xxxi. 3, 31-37 ; xxxii. 36-41.) Well might 
the poet sing : — 

" How firm a foundation, ye eaints of the Lord, 
Is laid for your faith in His excellent word ! 

What more can He say than to you He hath said, , 

Tou who unto Jesus for refuge have fled V 

" E'en down to old age all my people shall prove 
My sovereign, eternal, unchangeable love ; 
And when hoary hairs shall their temples adorn, 
Like lambs shall they still in my bosom be borne. 

" The soul that on Jesus hath leaned for repose, 
I will not, I will not desert to his foes ; 
That soul, though all hell should endeavor to shake, 
I'll never, no never, no never forsake." 

Jeremiah, the prophet of sorrow, uses this dear name of the Covenant 
God 728 times, which is more frequently than any other inspired writer ; 
and the name Jehovah occurs next oftenest in the Psalms, 681 times. We 
are thus taught that, in our sorroivs and in our devotions, we should espe- 
cially address ourselves to God as the Unchangeable King of Zion, our 
Everlasting Father and Friend. 

The Hehrew word translated created is Bara, and occurs 45 times in 
the Old Testament ; its Greek equivalent, Ktizo, occurs 35 times in the 
New Testament. Bara is the strongest word in the Hebrew language to 
express making out of nothing {Gesenius 1 Thesaurus), and it always conveys 
the idea of something new. The only subject of this verb in the Bible is 
God ; He only can create. Four times in the Old Testament (Psalm li. 
10; Isaiah lxv. 17, 18), and four times in the New Testament (Ephesians 
ii. 10; iv. 34; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15), it denotes a spiritual creation, of 
which God is the author. Bara occurs in three verses of the first chapter 
of Genesis (verses 1, 21 and 27), in speaking of the creation of the universe, 
of animal life, and of man. Everywhere else in that chapter God is said 
to have simply made or formed (asah or yatzar) from an already created 

To account for the origin of evil, Plato imagined that evil was inher- 
ent in matter, and that matter was independent of God, and therefore 
eternal, and not created ; the most of the false philosophical religions are 
thus dualistic. But the first verse of Genesis tells us that God created all 
things ; and the third chapter of Genesis implies that evil or sin origin- 

* The phrase " created and made " {Bara and Asah) in Genesis ii. 3, proves conclusively that 
these words do not mean the same thing. The literal rendering of the Hebrew, as given in the 
margin, is " created to make, " that is, produced out of nothing (.Bara) in order to form or fashion 
or prepare (Aaah). 


ated from the ungodly exercise of creaturely free-will. Sin is, not an at- 
tribute of matter, but of spirit. The most holy God is not in any sense 
its cause or author (Gen. xviii. 25 ; Job xv. 15 ; Psalm cxlv. 17 ; Habak. i. 
13 ; 1 John i. 5)— such a thought were the most awful blasphemy. Man's 
body, as created, was very good (Gen. i. 31) and not sinful. Christ's body 
was never the seat of sin (Luke i. 35; Heb. vii. 26); and the glorified 
bodies of the saints shall be free from sin.— Rom. vi. 7 ; 1 Cor. xv. 42 ; 
Phil. iii. 21 ; Rev. xxi. 4, 27. 

God is the only eternal Being revealed to us in the Scriptures. — Gen. 
i. 1 ; Deut. xxxiii. 27 ; Isa. lvii. 15 ; Romans i. 20 ; 1 Timothy i. 17 ; vi. 16. 
Angels, as well as men and animals, are His creatures (Psalm civ. 4 ; Heb. 
i. 6, 7; Rev. xxii. 8, 9) ; and all God's creatures were "very good" when 
He made them. — Gen. i. 31. When and where angels were created, has 
not been revealed to us. Some of them, the non-elect (1 Tim. v. 21), kept 
not their first estate, but sinned, and left their own habitation,* and are 
now reserved by God in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judg- 
ment of the great day. — 2 Peter ii. 4; Jude 6. There is, therefore, no re- 
demption or salvation for them. Our Lord speaks of them as " the devil 
and his angels." — Matt. xxv. 41. We learn from Paul that pride was the 
condemnation of the devil. — 1 Timothy iii. 6. Left to his own free will, 
instead of worshiping, he rebelled against the Son of God. — Hebrews i. 6 ; 
Matt. iv. 9. In the form of a serpent he tempted Eve (Gen. iii. 1-7, 14, 15) ; 
and he is the prince of darkness (Eph. vi. 2), the god of this world (2 Cor. 
iv. 4), the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in 
the children of disobedience (Eph. ii. 2), who deceiveth the whole world 
(Rev. xii. 9); is the everlasting enemy of Christ and His people, as shown 
by his names, Satan (adversary) and Devil (accuser), and as proved by all 
the Scriptures ; and he will finally be bruised forever under the feet of 
Christ and His church (Gen. iii. 15 ; Rom. xxi. 20), cast into the bottomless 
pit (Rev. xx. 2, 3), and consigned to everlasting fire (Matt. xxv. 41). 

In the first chapter of Genesis, and elsewhere, when speaking of 
natural things, the language of the Bible is simple and phenomenal, or 
according to the first appearances of things to our senses (Heb. xi. 3). It 
is the language of common life, for all seeing eyes and all conceiving 
minds of all countries and ages. Scientific language, which, however, is 
also phenomenal, is a little further removed from the senses; but, as 
human science advances, has to be perpetually corrected; and, in our 
present state, can never reach the ultimate fact, and would have been 
unintelligible for thousands of years ; it is, therefore, entirely unsuitable 
to Scripture. 

While the general agreement of the Mosaic record of creation and 
geology is very apparent^first, light and moisture as prerequisites of 
vegetation, then the latter as the antecedent food of animals, then ani- 
mals in an ascending gradation, and lastly man as the superior being for 

•The word " heaven," in Luke x. 18 and Revelation xii. 7. is believed hv th« v. oa + D »i in™ *« 

refer, not to the glorified state, but to the chureh militant. Dy tae best scholars to 


whom the earth had been made and furnished ; still, as geological knowl- 
edge is yet very imperfect, no detailed adjustment of the two accounts 
thus far made is entirely satisfactory. There are two leading methods of 

The first method considers that there was a long period, ending with 
a chaotic catastrophe, between the first and second verses of Genesis, and 
buries all the past geological ages in that vacuum, and maintains that 
Moses simply describes the creation of the present species of plants and 
animals — his object not being to give a full scientific account of the earth, 
but only to describe briefly the creation of the objects contemporaneous 
with man, and then enter upon the religious history of man. It is claimed 
by most Bible scholars that this method is the least objectionable and 
most respectable. 

The second method of reconciling Genesis and geology considers the 
creative days coincident with the geological eras, and is preferred by 
Christian scientists and some eminent scriptural students. These har- 
monists maintain that the word yom, translated day (very much like the 
English word day), is the most common Hebrew word for an indefinite 
period — as in the phrases, day of God's wrath, day of His power, day of 
calamity, day of salvation, etc.; that it has three different meanings in 
the Mosaic account of creation — in chapter i., verses 5 and 14, meaning first 
the period of light, and then the period of light and darkness, and in 
chapter ii., verse 4, meaning the whole creative week ; that the first six 
days are God's days of work, and the seventh His day of rest, which is 
not yet ended (Heb. iii. and iv.); that the evening of the first day seems 
to have been the past eternity of darkness, while the morning of the sev- 
enth divine day, or Sabbath, has scarcely yet dawned upon the world, 
God still resting or ceasing from creation, but carrying on His Sabbath 
Day's work of redemption ; that God is eternal, and His days are long ; 
that "one day with the Lord is as athousand years" (2Peteriii. 8); that in 
the 90th Psalm, which was written by Moses, the author of Genesis, the 
inspired penman, just after speaking of the creation of the earth, declares 
that " a thousand years in God's sight are but as yesterday when it is 
past, and as a watch in the night ; " that the days and weeks of prophecy 
(in Daniel and Revelation) are vast and extraordinary periods like those 
of creation ; that the ineffable character of the creative days was asserted 
by early Christian writers long before geology was thought of ; that there 
is no mention of a sun to divide the creative days until the fourth day, so 
that the last three, like the first three, must have been, not sun-divided, 
but God-divided days ; that the language of the fourth commandment 
(Ex. xx. 11) is but the repetition of the language of Genesis, and throws 
no light upon the meaning besides implying that man's Sabbath should be 
like God's, one-seventh of his week or working-time; and that, while 
God is almighty and could, therefore, have created all things instantane- 
ously, He did not choose to do so, but took six days for the work, and 
those days, in accordance with the general vastness of the whole subject, 


may have been vast periods, in accordance with the indications of the 
fossiliferous rocky crust of the earth twenty miles in thickness, made by 
God, and full of the remains of long since extinct plants and animals. 
The latest and ablest writers of this class * consider the first and second 
creative days coincident with the azoic (lifeless) period of geology ; the 
third and fourth creative days with the eozoic (dawn-life) period, the age 
of primitive plants ; the fifth day coincident with the pakeozoic (ancient- 
life) and mesozoic (middle-life) periods, the ages of mollusks, fishes, rep- 
tiles and birds ; the sixth day, the cenozoic (recent-life) period (or tertiary 
and quaternary), the age of mammals, including, at the close, the creation 
of man ; the seventh day, the period of human history ; and the eighth day, 
the period of the new heavens and new earth, the Sabbath or rest that re- 
mains to the people of God. 

After Moses tells us that In the beginning God created the heaven and 
the earth, he says : — And the earth was without form and void; and darkness 
xcas upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face 
of the waters. Both in Scripture and in science, the earth is, of all worlds, 
the most important to us now, and therefore more is said about it than 
about any other. When first made the earth was a desolate, uninhabited 
and dark vaporous or aeriform mass ; and so would it have remained for- 
ever but for the omnipotent outgoing of God's light-and-life-creating 
Spirit (Job xxvi. 13; Psalm civ. 30). That Spirit moved (or lovingly, 
cherishingly, vivifyingly hovered, brooded, throbbed) over the dark, dead, 
chaotic mass, and quickened and energized it. And God said, Let there 
be light; and there was light. God's Spirit and word co-operate in the 
work. Light is the immediate result of molecular activity, and is one of 
the most mysterious and glorious works of creation. Science does not yet 
know what light is. The prevailing undulatory theory is but a revival of 
the old Aristotelian notion, and even now in the so-called broad light of 
almost the twentieth century of the Christian era, makes the most inad- 
missible demands upon our credulity in asking us to believe in the exist- 
ence of an adamantine solid, called luminiferous ether, pervading all 
space and matter, and exerting upon each square inch a pressure of seven- 
teen million million pounds (Stallo's Modern Physics, pp. 115, 116). Per- 
sons who can believe such insane imaginations have no right to ridicule 
the faith of those who accept the truths of God's written revelation. The 
Hebrew word Aur, translated light, includes light, heat, and electricity, 
the three prime forces of matter. " Throughout the Scriptures light is 
not only good, but an emblem of a higher good— spiritual enlightenment." 
God divided the light from the darkness, and called the light Bay, and the 
darkness Night ; and the evening and the morning were the first day. Dark- 
ness having preceded the light, evening is mentioned before morning. 
According to the divine arrangement, gravitation now began to act, so 
that the rotary motion of the earth around its axis was begun, and that 

Lewilfstx r?aylS e or 1 e a °io? ai ' a ' S ManUal ° f Geol °^- Dawson's Origin of the World, and Tayler 


part of the earth turned toward the source of light (perhaps the nebulous 
mass afterwards concentrated into the sun) had day, and, as the earth 
continued to rotate, a few hours afterwards the same part had darkness.* 
In Deuteronomy iv. 19, and xvii. 3, the sun and moon and stars are called 
" the host of heaven." These bodies are, therefore, included in the term 
" heaven " in the first verse of Genesis ; and from the fact that heaven is 
mentioned first, as well as from Job xxxviii. 4-7, we infer that the sun 
and moon and stars were " created " before the earth, although not 
"made "or completed, and fitted for their proper functions, until the 
fourth day. This view is confirmed by the use of Bara (create) in the 
first verse, but of Asah (make or form) in the sixteenth verse. It is the 
opinion of the most of scientific men, as expressed in the nebular hypothe- 
sis, that the entire solar system was at first one incandescent mass, which 
by rotation threw off rings that formed planets and satellites ; and the 
latter, being smaller, became cool and opaque, while the central mass re- 
mained hot and luminous, and was gradually condensed into the sun. 
The thick waters (verse second) or watery or nebulous clouds or photos- 
phere around the earth at that early period, such as are still around the 
distant major planets of the solar system, made the space near the earth 
barely translucent to the feeble light of the unformed or uncondensed sun 
— that space not becoming transparent to the solar light, or the earth not 
sufficiently cooling and its photosphere not disappearing, and the heavenly 
bodies not becoming visible in the firmament, until the work of the sec- 
ond and third days was finished, and the sun and moon were completed 
on the fourth day. 

On the second day God made the firmament, and divided the waters- 
above from the waters below, and called the firmament heaven. Bakia, 
translated firmament (from raka, to spread out), signifies, not solidity,! 
but an expanse — the atmosphere — in which fowls fly (verse 20). The earth- 
being still intensely heated, the lower strata of air became warmer and 
lighter than the upper, and continually ascended, and, becoming cooler, 
deposited their invisible vapor in the form of visible mist or cloud, while 
between these clouds and the surface of the earth there was a stratum of 
clear air ; and the earth radiating its heat into space, and cooling, and 
crusting over, much of the moisture was deposited, in the form of water, 
on its solid surface. Some think that the work of the second day was the 
individualizing of the earth, or the making it an independent sphere, by 
separating it from the general mass of the solar system. Many able 

* Some suppose that the light of the first three days was entirely cosmical or worldly, the re- 
sult and sign of terrestrial chemical action, the earth being:, during the most of that time, in- 
tensely heated and self-luminous : and that, by the alternation of darkness and light on those 
days, the sacred historian, speaking anticipatively, means that that rotation of the earth on its 
axis was then carried on, which, after the appearance of the sun on the fourth day, produced the 
alternation of night and day. 

t The phenomenal appropriateness of even the old Greek and Latin translations otrakia 
(stereoma, and Jtrmameviivm, something firm or solid), from which our English rendering firma- 
ment is derived, is finely illustrated by the following passage in Prof. Tyndall's address before 
the British Association. August, 1868: "The blue of the sky is as uniform and coherent as if it 
formed the surface of thembst close-grained solid; a marble dome would not exhibit a stricter- 


physicists believe that the ether supposed to fill the interplanetary spaces 
is merely an excessive expansion and attenuation of the atmospheres and 
aqueous vapors of the planets. 

On the third day God collected the waters previously covering the 
surface of the globe into seas, and made the dry land or earth appear, and 
caused the earth to bring forth vegetation. From Job xxxviii. 7 and Psalm 
«iv. 6-9, as well as from science, we infer that, by the action of subter- 
raneous forces, God uplifted the lower sedimentary (Azoic) rocks where 
He designed to make continents, and depressed them into vast hollows 
where He designed to make oceans and seas, and the water all over the 
earth ran into these basins, while the dry land was left to itself. Then 
God caused the earth to bring forth grasses, herbs, and trees* — the three 
divisions of the vegetable kingdom — each species distinct from its kind, 
and having its seed in itself for future propagation. The language of 
Moses here is in strict accordance with scientific facts, though opposed to 
the evolutionary theories of a, false science (1 Tim. vi. 20). According to all 
human observation, each species of vegetable (as well as of animal) life is 
distinct — is " permanently reproductive, variable within narrow limits, 
but incapable of permanent intermixture with other species." We learn 
from Genesis ii. 4, o, that God, the author of life, created the life of each 
vegetable before it was in the earth, t All life comes directly from Him 
in whom we live and move and have our being (Acts xvii. 25, 28). Science 
sustains Moses in representing plants to have been created before ani- 
mals. For the lowest stratified rocks contain large quantities of organic 
limestone and graphite-carbon, results of plant life ; the cooling earth 
was at first more fitted for plants than animals ; vegetation was needed to 
rid the atmosphere of an excess of carbonic acid, and supply its place with 
oxygen for animals; and vegetation is the necessary food of animals 
(Dana's Manual of Geology). 

On the fourth day God is said by Moses, not to have " created " [Bar a), 
"but to have "made" (AsahJ, that is, formed and prepared, the sun, moon 
and stars, for two great purposes— to give light and to divide time. He 
^'created" (JBara) the heaven, or heavenly bodies, "in the beginning;" 
but they were not completed for their present functions till the fourth 
day, at which time the atmosphere was so purified as to be transparent, 
•or the photosphere of the earth almost disappeared, and the sun and moon 
and stars were clearly visible in the sky. The word "made" is supplied 
before " the stars ; " and the reference seems parenthetical. Why this 
work was postponed to the fourth day, we do not know, says Prof. Tayler 
Lewis any more than why Christ's advent was postponed to the fourth 

•.> * Th . e v. w ? rd ^he translated grass in our version, literally means svroutaae and ia believed to 
denote the lowest order of the vegetable kingdom cryptogams, or flowerless plants which produce 
minute spores instead of seeds-such as seaweeds, fungi, lichens mosses fiSsi %.7„ #£; Sr I 
esebh i rendered herb denotes the higher order of plants Called phaSoglms ^opwaWbTsX 
and this order includes fruit-trees, which were created last. 6 ' ("opagatea Dy seeds; 

t Sir Wm. Thomson and Prof . Helmholtz, seeking to acconnt for the origin of the first veo-etn. 
H e se 5. d A,°? th< 5 ^ Tth - ""PP™? that they dropped from some passing meTeor or comet Tuft m 
though their origin on such a body did not need to be accounted for. """""^ or comet, just as 


millennium of man's history, or why so large a part of the earth is even 
now a desert or a watery waste, and still a moral chaos. . The light of the 
solar system is not even yet wholly concentrated into the sun, but much 
of it streams out, in his chromosphere and then in his corona, nearly two 
millions of miles from his surface. Not only were the heavenly bodies 
intended by the Creator to give us light, but to be our standard measures- 
of time, dividing it into days and months and seasons * and years, a most 
important use for all the duties and relations of life. Moses dwells more 
upon the formation of the heavenly bodies than of any other object be- 
sides man — probably to teach us that, although the sun, moon and stars 
are the most splendid objects that we behold, still they are not gods to be 
worshiped (Deut. iv. 19 and xvii. 3), but are the creatures, like all other 
things, of the great invisible God, who made them, in part, at least, for 
the benefit of man, and who absolutely controls them according to His 
sovereign will and pleasure. In the language of the Psalmist, "The 
heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showethHis handi- 
work" (xix. 1). " They continue this day according to His ordinances; 
for all are His servants" (Psalm cxix. 91). The heavenly bodies were made 
by God for "signs," also. In their steadfast and permanent radiance, they 
are glorious emblems of the permanent steadfastness of their Creator's grace 
towards all His covenant people (Jer. xxxi. 35-37 ; Psalms lxxii. 5 ; lxxxiv. 11; 
lxxxix. 36, 37 ; Isa. lx. 20 ; Mai. iv. 2 ; Matt. viii. 43 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6 ; Rev. i. 16). 
On the fifth day God caused the waters to bring forth fish and reptiles, 
and formed out of the ground (Gen. ii. 19) fowls to fly in the open heaven — 
these being the lower forms of animal life. " Moving " creature is more 
properly rendered, in the margin, "creeping" creature, or reptile; and 
"let fowl fly above the earth" is the more correct marginal rendering (in 
verse 20). For the second time in this chapter, the word "created" 
(Bara) is used, and now in reference to the great forms of animal life, 
such as the huge saurian reptiles, especially the crocodile (here rendered 
"whales," but elsewhere, in the Old Testament, rendered "serpents," 
" dragons," and meaning crocodile in at least two passages (Ezek. xxix. 3 
and xxxii. 2). Moses was familiar with the degrading Egyptian worship 
of the crocodile, and therefore here takes especial occasion to declare that 
this animal , instead of being a god, is, like all other great animal mon- 
sters, but " an humble creature " of the true God. From a critical exam- 
ination of the language of Moses, and from scientific knowledge, Presi- 
dent Dawson concludes that " the prolific animals of the fifth day's crea- 
tion belonged to the three Cuvierian sub-kingdoms of the Eadiata, Articu- 

* There was no change of seasons on the earth till the sun appeared and produced such change 
on the fourth day. Before that period there was a very warm and moist but equable temperature 
over the whole globe; either because the internal heat of the earth was then greater near the sur- 
face, or because the dense aqueous vapors around the earth better retained the heat of the uncon- 
densed nebulous mass which was afterwards made into the sun. Such a climate was exactly 
adapted to the production of the abundant, gigantic and pulpy vegetation, the ferns and lyco- 
podiums, chiefly characterizing the carboniferous period, similar to the present climate and flora 
of some of the islands of the tropics, where it rains 300 days in the year. When the sun blazed 
forth in all his glory on the fourth day, and began the change of seasons, there was a great in- 
crease of ligneous or woody tissue in vegetation, as shown by the fossil plants of the Permian 


lata and Mollusca, and to the classes of fish and reptiles * among th6 
vertebrata." Birds also were then first created. Their numerous foot- 
steps and skeletons are first found in the Oolitic and Wealden rocks of 
the reptilian age, or mesozoic period. The miraculous accuracy of Moses 
may be clearly seen by a comparison of his narrative, at this point, with 
the latest works on geology. Only the God who created birds could have 
inspired Moses to tell exactly when they were created. " The Creator, on 
;the fifth day, recognizes the introduction of sentient animal life by bless- 
: i(7 this new work of his hands." During the period of the fifth day, "in 
the warm and moist atmosphere, overcharged with carbonic acid gas, 
humble cryptogams attained to the size of stately forest trees, and luxu- 
riant ferns and kindred plants, being slowly submerged by oscillations of 
the land and covered with deposits of mud and sand, were transformed 
into coal ; and thus the land being repeatedly and slowly raised and sub- 
merged, and numerous other similar forests growing and being car- 
bonized, the vast coal-beds so precious to civilized man were formed. In 
this manner, also, the carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere was fixed in 
the coal-beds, and the oxygen was returned to the atmosphere for the 
furtherance of animal life." 

On the sixth day God caused the earth to bring forth the land animals, 
especially the herbivorous and carnivorous mammalia, or quadrupeds, a 
higher order of animals than those made on tho fifth day ; and afterwards, 
on the same (sixth) day, He created (Bara) man in His own image, and 
made him, under the Supreme Lawgiver, the delegated ruler of this lower 
world. In the tertiary rocks of the cenozoic period we see the gigantic 
skeletons of megatheria, mammoths, mastodons and elephantine mar- 
supials ; and then, in the post-tertiary or quaternary rocks of the same 
period, with no chaotic upheaval, it being still the sixth day, we find the 
remains of men. Thus again is Moses supported by the facts of geology. 

Vegetation and all the inferior animals were "brought forth" by the 
word of God "from the earth" or "the waters" (Gen. i. 11, 12, 20, 21, 24, 
25; ii. 19); so that, when they die, not only their body but their life or 
spirit returns to its earthly origin (Eccles. iii. 21). But, though God 
formed man's body from the dust of the ground, He breathed into his 
nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul (Gen. ii. 7). This 
makes an ineffaceable distinction between man and all other earthly creatures; 
the Almighty and Everlasting Father of spirits directly breathed into man a 
higher life or spirit; and, though the body, according to the penalty of the 
violated law of God, returns to the dust, his spirit, at death, returns unto 
" God who gave it (Eccles. xxii. 7 ; Luke iii. 38). t 

, * The Elasmosaurus and the Edestosaurus of Kansas attained the length of sixty to eighty feet 
■and more: while the Hadrosaurus of New Jersey stood erect from twenty'to twenty-five feet high- 
and the Atlautosaurus of Colorado reached the neigrht of from sixty to eighty feet The expanded 
wings of the bat-like Pterodactyls measured twenty-five feet from tip to tip. (See Prof A Guyot's 
' ' Creation.") 

+ Dichotomy maintains that human nature has only two distinct substances or elements— body 
and soul or spirit. Trichotomy maintains that there are in man three elements body soul ana 
spirit. In the account of man's creation (Gen. ii. 7) and of man's death (Eccles xii 7) onlv two 
principles are mentioned— that which is called soul in Genesis being called spirit in Ecclesiastes 


The everlasting duration of the human spirit (which is hereafter to 
inhabit the resurrection body, Job xix. 25-27 ; Psalm xlix. 15 ; Isaiah xxvi. 
19 ; Dan. xii. 1-3 ; Matt. v. 29 ; x. 28 ; xx vii. 52, 53 ; John v. 28, 29 ; Acts ii. 25-34 ; 
xiii. 34 ; Romans viii. 11, 22, 23 ; Philip, iii. 20, 21 ; 1 Thess. iv. 13-17 ; 1 Cor. 
xv. 12-57) is also to be inferred from the fact that man was " created " 
(Bara, indicating something new) in God's image, as well as from his 
reason, conscience, religious sentiment, hopes, intuitions and aspirations, 
and especially from God's covenant with man, which raised him above the 
physical world, and brought him nigh to God (Gen. ii. 16, 17 ; Matt. xxii. 
31, 32). The fact of man's great superiority to all other earthly creatures 
is to be inferred also from the divine deliberation — Let us make men (Gen. 
i. 26). The plural number here is thought by some to be the plural of 
majesty or dignity ; by the Jews it is thought to refer to God's addressing 
the angels as His companions, or the earth as being the source of man's 
body, while God gave him His Spirit ; but, by most of Christian scholars, 
it is thought to denote the deliberation of the Divine Trinity (see Gen. iii. 
22; xi. 7).* 

God created but one pair of human beings, and the Bible everywhere 
implies but one human species (Gen. i. 27; ii. 7, 8, 15, 18, 21-24; Deut. 

ii. 8; Matt. xix. 4; Acts xvii. 26; Romans v. 14, 19; 1 Cor. xv. 22). And 

See also 2 Cor. v. 1-8 ; Philip, i. 23, 24 ; Acts vii. 59. The Hebrew and Greek terms, in the Scriptures, 
translated soul, spirit, mind, heart, and life, are often used interchangeably, and denote the im- 
material principle that man derived directly from God, each of these terms, however, being fre- 
quently employed to denote a particular aspect or function or attribute of that principle. The 
Greek and Roman philosophers taught that man had three constituent elements; and, in con- 
formity with the usage of his contemporaries, Paul says "spirit, soul and body, "to express the 
■whole of man's nature (1 Thess. v. 23). In Hebrews iv. 12, the term "heart" includes the two 
terms "soul and spirit," the lower and higher faculties of the mind. In Luke i. 46, 47, soul and 
spirit are the same principle. , ^ 

As to the origin of the souls of Adam's posterity, it should forever abase the pride of human 
philosophy that it is unable to solve this first and nearest mystery of man's existence— it cannot 
tell whether each soul is derived by direct creation from God, or by traduction from parents ac- 
cording to divine arrangement. . 

The claims of materialistic phrenology have long since been exploded by the scientists of 
Europe. The quality is far more important than the quantity of bram ; and there has never been 
a satisfactory division of the faculties of the human mind, much less an exact localization and 
mapping of them upon the surface of the brain. 

* Mr. Charles Darwin's ' ' Chain of Man's Descent from the Ascidian " (a very small, transpar- 
ent, pocket-shaped, marine animal, without head or backbone, or organs of sense, or locomotion, 
or distinction of sex) is one of the finest products of the modern brilliant scientific imagination, 
and, to any person of common sense, is as incredible as the Metamorphoses of Ovid. The so-called 
" chain " is a concatenation of conjectural nonentities, of airy nothings, based, not upon knowl- 
edge, but, confessedly, upon want of knowledge. Such philosophizing is a substitution of 
^Nescience for Science. The backbone, the breast and the human brain are insurmountable bar- 
riers in the way of selective development, and demonstrate elective design. Mr. A. R. Wallace, 
' ' the independent originator and by far the best expounder of the theory of Natural Selection, dif- 
fers altogether from Mr. Darwin on the question of the origin of man. For the creation of man, 
as he is, Mr. Wallace postulates the necessity of the intervention of an eternal will, as well for 
man's body as for his soul, as shown by the latent capacities of even the savage hand, voice, 
brain, and conscience." Prof. S. G. Mivart, the profoundly learned and critical biologist, de- 
clares, in his "Lessons from Nature," that "Mr. Darwin, in his Descent of Man, has utterly 
failed in the only part of his work which is really important ; and if his failure should lead to, an 
increase of philosophic culture on the part of physicists, we may therein find some consolation 
for the injurious effects which his work is likely to produce on too many of our half -educated 
classes. Man differs far more from an elephant or a gorilla than do these from the dust of the 
earth on which they tread." Even Prof. Huxley admits that ' ' the divergence of man from the ape 
is immeasurable and practically infinite." Dr. Emil Du Bois-Reymond, professor of physiology 
in the greatest German university, that of Berlin, perpetual secretaryof the Berlin Academy of 
Science, and the ablest biologist now living, declares that Haeckel's Human Genealogical Tree " 
(pretending to trace man by twenty-two steps to the supposed unicellular Monera, imagined 
to be the base of the animal kingdom) " is as authentic in the eyes of a naturalist as are the pedi- 
irrees (from gods and goddesses) of the Homeric heroes in the eyes of an historian." 1 hus ine 
niahesl livinq scientific authority emphatically decides that the ' ' scientific " paaan rnytnoloay of the 
nineteenth century is as false and incredible as the paaan Greek mylholoav of three thousand years 
aao. The average cranial capacity of Europeans of the stone age has been found to have been actu- 
ally greater than that of the now living Europeans. The brain of the aoes most like man does not 
amount to quite a third of the brain of the lowest races of men. 


so the entire drift of present science tends to establish the unity of 
the human race, and the perfect truthfulness of the scriptural doctrine. 
The confusion of tongues at Babel (Gen. xi. 1-9), the consequent disper- 
sion of men all over the earth, differences of climate, soil, exposure, food, 
habits and surroundings, continued for hundreds and thousands of years, 
have produced the differences between the varieties of the human race.* 
The close affinities, physical, mental and moral, of all the human family ; 
the fertile inter-marriages of all the varieties of the race ; and the fact 
that greater differences have occurred in the same species of domestic ani- 
mals than exist between the different varieties of mankind, confirm the 
unity of the human race. As may be seen by an observant traveler, 
passing from district to district, and from country to country, there are, 
between all the divergences, innumerable and almost indistinguishable 
Mendings. All mankind are descendants of Adam ; all sinned and fell in 
him ; all are conscious of their accountability to a higher power ; and, as 
sung by the church in glory (Rev. v. 9), some have been redeemed by 
Christ " out of every kindled, and tongue, and people, and nation." 

The most recent and caref ul investigations also prove that the great 
antiquity (from twenty to a hundred thousand years) heretofore claimed 
for man by geologists, ethnologists and philologists, is not sustained by 
the facts any more than it is by Genesis ; a few thousand years (seven or 
eight at the most) are all that are needed to measure man's duration on 
earth, according to both the scriptural and the scientific records. That 
man was the last created of all earthly organized beings is the clear 
demonstration of geology, as much as it is of Scripture. Ussher's chro- 
nology, which generally follows the Hebrew text, and which, by the order 
of the British Parliament, appears in the margin of English Bibles, 
reckons 4004 years from the creation of Adam to the birth of Christ. As 
this system is almost universally employed in history, we use it in this 
work. But it is proper to state that the Scripture nowhere gives us any 
direct information on this subject. Any chronology of primitive times is, 
therefore, inferential ; and there are some 200 different computations of 
the period between Adam and Christ, varying from 3316 to 6984 years. 
The length of the period from the creation to the flood is calculated by 
adding together the ages of the patriarchs at the time of the birth of their 
oldest sons, or heirs ; but the numbers in the Hebrew text would thus 
give 1656 years; the Samaritan, t 1307 years; and the Septuagint,t ! 

, • * P r ;£" Y- Dr i* er ( j? P s , BUmum Phvaioloqy, pp. , 586-691) attributes the dark color of the negro 
skin to the torpidity of the liver, m hot climates, failing- to eliminate from the blood a degenerat- 
ing haematin, which is rich in iron, and depositing- this dark matter in the Simmi rSsSrafSn 
skin. The prognathous form of the negro skull hi ascribes toth J saSe caused weUlS to his 
savage and degraded condition in Africa. The black coloring matterTnderivine the rafirl* Pre- 
serves the surface of the skin from being blistered by the sun; and the tSwIolly hair was de- 
signed by Providence to protect his brain from the fierce rays of the tropics It is asserted that 
Pegro youths have made extraordinary attainments in the languages and^athematira at c<$U«sS 
in Tioth hemispheres About a thousand years intervene betweenthe deluge and ^he earnest rep- 
resentation of negro features upon the monuments of Egypt. v^u^e auu me earnest rep 

t The Samaritan Pentateuch is a translation of the five books of Mnnon 4„+ rt +>,« a„, .„««»„.■ 
dialect (a compound of the Hebrew, Chaldee and Syriac), made probably about So BO SamaritaI1 

The Septuagmt is the most ancient and celebrated version of the entire Old Testament ScriD- 
tures; it is a translation into Greek made by the Jews of Alexandria, about ioRC, and so 


years, for the length of this period. " Nothing in ancient manuscripts," 
says Prof . G. Rawlinson, "is so liable to corruption, from mistakes of 
copyists, as numbers." Letters, which were easily mistaken by copyists, 
were originally written for numbers. " Genealogies," says Fausset, " are 
clear measures of time only when complete ; but the Jewish genealogies, 
as published, were frequently abbreviated, the object being not chro- 
nology, but to mark ramifications of family and tribal relationship." 
The word son was commonly used for descendant. 

As shown by Principal Samuel Kinns, of Highbury New Park College, 
England, in his Harmony of the Bible with Science, the following order of 
fifteen creative events, as taught by science, corresponds with the order 
given by Moses : 1. The creation of the heavens, or heavenly bodies, be- 
fore the earth. 2. The appearance of light as the divinely produced re- 
sult of chemical action and nebulous condensation. 3. The formation of 
air and water by the combination of gases surrounding the earth. 4. Af- 
ter the formation of the older rocks under the water, their upheaval, in 
many places, above the universal sea, forming the dry land. 5. The sprout- 
ing forth of the lowest forms of vegetable life, the cryptogamous algae, 
lichens, fungi, ferns and mosses, propagated by spores and not by seeds 
— translated grass in our version. 6. The appearance of the lowest class 
of phaenogams, or flowering plants, called gymnosperms, from having 
naked seeds, such as the conifers — translated, in our version, the herb 
yielding seed. 7. The appearance of a higher class of phaenogams, with 
nut-like seeds in fleshy envelopes, found in the middle Devonian and Car- 
boniferous strata — translated, in our version, the fruit-tree yielding fruit 
(the higher order of fruit trees appearing when " God planted a garden " 
later on (Gen. ii. 8). 8. The clearing away of the carbonic acid in the 
atmosphere and of the heavy vaporous clouds, and the appointment of 
the sun and moon for lights, signs and seasons, days and years. 9. The 
swarming of the waters with numerous forms of life. 10. The creation 
of the gigantic saurian reptiles. 11. The teeming of the earth with 
winged fowl. 12. The appearance of the mammoth beasts of the earth. 
13. The appearance of cattle, or the domestic animals. 14. The appear- 
ance of the principal flowers, fruit-trees and cereals (Genesis i. 29) — 
called in Genesis ii. 8, the planting of a garden. 15. The creation of man ; 
after which God ended His work of creation, no new species of plants or 
animals having appeared since the creation of man. 

Now the number of possible permutations in 15 is found by multiply- 
ing together the series of natural numbers from 1 to 15 inclusive, the 
product of which is 1,307,674,368,000 ; so that there may be about one-and- .- 
one-third trillion changes in the order of 15 events. And, as Moses records- 
15 creative events in the very same order as modern science, and that too 

called either from its 72 translators, or the 72 members of the Sanhedrim that sanctioned it. In 
the declining state of the Hebrew tongue, about the time of Christ, the Septuafnnt version was m 
common use among the Jews, and from it were taken the most of the Old Testament quotations 
found in the New Testament, which was first written m Greek. 


3000 years before the birth of modern science, even natural reason would 
,say that there are one-and-a-third trillion probabilities that Moses was in- 
fallibly directed in his narrative by God, to one probability that he was 
not so directed. With a knowledge of these momentous facts, can any 
sane mind doubt the divine inspiration of Moses 1 

It should be carefully noted that in the Mosaic or inspired account of 
-creation, God is continually active, and does all the ivork, " The idea of 
God creating the universe as a perfect machine, acting automatically 
throughout the ages, according to laws established by Himself, whose 
government He gives up, is entirely absent," says Prof. A. Guyot ; and he 
■declares that this representation of the continual activity of God in the 
creation is in perfect accord with the latest and most accurate science. 
See his last work, on " Creation." 

" In the Mosaic record of creation," says Prof. James D. Dana (in his 
Manual of Geology, pp. 743-6), " we observe not merely an order of events 
like that deduced from science ; there is a system in the arrangement, 
and a far-reaching prophecy, to which philosophy could not have 
attained, however instructed. The account recognizes in creation two 
great eras of three days each — an inorganic and an organic. Each of 
these eras opens with the appearance of light ; the first, light cosmical ; 
the second, light from the sun for the special uses of the earth. Each 
era ends in a day of two great works — the two shown to be distinct by 
being severally pronounced ' good.' On the third day, that closing the 
inorganic era, there was first the dividing of the land from the waters, 
and afterwards the creation of vegetation, or the institution of a kingdom 
of life — a work widely diverse from all that preceded it in the era. So on 
the sixth day, terminating the organic era, there was first the creation of 
mammals, and then a second far greater work, totally new in its grandest 
^element, the creation of man." The arrangement is, then, as follows : 
I. The Inorganic Era. 

First Day— Light cosmical. 

•Second Day— The earth divided from the fluid around it, or individ- 

Third Day— 1. Outlining of the land and water ; 2, creation of vege- 

II. The Organic Era. 

Fourth Day— Light from the sun. 

Fifth Day— Creation of the lower order of animals. 

Sixth Day— 1. Creation of mammals ; 2, creation of man. 

" The record in the Bible," adds Prof. Dana, " is therefore profoundly 
philosophical in the scheme of creation which it presents. It is both true 
and divine. It is a declaration of authorship, both of creation and the 
Bible, on the first page of the sacred volume." 

" The natural was first, and the spiritual afterward,'" says the Apostle 
Paul (1 Cor. xv. 46.) Both are the ivorh of the same unchangeable God; 


■and, therefore, the natural resembles, and is typical of, the spiritual (Psalm 
li. 10; Isaiah xliii. 15; lx. 2; Ixv. 16, 18; Mai. iv. 2; Matt. xiii. 1-23 ; 
Acta xxvi. 13; Eph. ii. 10; iv. 24; 2 Cor. iv. 6; v. 17; Gal. vi. 15). The 
first chapter of Genesis, then, in its spiritual application, teaches us the abso- 
lute dependence of man upon the Triune God (Father, Word and Spirit) for 
salvation. The almighty power of the Most High must create him anew; the 
sovereign efficacy of the Spirit of Love must move upon his dark, disordered 
heart; and the all-healing beams of the Sun of Righteousness must arise upon 
his renewed and penitent spirit. The divine command has gone forth (Psalm 
xxxiii. 9) for him to be fruitful in good works (Gen. i. 28 ; John xv. 16) ; the 
indwelling Spirit of Christ enables him to obey from the heart (Gal. iv. 6; 
Psalm xxxvii. 31 ; Jer. xxxi. 33), and to bear — " some thirty, some sixty, 
and some a hundred-fold " — the fruit of " love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, and temperance" (Gal. v. 22, 23.) 
Tliese fruits of the Spirit are not the cause, but the result of his spiritual re- 
newal (Isaiah lv. 8-13) ; the tree having been made good, the fruit is good 
(Matt. vii. 17.) Se does not depend upon any works of his own for salva- 
tion (Matt. xxv. 37-39) ; being bom of God, he believes that Jesus is the 
Christ (1 John. v. 1), and, believing in the finished righteousness of Christ as 
his own (Jer. xxiii. 6; John xix. 30), he enters into Sabbath, or rest (Heb. 
iv. 3; Gen. ii. 1-3). Being married to Christ, or alive unto God, he is dead 
to the law (Gen. ii. 18 ; Rom. vii. 4 ; Gal. ii. 19) ; and he serves in newness of 
spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter (Rom. vii. 6 ; Gal. ii. 20 ; 2 Cor. 
iii. 6-18), loving God because He first loved him (1 John iv. 19), and loving 
those who bear Sis image (1 John v. 1), and thus truly fulfilling the law (Rom. 
iii. 31; xiii. 10), and bringing forth fruit unto God (Rom. vii. 4). Yet, dur- 
ing all the days of his earthly sojourn, tvhile the old man abides with the new, 
there will be an alternation of darkness and light, of evening and morning, to 
keep him properly humble (Deut. viii. 1-16), to remind him of " the pit whence 
lie teas digged " (Isaiah li. 1 ; Psalm xl. 1-3) and of the divine origin of all 
Mis strength and righteousness and comfort (Isaiah xl v. 24; xlix. 13). But 
he has been new-created in the image of the Son of God (Gen. i. 26 ; Rom. 
viii. 28-39) ; formed from the pierced side of Christ in His death-sleep, he is 
united to Him by faith (Gen. ii. 21-24 ; John xix. 34 ; Eph. v. 23-32) ; and 
the all-giving and all-sufficient grace of the electing and justifying Father, 
and the dying and redeeming Son, and the quickening and sanctifying Spirit, 
shall abide with him through all his days and nights, his trials and changes, 
and shall bring him off more than conqueror at last over every creature-foe, 
and perfect the good work begun in him (Psalm cxxxviii. 8 ; Philip, i. 6 ; 
Heb. xii. 2; Rev. i. 8), and give him complete dominion over his redeemed 
body and spirit (Gen. i. 28; Rom. viii. 23 ; Isaiah xxxv. 10; liii. 11), and 
conform him entirely to the likeness of his Redeemer (Psalm xvii. 15 ; Philip, 
iii. 21), and dispel forever the last shadow of darkness and sorrow (Isaiah lx. 
18-20 ; Rev. xxi. 25), and translate him, amid the inconceivable glories of an 
eternal Sabbath (Gen. ii. 1-3; Heb. iv. 9), to the Heavenly Paradise (Gen. 
ii. 8-10; Rev. ii. 7; Matt. xxv. 34), where God shall dwell with him, and 


wipe away all tears from his eyes (Rev. xxi. 3, 4), banishing forever all 
the evils of the earthly Eden, temptation, and sin, and sorrow, and death, 
elevating him to beauties and splendors and joys never imagined on earth 
(1 Cor. ii. 9; Rev. xxi. 1-22), pouring into his soul the uncreated and un- 
clouded brightness of the divine nature (Rev. xxi. 23-25), and giving him to 
abide eternally in the Land of Life, with all whose names are written in the 
LamVs Booh of Life, beside the crystal River of Life, beneath the perennial 
Tree of Life (John x. 28; Rev. xxi. 27; xxii. 1-2), where, as a king and 
priest unto God and his Father, he shall reign forever and ever (Rev. i. 6; 
xxii. 5). 

What a strong consolation is afforded by these blessed and infallible 
promises to every poor, humble, contrite, mourning child of Adam, weary 
with a sense of sin, and thirsting to drink of the pure fountain of life, and to 
be washed from all his defilement in the cleansing blood of Christ, and made 
whiter titan snow ! It is a truth more certain than all the perceptions of 
sense and all the demonstrations of mathematics, that every such child of 
God, thus born of the Divine Spirit, and consequently exercised by spiritual 
desires, shall be entirely purified from sin, and shall reach eternal joys in the 
presence of h is God and Father (Psalms ciii. 13-18 ; cvii. 1-31 ; cxxxvi. 1-26 ;. 
Isaiah xli. 10-20 ; liv. 5-10, 17 ; lv. 1-13 ; lvii. 15 ; Jer. xxxii; 37-41 ; Mai. iii. 
6, 16-18 ; Matt. v. 3-6 ; John iv. 10-14 ; x. 27-29 ; James i. 17 ; 1 Peter i. 1-5 ; 
Rev. xxii. 17). 

On the seventh day, as Moses informs us (Gen. ii. 1-3), God ended and 
rested from His work of creation, and, therefore, blessed and sanctified that 
day. Science confirms this statement, and declares that no new species 
of vegetable or animal has appeared on earth since the introduction of 
man. In saying that God " rested," the historian does not mean that 
" the everlasting Creator " was " weary " (Isaiah xl. 28), but that He sim- 
ply ceased from the work of the material creation on earth. That cessa- 
tion, or divine Sabbath, yet continues ; God still, however, carries on His 
Sabbath-day's work of providence and redemption (John v. 17 ; Heb. i. 3). 
" His resources are infinite ; not baffled by the fall of man, He proceeds, 
according to His eternal purpose, to work out the grand plan of redemp- 
tion. After a dark evening and night of 4000 years, the Sun of Righteous- 
ness at length arose, and began to dispel the gloom ; but, after the lapse 
of nearly nineteen centuries, we still see but the gray dawn of God's Sab- 
bath morning, which we yet firmly believe will brighten into a glorious 
day that shall know no succeeding night" (Rev. xi. 15; xxi. 25). 

As man was made in the image of His Creator, he, too, was, accord- 
ing to the divine arrangement, to work six days, and then rest from hi& 
ordinary bodily and mental labors on the seventh day (Gen. i. 28 ; ii. 15 ; 
Ex. xvi. 22-26; xx.8-11), and to "sanctify" or set apart that day from a com- 
mon to a sacred use by devoting it especially to the worship of his Maker 
(Lev. x. 11 ; xix. 30 ; xxiii. 3 ; Deut. xxxiii. 10 ; Luke iv. 16 ; Acts xiii. 14 r 
15, 27 ; xv. 21).* " The Sabbath was made for man," says the Lord of the 

* Servants and domestic animals were also to be allowed to rest (Exodus xx. 10 : Deut v 14). 


Sabbath (Mark ii. 27) ; if properly observed, it would be a blessing to the 
whole human race. Man needs, not only the night for rest, but one-sev- 
enth of his days also for rest. As proved by both physiology and his- 
tory, this rest exercises a most beneficial influence on man's physical, 
mental and moral nature. A change of employment is a rest ; as Grod de- 
votes His Sabbath to the work of providence and redemption, so it is a 
great blessing to man to have a frequently and regularly recurring day 
for solemn reflections upon his relations and obligations to his Creator and 
fellow-creatures, and upon his eternal interests. Still, "man was not 
made for the Sabbath" (Mark ii. 27); he is not to idolize the Sabbath, or 
observe it in the oldness of the letter, with Pharisaical rigidity and hy- 
pocrisy* (Isaiah i. 13; Matt. xii. 1-14; Mark ii. 23-28; Luke xiii. 11-17; 
John vii. 22-24 ; Romans xiv. 5, 6 ; Col. ii. 16 ; Gal. iv. 9-11). The Christian 
is especially to remember that the Sabbath is but a shadow or type, of 
which Christ is the substance (Col. ii. 17 ; Heb. iii. and iv.), who ended the 
-work of His eternal redemption by rising from the dead on the Lord's 
Day (Matt, xxviii. 1-6; Heb. ix. 12; Rev. i. 10); and as a "holy priest" 
should he evermore offer up to his adorable Redeemer the spiritual sacri- 
fices of heartfelt thanksgiving and praise (1 Peter ii. 5 ; Psalms ciii. 1-5 ; 
oviii. 1-32; 1 Thess. v. 16-18). t 

Only the covetous and carnal were impatient of the Sabbath restraints (Amos viii. 4-12). Works of 
necessity and mercy and religious service were in full accordance with the spirit and design of the 
Sabbath day (Matt. xii. 1-13; £uke xiv. 5). 

* The f ormalistic, self-righteous Pharisees, substituting an ostentatious ritualism for spiritual 
piety, held to a multitude of so-called traditions of the elders, which they pretended to have de- 
rived, by oral transmission, from Moses himself, and to which they attributed a higher authority 
■than even to the written law. They resolved all religion into manifold and burdensome law. 
"Upon the single topic of the observance of the Sabbath, their Mishna (or Becond law) contains 
thirty-nine general rules, under each of which are numerous subordinate precepts, each with 
.-specified exceptions. Their labyrinth of casuistry, like that of the Roman Catholic Jesuits, was 
an instrument for evading moral obligations, and for committing iniquity under the apparent 
.sanction of law."— G. P. Fisher. " After the exile and in the hands of the Pharisees the Sabbath 
became a legal bondage rather than a privilege and benediction. Christ, as the Lord of the Sab- 
oath, opposed this mechanical ceremonialism, and restored the true spirit and benevolent aim of 
the institution. When the slavish, superstitious, and self-righteous Sabbatarianism of the Phari- 
sees crept into the Galatian churches and was made a condition of Justification, Paul rebuked it as 
a relapse into Judaism. In the gospel dispensation the Sabbath is not a legal ceremonial bondage, 
but rather a precious gift of grace, a privilege, a holy rest in God in the midst of the unrest of the 
-world, a day of spiritual refreshing in communion with God and in the fellowship of the saints, a 
foretaste and pledge of the never-ending Sabbath in Heaven. The due observance of it in England, 
Scotland and America is, under God, a safeguard of public morality and religion, a bulwark 
against infidelity, and a source of immeasurable blessing to the church, the state, and the fam- 
ily."— P. Schaff. It must be stated, however, that in no passage of the New Testament is the first 
day of the week called the Sabbath. 

t Neither the New Testament nor the literature of the early centuries mention any explicit ap- 
pointment of the first day of the week as a day of Christian worship., or of the Lord's Day, or Sun- 
■day, as a substitute for Saturday, the Old Testament Sabbath enjoined in the decalogue. But the 
New Testament shows that the special religious commemoration of the Lord's Day was a sponta- 
neous exhibition of Christian feeling that sprang up under the eye of the Apostles, and with their 
approval. Any formal decree abolishing the old, and substituting a new, Sabbath, would only 
have offended the weak Jewish Christians. The Sabbath and marriage were instituted by God 
Himself in Paradise, not for the Jews only, but for the whole human race. The penalty of death 
for the violation of the Sabbath was not threatened at its institution in Eden, nor even written in 
the decalogue, or moral law, on the tables of stone ; but it was a peculiar feature of the Hebrew 
judicial or civil law (Ex. xxxi. 14; Num. xv. 31-36), typifying the spiritual death of those who, 
while professing to have entered into the true Sabbath or rest by believing in the finished re- 
demption of Christ, yet really depend upon their own works for salvation (Heb. iii., iv.). The 
Sabbath was instituted by God to commemorate both His first or natural and His second or 
spiritual creation (Gen. ii. 3 : Ex. xx. 11 ; Deut. v. 15) ; to remind men of Him, their Creator and Re- 
deemer; to turn their thoughts from the seen and temporal to the unseen and spiritual; to afford 
time for religious instruction and for the public and special worship of God ; to give recuperative 
rest to sinful, toiling humanity : to be a type of that rest which remains for the people of God; 
and to be a sign of the covenant between God and His people (Ex. xxxi. 13, 16* 17; Ezek. xx. 12). It 
is thought that nine-tenths of the people derive the greater part of their religious knowledge from 
the services of the sanctuary- ,. m „ , _ , _ ,,.,., „ , 

The Roman Emperor Constantme, 321 A. D., made Sunday a legal holiday, allowing only neces- 

46 . CHAPTER I. 

Christ particularly honored the first day of the week, not only by ris- 
ing from the dead on that day, but also by repeatedly visiting His dis- 
ciples, after His resurrection, on that day (John xx. 19, 36). The Apos- 
tles, too, it would seem, habitually assembled on that day (Acts xx. 7 ; 
1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2 ; Acts ii. 1.) The day of Pentecost was the first day of the 
week, because it was the fiftieth day after the resurrection of Christ, which 
took place on the first day of the week. Without any formal command- 
ment in the New Testament, but no doubt by Divine arrangement (Eph. 
i. 10-13), ever since the resurrection of Christ, the Christian church, de- 
lighting to honor their Lord, has observed the Lord's Day, the first day 
of the week, as the Sabbath, or Holy Convocation, Day of the New Dis- 
pensation* ; but Christian forbearance on this subject is inculcated in 
Rom. xiv. 5, 6, and Col. ii. 16, 17. 

The division of time into weeks, even among the patriarchs, is shown 
by Gen. viii. 10, 12 ; xxix. 27, 28. 

With the Israelites, not only the seventh day, but the seventh week, 
and seventh month, and seventh year, and seventh septenary of years, 
were, by Divine appointment, peculiarly sacred (Deut. xvi. 9-12 ; Lev. 

eary agricultural labors on that day. Leo VI., about 900 A. D., repealed the agricultural exemption, 
thus thoroughly establishing 1 Sunday as a day of rest. Alfred the Great, about the same time, for- 
bade work, trade and legal proceedings on Sunday in England. ' 'Calvin's view of the fourth com- 
mandment was stricter than Luther's, Knox's view stricter than Calvin's, and the Puritan view 
stricter than Knox's. The Puritan practice in Scotland and New England often runs into Judaiz- 
ing excesses. About the year 1600 a strong Sabbath movement traveled from England to Scotland, 
and from both of these countries to North America, the chief impulse being given in 1595 by a. 
book entitled The Sabbath of the Old and New Testament, written by Nicholas Bound, a learned 
Puritan clergyman of Suffolk. Archbishop Whitgift and Chief Justice Popham attempted to sup- 
press the book, but in vain— considering the Puritan Sabbath theory a cunningly concealed attack 
on the 'Church of England,' by substituting the Jewish Sabbath for the Christian Sunday and 
all the ' Church' festivals. At last King James I. brought his royal authority to bear against the 
Puritan Sabbatarianism, and issued his famous ' Book of Sports* in 1618, afterwards republished: 
by his son, Charles I., with the advice of Archbishop Laud, in 1633. This curious production 
formally authorizes and commends the desecration of the evening of the Lord's Day by dancing,, 
leaping, fencing and other 'lawful recreations,' on condition of observing the earlier part of the 
day by strict outward conformity to the worship of the 'Church of England.' The court set the 
example of desecration by balls, masquerades and plays on Sunday evening ; the rustics repaired 
from the houses of worship to the ale-house or the village-green to dance around the May-pole and 
to shoot at the mark. To complete the folly, King James ordered the book to be read in every par- 
ish 'church,' and threatened^ clergymen who refused to do so with severe punishment. King 
Charles repeated the order. The people not conforming with the King's decree were to leave the 
country. The popular conscience revolted against such an odious ancT despotic law, and Charles 
and Laud, for this among other causes, were overwhelmed in common ruin. The Puritan Sabbath 
theory triumphed throughout the British Isles and the American colonies, the citizens of which 
countries have never been willing to exchange it for the laxity of Sunday observance on the Con- 
tinent of Europe, with its disastrous effects upon the attendance at public worship and the morals 
of the people." The Sabbatic view of Sunday is incorporated in the Presbyterian, the Congrega- 
tional and the Baptist Articles of Faith. In 1678, under Charles II., all labor or business, except 
works of necessity or charity, were forbidden by a statute which may be regarded as the founda- 
tion of all the present law on the subject in England and the United States. 

' 'The Old School Baptists, " says Elder S. H. Durand, of Pennsylvania, in the ' ' Signs of the 
Times," "do not observe the first day of the week as the Jewish Sabbath, for Christ and his 
Apostles gave no such command; but they refrain, on that day, from all works except those of 
necessity, for these three reasons: 1st, the law of our country forbids unnecessary work on that 
day, and we are commanded to obey the higher powers (Romans xiii. 1-5) ; 2, it is the day univer- 
sally appointed for religious meetings, and it is a good thing that we can have one day in the week 
for the public worship of God without distraction from business ; and 3d, the Apostles and early 
disciples appear to have met regularly on the first day of the week, though they also met on other 
days and from day today. When the child of God believes on the Lord Jesus Christ, he ceases 
from his own works, as God did from his, and enters into rest, and all the remainder of his life is 
really God's holy Sabbath with him, and all the days and nights of the week he should not do his 
own works or speak his own words (Isaiah lviii. 13, 14)." 

The phrase, ' 'Lord's day, " occurs only once in the Bible— in Rev. i. lo ; but the same Greek ad- 
jective for Lord's, kurzakos, occurs in 1 Cor. xi. 10, applied to "the Lord's supper," a literal as 
well as a spiritual feast ; and the phrase, ' ' the Lord's day, " i s used to designate the first day of the 
week bythe following writers of the second century: Barnabas, Ignatius, Irenjeus, Justin Martyr 
Melito, Dionysius of Corinth, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian. 

"At first both days were kept; the ApoBtles, like Christ, worshiped with the Jews in their 
synae-ogues on the seventh day, until the Jews persecuted and prevented them (Matt. xii. 9 ■ xiiL 
54; Lukeiv. 16, 44; ActB xiii. 6, 14-52; xiv. 1-7; xvii. 1-9, 17; xviii. 4). 


xvi. 29-34; xxv. 1-55). Seven is the representative sacred number of the 
Scriptures, and is the symbol of Divine completeness, and marks a Divine 
work, in judgment, or mercy, or revelation (Gen. iv. 24 ; vii. 4 ; Rev. i. 4, 
12,13,20; ii. 1; v. 1, &c.)* 

In the sacred narrative of creation, we witness the gradation from 
dust and grass to man. How wonderful the series ! And, at each pro- 
gressive step, everything is pronounced good by the beneficent Creator, 
as showing beauty and perfection in itself, as well as pleasure and satis- 
faction in His own mind. 

What a spectacle then was there for angels to behold — this noble, 
erect, God-like being, the creature man, swaying his sceptre over this 
beautiful new-made world, which his Maker had given him to possess 
and enjoy ! Compare it with the condition of things since the fall, and 
great will be the contrast. 

As this lord of the lower creation stood forth gazing on the universe- 
spread out before him, he contained his wife in his side and the countless- 
billions of the human race in his loins. He namedf the cattle and the 
fowls of the air and the beasts of the fields as his Maker presented them 
to him. Thus was his divinely-given power of observation and of speech 
brought into exercise ; and he was also taught his need of a suitable com- 
panion, which neither himself nor any of his inferior earth-derived fel- 
low creatures could supply. They had been produced by God entirely 
from earthly materials ; bat he had been animated by the Divine Spirit 
and formed in the image of his Maker. 

In what respect was man in the image of God, and in what respect 
was he not in the image of God *? He could not be like Him in body, be- 
cause God is a Spirit and has no body. Man's body, though beautiful and 
the topmost piece of the material creation, being the sum and crown and 
glory of all, yet was made of the dust of the ground of pre-existing mat- 
ter — was of the earth earthy, and unto dust must return. No image of 
God here.t But in his soul or spirit he could, and no doubt was, in the 

* Numbers in Scripture often have a symbolical rather than a mere arithmetical value. The 
half of seveD, which is three-and-a-half (time, times, and a half, three days and a half, three 
years and a half, forty-two months, 1,260 days or years), is the symbol of human agency or evil 
cut short, the time of the church's pilgrimage and persecution (Dan. vii. 35 : Matt. xxiv. 22 ; 
James v. 17 ; Rev. xi. 2, 3, 9: xii. 6). Two denotes intensification, requital in full. aDd testimony 
(Gen. xli. 32: . Job xlii. 10; Rev. xi. 3). Three is, like seven, a Divine number (Matt, xxviii. lfh 
Gen. xviii. 2, 13: 1 Sam. ill. 4, 6, 8: Rev. iv. 8). Four symbolizes world-wide extension (Dan. ii. 40; 
vii. 2; Rev. vii. 1). Eight is the sign of a new era and life, after seven has been completed (Gen. 
vii. 7: xvii. 12; Ex. xxii. 30 : Lev. xiv. 10). Ten represents perfected universality (Gen. xiv. 20: Ex. 
xxxiv. 28: Matt. xxv. 1; Luke xvii. 12). Five, the half of ten, is the penal number (Lev. v. IB: Num. 
xviii. 16. Ten raised to the third power, which is 1,000, represents the world pervaded by the 
Divine (Rev. xx. 2-4, 7). Seventy, the product of seven and ten, represents the people of God in 
worldly captivity or wandering, when their sorrows are multiplied (Gen. xlvi. 27; Ex. xv. 27; xxiv. 
1; Jer. xxv. 11). Twelve is the. church number (Gen. xlix. 28; Matt. x. 2; JameBi. 1: Rev. xxi. 12, 
14). Twelve squared and multiplied by 1,000, the symbol of the world divinely perfected, gives 
144,000, the number of sealed Israelites (Rev. vii. 4; Eph. iv. 30). Twenty-four represents the elders 
of the Old and New Testaments combined (Rev. iv. 4: Gen. xxxv. 22: Luke vi. 13). Six, the half of 
twelve, is the world kingdom broken, or the world given over to Judgment (Rev. vi. 12-17: ix. 13- 
21 ; xvi. 12-16) ; it is next to the sacred seven, but can never reach it. Six raised from units to tens 
and hundreds (666), the number of the beast (Rev. xiii. 18), shows that, notwithstanding his pro- 
gression to higher powers, he can only rise to greater ripeness for Judgment. Forty symbolizes 
trial, chastisement, and humiliation (Gen. vii. 4; Deut. viii. 2; xxv. 3; Jonah Hi. 4; Matt. iv. 2).— 
FausseVs Bible CyGlopoedia. 

t The first names given to animals were not arbitrary, but were either imitations of their 
peculiar utterances, or significant of their peculiar qualities or uses. 

t It is clear from the Scriptures that man's bodily form is similar to the form of the spiritual 


image of God. " His spirit, like that of the angels, was an immediate cre- 
ation of God. His 'breath of life' was, it appears, more than a mere 
quickening principle, a vital force, enabling the man as a mere animal to 
move and perform acts of natural life ; but it embraced much more than 
this— even a rational, ever-enduring, and accountable spmt, now mys- 
teriously united to his animal nature, over which it is to preside and rule. 
The body with all its powers and members is but the instrument of the 
soul, a tabernacle in which it dwells, while conversant with this lower 
world (Gen. ii. 7; iii. 19; Eccles. xii. 7; Acts vii. 59; Matt. x. 28). And 
it was in this, his soul or spiritual nature, that man was made like God. 
God is a Spirit, and man in one sense is a spirit (Heb. xii. 9, 23). Yet we 
do not regard this as an emanation or efflux from God Himself ; it is not a 
part of the divine nature or essence, but is a created dependent spirit, 
distinct from God, yet partaking of His likeness as a spirit, in its 
measure."— 0. 0. Jones, in " History of Church of God." 

The respects in which man was made in the image or resemblance of 
God were : the possession of a soul or spirit, which, by the sovereign 
will and sustaining power of God, was to endure forever ; intelligence ; 
self -consciousness ; free will (before the fall) ; uprightness ; and domin- 
ion over the inferior creatures. 

But Adam* was alone : " And the Lord God said, It is not good that 
the man should be alone ; I will make him a helpmeet for him. And the 
Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept ; and He 
took one of his ribs.t and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the 
rib which the Lord God had taken from man, made He a woman, and 
brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is bone of my bones, 
and flesh of my flesh : she shall be called Woman,} because she was taken 
out of man.t Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother, and 
cleave unto his wife ; and they shall be one flesh. And they were both 
naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed" (Gen. ii. 18, 21-25). 

Thus was the institution of marriage ordained and carried into suc- 
cessful operation by the Almighty, who gave Eve to Adam for his wife. 
And as it was in the beginning, so it should be now and onward, to the 
end of time, throughout the world, one woman for one man — one man for 

bodies of Christ, of the angels, and of glorified saints (Gen. xviii; Joshua v. 13-15: Judges xiii. 6, 
16, 22: Dan. iii. 26; ix. 21; Luke ix. 30, 31: Rev. xxii. 8, 9). The microscope reveals mulions of 
natural objects invisible to our naked eyes ; air, and other gases, though material, are invisible 
to us ; even so spiritual forma are real and shall be visible to us when our eyes are opened (2 Kings 
vi. 17). 

* The word Adam in Hebrew means red earth ; the form is the same in aU numbers, so that the 
original signifies either man or men- either the first man or all mankind contained seminally and 
representatively in him. 

' t Tsela, here translated rib, generally means side, and is here rendered by the Septuagint 
pleura, a piece of his side. The females of the lower animals were altogether separate in their 
formation from the males; but woman was formed out of man, to teach us the closeness, tender- 
ness, and indissolubility of the marriage bond, and of the spiritual union of Christ and the 
church (Gen. ii. 14; Matt. xix. 3-6; Eph. v. 23-32). Woman was not made from man's head, to rule 
him, nor from his feet, to be trampled upon by him, but from his side, to be his loved and hon- 
ored, loving and reverential companion (1 Cor. xi. 8, 9; Eph. v. 22-33; 1 Pet. iii. 1-7). 

t The Hebrew for man in the 23d verse is ish, meaning man of earth, or husband, Adam's desig- 
nation of himself; the Hebrew for woman in that verse is isha, the feminine of ish, and there- 
fore meaning rnan-ess, or female man, or wife. 


one woman— united in the holy bonds of wedlock, at marriageable ages. 
" The providence of God is in harmony with His word, and this blessed 
arrangement since, in a most wonderful manner, He keeps up, in the 
natural increase of the race, the numerical equality of the sexes, at mar- 
riageable ages, and that over the whole earth and ever since its founda- 
tion ; and then continually stretches out His hand against transgressors, 
who by multiplying wives would disturb this great law ; and He subjects 
them to sure evils in the form of family divisions and strifes, bitter wrath 
and cruel revenge, diseases, sudden and shameful deaths, ungoverned and 
wicked offspring, decayed fortunes, and various other judgments."— Gen. 
iv. 23, 24 ; xvi. 1-16 ; xxx. 1-27 ; xxxvii. 1-36 ; six. 1-38 ; and chapters vi., 
vii., etc. 

" The design of marriage is to promote the comfort and happiness of 
mankind, the legitimate propagation of our species, the perpetuation of 
a virtuous, honorable seed in the church, and purity of life and manners 
on the earth." — C. C. Jones. This law was frequently violated in the 
patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations, and during the Christian dispensa- 
tion it has been set at naught by Roman Catholics, Mohammedans and 
Mormons ; but our Lord Jesus Christ strictly enjoins its observance, and 
points to the first couple as an example for all future generations. — Matt, 
xix. 3-9. They who violate this law must receive the penalty due to their 



After Ms creation man was placed by his Maker in the beautiful and 
pleasant garden of Eden, or Delight (probably either in Babylonia or Ar- 
menia). He was not to live in dreamy indolence or luxurious enjoyment ; 
but, as work of some kind is necessary for his well-being while on earth, 
he was placed in a garden, to dress and keep it — the easiest way of life. 
He was surrounded by his beneficent Creator with all the joys of an 
earthly paradise, with everything his heart could wish — fruits and flowers, 
groves and streams, inoffensive animals, perfect health of soul and body, 
a lovely wife, and the frequent companionship of his kind and omnipo- 
tent Maker, who delighted to minister to his happiness. But man must 
be taught the all-important truth that he is under obligations to, and de- 
pendent upon, his Divine, Sovereign Creator, Preserver and Benefactor. 

It was the prerogative and pleasure of God to give law for the gov- 
ernment of all things created by Him, whether in relation to the motion 
of the planets or the creeping of an insect, and therefore man could not 
be exempt from that universal rule. Adam had a law given him which 
he must obey or forfeit the approbation of his Maker. It was given to 
him before Eve was formed and presented to him as his wife ; but as she 
was virtually in him when he received the law, it was equally binding on 
her. He was the head of his wife and whole human race, and represented 
both her and them. He was as innocent and pure as an angel in heaven, 
and stood forth, in the image of God, the admiration of the angelic throng 
as well as of the immense multitude of living creatures around him, all 
of which belonged to him and were obedient to his commands. In the 
midst or centre of the garden were two peculiar trees, called "the tree of 
life" and "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." The exact 
species or nature of these two trees is now unknown to man. It is sup- 
posed that "the tree of life" was an evergreen tree of unremitting pro- 
ductiveness, the fruit of which when eaten tended to preserve the 
natural health and life of man forever (Gen. iii. 22), and that it was a 
symbol or type of the true " tree of life," or Christ, in the heavenly para- 
dise (Revelation ii. 7 ; xxii. 2). The " tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil " is thought to have been of an intoxicating, or morally poisonous 
nature, the prohibition of whose fruit was a mercy, as well as a test of 
man's obedience and fidelity to God. In man's unfallen and happy con- 


dition we cannot think of a more appropriate or a more benevolent test. 
This arrangement was the covenant of works (Hosea vi. 7; Isaiah i. 19, 20; 
Romans x. 5 ; Gal. iii. 12). 

God said to Adam this : " Of every tree of the garden thon mayest 
freely eat ; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt 
not eat of it : for in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die " 
(Gen. ii. 16, 17). We discover the love of God to Adam in this enlarged 
liberty bestowed on him, and the small restraint imposed. Yet he could 
not willingly bear the restraint, however small. He was made able to 
stand, but liable to fall ; and in the hour of temptation he fell, and great 
was that fall. This was a notable epoch in his history ; it changed the 
whole course of his conduct, and involved himself and posterity * in guilt 
and ruin. He was assailed through the weaker vessel, his wife. It was 
human nature, unaided by the power of God's grace, that was assailed 
and captured. This temptation was no fancy sketch, figure or allegory. 
It was a reality, and penned down in the Book of God by the Holy Ghost, 
and frequently mentioned in the sacred volume (John viii. 44 ; 2 Cor. xL 
3; 1 Tim. ii. 14; Rev. xii. 9 ; Romans v. 12-19; xvi. 20). 

" Now the serpent f was more subtle than any beast of the field which 

* As the remedy is determined by the disease, one's whole system of theology is decided by his- 
view of original sin. Pelagianism (so called from Pelagius, a British monk of the fifth century), 
which is a form, not of Christianity, but of Rationalism, asserts that Adam's sin injured only 
himself; that men are born into the world in the same unf alien state in which Adam was created- 
that men may, and sometimes do, live without sin ; that the law is as good a system of salvation 
as the gospel ; that men have no need of divine assistance in order to he holy ; and that Christianity 
has no essential superiority over heathenism or natural religion. But it is the plain testimony of 
Scripture, as weU as of all known experience and history, and it has always been the doctrine of 
both the Jewish and the Christian Church, that the sin and guilt of Adam were imputed to all his 
posterity. Adam was the natural and federal head and representative of his race. Everything- 
said orgranted or promised or threatened to him had as much reference to his posterity as to him- 
self. They, like him, have dominion over the lower animals ; their law of marriage is like his ; the 
penalty of transgression pronounced upon him has fallen upon them; the earth is cursed to them, 
as to him ; they too have to earn their bread in the sweat of their face ; the daughters of Eve suffer 
the same peculiar pains as their mother; all mankind, even unborn infants, die, and their bodies- 
return to dust. Since the fall of our first parents, all their posterity have been born outside of 
Eden, away from the favor of God, and with the sinful natures of the first fallen pair CEph. ii. 1-3).. 
It seemed good (Matt. xi. 26) to our wise and holy Creator that our race should have its probation 
or trial in Adam. Adam, when created, was Burrounded with a multiplicity of the most exquisite, 
means of innocent enjoyment ; he had no natural inclination to evil; he had no known baa com- 
pany; he was not a child, but a man in the maturity of his powers; he had the noblest possible 
motives to stand; there is absolutely no reason to believe that any one of his descendants would, 
have done better. Had he stood, we should have enjoyed all the benefits of his obedience. Just as. 
Christ, the second Adam, is the federal head and representative of all His people, and they are 
made alive and righteous by His obedience, so the first Adam was the federal head and representa- 
tive of all his children, and, by his disobedience, they were all made unrighteous and spiritually 
dead (Eom. v. 19; 1 Cor. xv. 22, 45; Eph. ii. 1). The inoorn depravity of human nature is proved by 
the early manifestation, the universality, and the incorrigibility of sin, by the abundant testi- 
mony of both the Old and New Testament Scriptures (Gen. vi. 5 : viii. 21 : Job xiv. 4 ; xxv. 4 ; Psalms 
xiv.3; li.v; Isaiah i. 5, 6; Jer. xvii. 9; Matt, vii, 16-20; xv. 19; Johniii.6; Rom. iii. 9-20, etc.) by the 
necessity of redemption bv the death of Christ, and of regeneration by the Holy Spirit, by the 
experience of all Christians, by the whole course of human history, and by the universality of 
death. The Wesleyans, while admitting the imputation of Adam's sin to his posterity, maintain 
that such imputation was just in God only on condition that He should give every individual of 
the human family sufficient grace in Christ to enable him, if he chooses, to attain salvation— thus 
taking back with the left hand what they give us with the right, and making themselves semi- 
Pelagians, and contradicting the whole tenor of the Scriptures, which everywhere affirm or imply 
that God's gift of Christ was an act of pure and unmerited mercy. 

The mysterious principle of representation pervades both Scripture and nature (Gen. ix. 22, 25; 
xxv. 34, compared with Obadiah 19; Ex. xx. 5; xxxiv. 6, 7; Num. xvi. 32, 33 ; Josh. vi. 25; vii. 24, 25;, 
ISam. iii. 14; xv. 2, 3; 2 Sam. xii. 10: xxi. 1-9; 1 Kings xiv. 9, 10; 2 Kings v. 27; Jer. xxxii. 18; Matt, 
xxiii. 35, etc.) The God of nature visits the crimes and vices of individuals in many ways upon 
their posterity. By finite minds God's ' * judgments are unsearchable, and His ways past finding 
out " (Rom. xi. 33). But, though ' 'clouds and darkness are round about Him, " His children know 
that "justice and judgment are the habitation of His throne" (Psalm xcvii. 2). We cannot un- 
derstand the doctrine of representation or imputation, any more than we can understand why an 
infinitely wise, powerful, holy and benevolent Being should have ever permitted the existence of 
Bin and. misery in the universe. 

t In the early rites, symbols and legends of all the most ancient nations is found the tradition 


the Lord God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God 
said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden <? And the woman said 
unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden : but 
of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, 
Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the ser- 
pent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die : for God doth know 
that fh the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye 
shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that 
the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a 
tree to be desired to make one wise [see 1 John ii. 16], she took of the 
iruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her ; and 
he did eat" (Gen. iii. 1-6). Thus we see that the citadel was stormed and 
carried. Man was left to his own free choice to partake or not. No grace 
was there — no power of God to restrain him, and he fell an easy prey to 
the wiles of Satan. " And the eyes of them both were opened, and they 
knew that they were naked ; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and 
inade themselves aprons. And they heard the voice of the Lord God 
walking in the garden in the cool of the day : and Adam and his wife hid 
themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the 
garden. And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where 
art thou 1 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, 
because I was naked ; and I hid myself. And He said, Who told thee that 
thou wast naked 1 Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded 
thee that thou shouldest not eat ? And the man said, The woman whom 
thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.* And 
the Lord God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done ? 
And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.* And the 
Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art 
cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field ; upon thy belly 
shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat, all the days of thy life. And I will 
put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her 
seed ; it shalt bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the 
woman He said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception : 
in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children ; and thy desire shall be to thy 
husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because 
thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree 
of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it : cursed is the 
ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy 

that the serpent was somehow associated with the ruin of the human familv a^A that ha war 
when thus employed, the vehicle of the Evil Spirit. We are told S tot f NeS ^'XfStament "that a 
legion of devils, on one occasion, entered a herd of swine (Mark v 9-13J, and that after thTlast 
supper, Satan entered into Judas (John xiii. 27). So the chief of the f ill™ rSSJell wh„ LVi „JS; 
have been before his fall the vicegerent of cU on earth, and who is n^ S the Trin" of the 
power of the air " (Eph. u. 2), hating God, and envying man's happiness flntto^i tn™ii«K *„,»„„» 
object of God's terrestrial creation. To accomplish hfs maUgnau? SsS,K° h. Sff tiS 1 iSS5 t 
the subtlest or craftiest of all the animal tribes, and inspfiSfh i£ Fo "tempt' Eve f the Weaker of the 
human pair (2 Cor. xi. 3 ; Rev. vii. 9 ; xx. 2). fl,B| tue weaker or tne 

* We see thus the mean, selfish and ungodly tendency of sin. which is tn rnjat tv. a w- „« 

some one else, whether it be an inferior animal, or another human being! o? even unS fi£l ITv 
Maker, who cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man " (.Tamo? ) ft ,cw£ ' £~£ 
He tries or proves His people (Psalm vii. 9 ; Jer. xx. 12 ; Zech. xui. 9). mes L E ~ 16> - tn ° n & h 


life. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt 
eat the herb of the field : in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, 
till thou return unto the ground ; for out of it wast thou taken : for dust 
thou art, and vinto dust shalt thou return."— Gen. iii. 1-19. 

Thus we have the fall of man depicted, his arraignment and condem- 
nation. God drove him out of the garden ; and to prevent his returning 
to it, and eating of the tree of life, and living forever, God placed at the 
east of the garden cherubim* and a flaming sword which turned every 
way, to keep the way of the tree of life.— Gen. iii. 24. Man could corrupt 
or destroy himself, but could not purify his own heart or restore himself 
to the favor and image of God. That had to be done by another. 

God had already provided a ransom, and makes it known. " I will 
put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her 
seed ; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel." Here is a 
promise of Christ, a Savior, " the seed of the woman," who was to bruise 
the head of Satan, while Satan could only bruise the heel of Christ. 
Christ is the seed of the woman, and his elect children are his seed. The 
seed of the devil are Ms angels and wicked men who die without repent- 
ance ; the term seed here being understood, not in a physical, but in a 
spiritual sense. He is a fallen angel, and led Ms comrades in rebellion, 
and through the medium of the serpent seduced man also from Ms alle- 
giance to God. The contest is to be between Satan and CMist ; so that 
while Satan is to braise the heel or the church of Christ, Christ is to bruise 
the head or the power of Satan. Satan may annoy, but Christ overcomes, 
by destroying Mm that had the power of death. — Heb. ii. 14 ; Rom. xvi. 
20; Uohniii. 8. 

Salvation ttoough Christ was no doubt proclaimed by the Almighty 
to Adam and Eve ; sacrifices were ordained to typify the crucifixion of 
the Savior. SMns of beasts, probably slain in sacrifice, taken by God and 
placed around the bodies of Adam and Eve to cover their nakedness, 
were figurative of the righteousness of Christ, which was to be imputed 
and placed as a robe around all the saints of God. The system is revealed, 
and the warfare soon began. The offspring of Adam and Eve, having 
been born after the fall, of course were brought forth in a state of sin 
and death, so that those without faith persecuted those who had faith. 
The first man born way named Cain, and the second was named Abel. 
Each brought a sacrifice to God. Cain's was without faith, being of the 

*Or, as the original Hebrew means, "At the gate of the garden God tabernacled, or set as the 
dwelling place of His shekinah glory, cherubim and a sword-like flame which turned every way, 
to keep the way to the tree of life." The pointed flame, darting its resplendent beams around on 
every side, so as to present an effectual bar to all access by the old approach to the garden, sym- 
bolized God's unchangeable holinesB and justice ; while the cherubim symbolized his mercy. The 
flame and the cherubim at the front of Eden seem to have constituted the antediluvian local tab- 
ernacle (Gen. iv. 3, 4. 14-16), and were the forerunners of the sanctuary, where the cherubim on 
either side of the shekinah cloud represented the meeting together of God's mercy and justice in 
man's redemption. The cherubim, as sculptured or wrought figures in the -Tabernacle or the 
Temple, seem to have had human forms and faces with angelic wings, representing that redeemed 
men are to be equal to angels (Luke xx. 26) ; and in the visions of Isaiah, Ezekiel and John, they 
are living creatures, having four or six wings apiece and having (as in Ezekiel ) each four faces, of 
a lion, an ox, a man and an angel, or each having (as in John) only one of these faces— the four 
leading forms of animal life being used to represent the perfected life in glory of those redeemed 
from all the world (Eev. iv. 7 ; v. 8, 9). 


fruit of the ground. Abel's was with faith, and was of the firstlings of 
his flock and the fat thereof, typifying the offering of the Lamb of God 
in the fullness of the time (Heb. xi. 4). "Cain in unbelieving self- 
righteousness presented, like the Pharisee in the temple (Luke xviii. 11), 
merely a pretended thank-offering, not like Abel and the publican, feeling 
his need of the propitiatory sacrifice appointed for sin. God had respect 
(first) unto Abel, and (then) to his offering (Gen. iv. 4) ; and so our works 
are not accepted of God, until ourselves have been so, through faith in 
His work of grace."— A. B. Fausset. Abel's offering was. accepted and 
Cain's rejected. This displeased Cain so that he slew his brother; and 
wherefore slew he him I because he was of that wicked one and his works 
were evil, while Abel's were righteous (1 John iii. 12). Hence began the 
warfare between the children of men. The enmity between the seed of 
Satan and the seed of the woman grows out of the very nature of Holi- 
ness and Sin. Satan and his seed or servants, being sinful, will forever 
hate and rebel against a holy God ; and God, being immutably holy, can 
never tolerate, but will forever express His hatred against their sin. 
Satan and his seed give expression to their enmity in every form of oppo- 
sition and ill-will which their ingenious wickedness can devise and their 
circumstances permit ; and there is no work against the glory, happiness, 
or even the existence of God and His people, which, if unrestrained, they 
would not exert themselves to accomplish. Cain now stands as a repre- 
sentative of that portion of the human race who persecute the children 
of God, and Abel represents that portion who are persecuted by wicked 
men, often unto death. Figuratively speaking, Cain has always been 
killing Abel, and Abel has all along fallen by the hands of Cain. To Eve 
another son was given, and she called his name Seth (appointed). " For 
God, said she, hath appointed me another seed, instead of Abel, whom 
Cain slew " (Gen. iv. 25.) 

From these two, therefore, we trace to some extent the divergent 
lines of the race — the one servants of God and the other the servants of 
Satan. Faith is the great distinguishing feature. " By faith Abel offered 
unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained wit- 
ness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts : and by it he being 
dead yet speaketh" (Heb. xi. 4). 

The names of the chosen line from Adam to Noah are about as fol 
lows, viz.: Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, 
Lamech, Noah. 

The names of the rejected line are about as follows, some of their 
names being like those of the chosen line, viz.: Cain, Enoch, Irad, 
Mehujael, Methusael, Lamech, and by Lamech's wife Adah, Jabal and 
Jubal, and by his wife Zillah, Tubal-Cain. 

" The resemblances in the names of the two families seems a natural 
consequence of the use of significant names, at a time when language had 
acquired no great variety ; and in both cases several of the names have a 
sense natural at that age, increase and possession. The different number 


of generations suggests that the period between the children of Lamech 
and the flood was occupied with the development of the inventions as- 
cribed to them, by their unnamed descendants. The only personal facts 
of their history are, the foundation by Cain of the first city, which he 
named after his son Enoch; the polygamy of Lamech ; and the occupa- 
tions of his sons, of whom Jabal was the first nomad herdsman, Jubal the 
inventor of musical instruments, both stringed and wind, and Tubal-Cain 
the first smith. The great contrast, however, between the two races, is 
in their social and moral condition." " It is remarkable that corruption 
of religion and morals advanced most rapidly in the line of Cain, where 
the greatest progress had been made in art and in science ; thus showing 
that knowledge and civilization, apart from religion, have no power 
to purify the heart, or to preserve society from corruption." — W. Gr. 

As the arts and sciences advanced, and population and civilization 
increased, wickedness also increased. The "sons of God," the Sethite 
professors of religion, intermarried with the " daughters of men," the ir- 
religious Cainites ; the selfish, worldly, licentious and warlike offspring 
of these wicked marriages filled the earth with profligacy and blood- 
shed. Enoch and Noah, and perhaps other prophets, preached righteous- 
ness, and predicted the coming terrible judgment of God upon the un- 
godly race, but in vain. Enoch walked with God, and, about a thousand 
years after the creation of Adam, was translated to heaven without dy- 
ing ; just as, about two thousand years afterwards, during the rampant 
idolatry of the kingdom of Israel, the Prophet Elijah was similarly 
favored — these two witnesses, before the coming of Christ, thus being 
divinely enabled to demonstrate to an unbelieving world the doctrine of 
the resurrection of the body and its existence with the soul in glory. In 
the same manner, the bodies of the saints who are living on the earth at 
the second or last personal coming of Christ, shall be changed, in a 
moment, without dying, from a mortal to an immortal state, and be 
caught up with their spirits to dwell forever with the Lord (1 Thess. iv. 

The wicked race cared nothing for the solemn and faithful warnings 
of the prophets ; and God's Spirit in His servants would not always strive 
with corrupt and rebellious flesh (Neh. ix. 30; Acts vii. 51, 52). His 
sparing mercy, extended to them 120 years, was equally contemned; 
every imagination of the thoughts of man's heart become only evil con- 
tinually. Noah was the only righteous man left, and he, being warned 
of God, and believing the warning, prepared an ark to the saving of his 
house. But the ungodly race continued eating and drinking, marrying 
and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah and his family, with two 
each of unclean and seven each of clean animals, entered into the ark, 
and the Lord shut them in, and the windows of heaven were opened, and 
the foundations of the great deep were broken up, and God, in awful 


majesty, justice and power, brought in the flood, and destroyed them aU* 
(2 Peter iii. 5, 6 ; Job xii. 15 ; Psalm civ. 5-7). 

From the period when man became a living soul to the day when the 
waters of the deluge began to fall on the earth, time's duration probably 
numbered about 1,656 years. About 1,500 years of this time, it may be 
supposed, there was antagonism between the chosen people of God and 
the children of the wicked one,— the Spirit of God in His elect on the one 
side, and the spirit of the devil in his children on the other, warring 
against each other. The weapons of warfare, on the part of true wor- 
shipers, were not carnal, but spiritual ; while those used by the enemies 
of God and truth were carnal and fatal to the bodies of the saints. 

Witness the murder of righteous Abel, and the design no doubt to 
take the life of Enoch, also, who prophesied of the coming of the " Lord 
with ten thousand of His saints to execute judgment upon all, and to 
convince all that are ungodly among them of their ungodly deeds, which 
they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which un- 
godly sinners have spoken against Him." But God delivered him out of 
their hands by translating him directly to Heaven. Truth has ever made 
slow progress in this world, and the antediluvian age, of all, in this re- 
spect, is the most remarkable. The number of true worshipers appeared 
to decrease as time rolled on, until but one man and his family were to be 
found on earth serving God. Methuselah, the grandfather of Noah, it is 
thought, died the very year of the deluge, and Lamech, the father of 
Noah, died five years before ; so that Noah was the only patriarch left on 
earth, the only preacher of righteousness in the world, and the only man 
who with his house served God truly. 

The children of God in this nineteenth century of the Christian era 
think that they have a hard time of it, while enduring the scoff, derisions 
and hatred of a gainsaying world ; but what is this when compared with 
the cruel mockings and scourgings endured by their brethren before the 

* God's purpose was to destroy the entire wicked race of man, except the family of Noah, and 
to show the world's need of divine purification (Gen. xi. 13 ;1 Peter iii. 20, 21- John iii. 6). The flood 
was no doubt universal, so far as the occupants of the Ark could see (Gen. vii. 19), and so far as the 
human race was concerned ; but the word ' all, " both in Scripture and in popular language, fre- 
quently means onlyalarge part (see Gen. xli. 57 ; Ex. ix. 6, 19; Deut. ii. 26; Matt, iii.6; xxi. 26 ;and 
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, last edition). These and similar passages of Scripture, to- 
gether with numerous scientific considerations, have led some of the ablest Bible scholars to be- 
lieve that the region submerged covered only about a million square miles in Western Asia, where 
man first dwelt— the object of God being to destroy the corrupt human race. Beckoning 21 inches 
for the sacred cubit, the ark was only 625 feet long, SIX broad and 62X high, and these two-and-a- 
half million cubic feet could haye held, it is said, only one-fourth of the clean animals alone, tak- 
ing in seven of each kind. The steamship Great Eastern is one-third larger than was the Ark, hut 
it would have been far too small to have held a million living creatures, with twelve months pro- 
visions for them, as it must have done, it is said, if the flood had been universal, and two of every 
unclean and seven of every clean animal had been taken on board. Besides, it is computed that it 
, would have required three times as much water as there is on the globe to have covered the entire 
earth to the depth of five miles, the altitude of the highest mountains ; and Moses does not tell us 
that any water was created for the purpose, but he does say that the material ' creation ceased with 
the creation of Adam (Gen. ii. 2). Eike most of the historical description^ Tin ScriptnrT thiTac- 
count of the deluge is probably the truthful statement of an eye-witness rerhaS IheS' handed 
down to Moses. As far as his eye .could reach everything on earth wis ^submSel S'eBththe 
waters. How forcible an emblem was the deluge of baptism (1 Peter iii 20 21 aTd the Ark an 
emblem of Christ (Gen. yii. 23 ; Acts iv. 12).. The" 5 Assyrian Deluge Tablet 4000 yea?s old but ?e- 
MsnJrr e aM™ofthf delude ' ^ °* * he "^ m ™S&cts as^ementSdby kose* fin 

a -J^^ a" tbat may be said, we know that God is omnipotent, and that there are no physical 
wen°a 3 optolly uSv^ah" 16 delU * e ^ He sent Upon tbe wicked race m ^ ^vl been &&X as 


flood 1 WMle we now write, the visible number of God's people is on 
the increase ; some few are being added to the churches. The churches 
are scattered over the land, but sparsely, of course, in comparison with 
the number of other religious organizations. There is nearly one minister 
for every two churches, and appointments by many are published in their 
periodicals for itinerant preaching, by Elders and licentiates going in 
almost every direction, preaching the everlasting gospel of the kingdom. 
Congregations to hear preaching are large and frequently come together. 
They are protected in their gatherings and devotional exercises by the 
laws of the land, so that none dare molest or make them afraid while thus 
worshiping— while thus defending the faith that Abel, Enoch and Noah 
had, and at the same time preaching Christ and him crucified as the only 
way of salvation. 

God's people now expect a further increase of their numbers before 
the day comes that shall burn as an oven, but then they had no such ex- 
pectation. They were persecuted by fearful odds against them, with 
their numbers constantly diminishing, and every prospect before them of 
being overrun by an ungodly world and completely exterminated, accord- 
ing to all human appearances. Yet they boldly fought on, believed in and 
feared God, daily making their altars smoke with the victims offered up 
as typical of the great offering afterward to be made by the Lamb of God 
for the sins of His people ; and counted not their lives dear unto them- 
selves, so that they might finish their course with joy and gain the appro- 
bation of their God. 

These were thought to be very stubborn people, no doubt, by their 
enemies, and to be worthy of death for their stern and uncompromis- 
ing spirit. Do we see anything like it in the world now 1 Can we not 
readily find a people now who are equally stubborn, equally inflexible, 
equally steadfast and immovable on the foundation which God has laid 
in Zion 1 a people who would yield their lives rather than yield their faith, 
and will have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness 1 

Look at the Baptists of the present day and see if they can respond 
to the call, or if the measure will fit them (Kev. xi. 1, 2). We do not 
mean Baptists merely, so called, for their name is legion ; but we mean 
genuine Bible Baptists, those called " Primitive " or " Predestinarian,"' 
by way of distinction from others, and " Hardshells " by way of reproach. 
These people, who are opposed and abused by all other sects and soci- 
eties in the world — these who have been hunted in dens and caves of the. 
earth by Mystery Babylon and her daughters for centuries past, and put 
to death for their faith in Christ, and have only had a respite of about 
one hundred years from the tyranny of the magistrate and religious des- 
potism. And we ask these people to read carefully and see if they cannot 
find the counterpart of their own history in the lives of their brethren 
before the flood. When they look at them and see their unpopularity, 
their firm faith, their peculiarity, their steadfastness to the end, notwith- 
standing that nearly the combined world was against them, do they not 


see themselves reflected as in a mirror, and feel willing to call them 
brethren 1 God's people must be the same in all ages, for He never had 
hut one way of saving them. There has never been but one Savior for 
them. All are saved by grace, through faith, and that not of themselves, 
it is the gift of God (Eph. ii. 8). 

And again, if the truth of God made such slow progress among the 
antediluvians, coming immediately from Adam and the patriarchs, is it 
any wonder that it did not make a greater progress under the Mosaic dis- 
pensation, or that it does not now under the Christian dispensation 1 

If success and numbers prove the truth of a creed or party, then the 
antediluvians who killed the patriarchs and filled the earth with violence, 
had the best of the argument ; and so had the 850 prophets of Baal in the 
days of Elijah ; and so had the whole nation of Israel, also, in his day, as 
against the seven thousand who had not bowed the knee to the image of 
Baal ; and so had the Jews when they crucified the Savior ; and so had the 
Gentiles when they destroyed Christians by thousands ; and so has Rome 
now, as against the balance of what is called Christendom; and so has the 
pagan world as against the rest of mankind ; and last, though not of least 
importance to us, so have the so-called Missionaries, as against the Primi- 
tive Baptists of the United States ; the former are twenty times as numer- 
ous. But if numbers and success do not prove the truth and justice of 
any cause whatever, but rather the contrary, in all the history of the 
Adamic race, then we may expect to find the minority in the right in all 
ages of the world, especially in religious matters. Such was the case be- 
fore the flood, all must agree ; such was the case under the legal dispen- 
sation, and such is the case under the new dispensation, according to the 
language of our blessed Savior Himself, who says there are few that he 
saved : " Strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, 
and few there be that find it." " Fear not, little flock, for it is your 
Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom," etc., etc. (Matt. vii. 14; 
ILukexii. 32).* 

Another reflection arises here, which is this : If God Almighty de- 
stroyed the old world with a flood as a punishment for the crimes of its 
inhabitants, and the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah with fire and brim- 
stone for the crimes of their inhabitants, and Jerusalem and the nation- 
ality of the Hebrews as a punishment for their crimes, what will He burn 
up this world for in the last great day ? Will it be because earth's inhab- 
itants will have become so civil, so truthful, so honest, so upright, so 
loving, so tender-hearted, so unselfish, so Christianized, so evangelised, 
that the Lord must forsooth send down fire and burn up their beautiful 
dwelling place 1 Or will it be because men will wax worse and worse, 
iniquity abound more and more, generation after generation become 
deeper and deeper steeped in sin as the ages roll on, until every principle 

•The above argument does not prove that, in religioua matters, every minority is rieht ■ but 
it does completely destroy the force of every argument that baaes the defense of any religious 
party upon the great numbers of that party. - 


•of morality, justice, judgment and equity be swept away from the minds 
of men, and cruelty, rapine and murder cover the earth, so as to induce 
the Almighty to purify it with fire, cause time to cease, and appropriate 
the planet to some other use 1 

It was crime that caused the destruction of the old world, the cities 
of the plain, and the Hebrew nationality ; and by a parity of reasoning 
ire may safely conclude that crime will be the cause of the final conflagra- 
tion and the destruction of this mundane system. 

The rain poured down forty days (forty being the number significant 
of judgment), and the whole known or visible world was covered, and 
every living creature that had existed on the dry land died. After one 
hundred and fifty days the waters abated, and the ark rested "upon the 
mountains of Ararat," or "the hills of Armenia," as otherwise rendered; 
and on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains (or 
hills) were seen. Forty days afterward Noah, to ascertain the state of 
the earth, opened the window of the ark and sent forth a raven, which 
went to and fro, satisfied to feed on the floating carcasses, and never re- 
entering the ark — " emblem of the restless carnal mind." Then he sent 
forth a dove, which, finding no rest for the sole of her foot, returned into 
the ark — " emblem of the soul drawn from the world by Christ to Him- 
self." Seven days afterward he sends out the dove again, and, as a sign 
that even the low trees were uncovered, she returns with a fresh olive 
leaf, the olive being a tree which can live under a flood better than most 
trees — " emblem of the Spirit of peace, the earnest of the saints' inherit- 
ance." Sent forth again, after seven days, the dove returns no more — 
" emblem of the new heavens and earth which shall be after the fiery 
deluge, when the ark of the church to separate us from the world shall be 
needed no more." One year after he entered the ark Noah, on the. first 
day of the first month, removed the covering of the ark, and saw that the 
earth was dry ; and on the twenty-seventh day of the second month, at 
God's command, he and his family and all the living creatures went forth 
from the ark. Building an altar unto the Lord, he made burnt offerings 
of every clean beast and fowl, as a sacrifice of thanksgiving and consecra- 
tion to God ; and the Lord graciously accepted the offering, and promised 
that He would no more curse the ground for man's sake, " for the imagin- 
ation of man's heart is evil from his youth;" neither would He again 
smite every living thing, as He had done, but that, " while the earth re- 
maineth, seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, Summer and Winter, and 
day and night, shall not cease." God blessed Noah, and gave him and 
his posterity the right to eat animal as well as vegetable food ; and as a 
token of His covenant with all flesh, that he would no more destroy the 
earth with a watery flood, He appoints the rainbow in the cloud — this 
beautiful and universally visible phenomenon being a most appropriate 
.sign of His natural mercy to all His creatures on earth ; clearly indicating 
the early cessation of rain, because, in order to its formation, the clouds 
must be broken and the sun must be shining through them. -Of the same 


absolute unconditional nature as this natural covenant with Noah and all 
flesh, God declares His new covenant with spiritual Israel to be (Isa. liv. 
4-10, 17; Jer. xxxi. 31-37).* 

God gave Noah three new precepts— the abstinence from blood as a 
food (the blood being the life, and being typical of the cleansing efficacy 
of the shed blood of Christ), the prohibition of murder (on the grounds 
that man was made in the image of God, and that all men are brothers), 
and the recognition of the civil authority (" he that sheddeth man's blood, 
by man shall his blood be shed"). 

From the flood to the calling of Abraham was about 400 years, and 
during this period idolatry arose and then increased greatly. " Noah 
lived 350 years after the flood, and died at the age of 950; just half-way 
according to the common chronology between the creation and the 
Christian era. He survived the fifth and sixth of his descendants, Peleg 
and Eeu ; he was 128 years contemporary with Terah, the father of Abra- 
ham ; and died only two years before the birth of Abraham himself (A. 
M. 2006; B. C. 1998). Looking back we find that he was born only 126 
years after the death of Adam, and 14 years after that of Seth. He was 
contemporary with Enos for 84 years, and with the remaining six antedi- 
luvian patriarchs (except Enoch) for centuries. We give these computa- 
tions, not as a matter of curiosity, but to show by how few steps, and yet 
by how many contemporary teachers, the traditions of primeval history 
may have been handed down — from Adam to Noah, and from Noah to 
Abraham, and we might add, from Abraham to Moses." — Old Testament 
History, by Wm. Smith, f 

The world was to some extent divided between Noah's three sons, so 
that we may in general reckon Asia to Shem, Africa to Ham, and Europe 
to Japheth,t though of course there was some crossing of these lines by 

The greatest saints, while on earth, are sinners ; and the inspired 
writers are terribly faithful in recording the vices, as well as the virtues, 
of Scripture characters. Noah planted a vineyard and became intoxicated 
with the fruit of the vine, and, while in this condition, Ham discovered 
his nakedness and reported it to his other brothers in an improper spirit 
— without sorrow and without respect either to his person or character. 
" Shem and Japheth" upon this report " took a garment and laid it upon 
both their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of 
their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their 
father's nakedness. And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his 

* Isaiah liv. 7-10 was the first text ever taken by the junior author of this work in his public 
ministry, December 10, 1871, at Skewarkey meeting-house, near WUliamston, Martin Co., N. C. 

t Between Adam and Isaac were only two links, Methuselah and Shem. According to the He- 
brew numbers, Adam and Methuselah were contemporaneous 243 years; Methuselah and Shem 98 
years ; and Shem and Isaac 49 years. 

X The names of Noah's sons were prophetic. Shem signifies name or renown (the Scriptures 
have been given to ub through the family of Shem, and Christ was of that family) • Ham signifies 
hot or black (his descendants mainly peopled Africa) ; and Japheth signifies either fair or eniarm d 
(his descendants are the white-faced Europeans, who have gone forth and established colonies in 
all the other grand divisions of the globe). 


younger * son had done unto him. And he said, Cursed be Canaan ; a 
servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. And he said, Blessed 
be the Lord God of Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall 
enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem ; and Canaan 
shall be his servant" (Gen. ix. 30-27). The curse did not fall upon Ham 
directly, but what is often the sorest point with a father, he was cursed 
in his youngest son. In the brief language of Noah, as recorded, Ham's 
other sons are not mentioned ; Canaan is thought to be especially named, 
because of ^the future historical relations between the Canaanites and 
Israelites. But the other sons of Ham (Gen. x. 6-14) may also have been 
indirectly intended. Egypt and Babylon, as well as Canaan, were settled 
by Hamite races, which at first were the most brilliant and civilized, but, 
because of their irreligion and profligacy, became the most degraded. 
In saying, "Blessed be the Lord God of Shem," Noah pronounces the 
highest possible blessing upon Shem, as he thus declares the Lord God 
peculiarly the God of Shem ; this language was especially verified in the 
descendants of Shem — Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and their posterity, the 
Israelites. Japheth was, by his expansive energy and God's providence, 
to overpass his own bounds (Europe) and dwell in the tents of Shem, as 
the ancient Greek and Roman, and the modern European and American 
nationalities, exemplify. And gradually Japheth was to dwell in Shem's 
tents spiritually, that is, he should be brought to believe in and worship 
the God of Shem. 

By Japheth's dwelling in the tents of Shem, it seems also implied that 
they should be more confederate, more social, more upon an equality as a 
class of human beings with each other than with Ham, while he should 
be servant to both, and sometimes his descendants should actually be- 
come servants to others of his descendants, thereby filling the lowest 
station — " a servant of servants." 

The prophecy of Noah " has been fulfilled in the destruction and final 
subjugation and enslavement of the Canaanites, by the descendants of 
Shem, the children of Israel ; in the subjugation and enslavement of the 
Phoenicians and Carthaginians by the Greeks and Romans, the descend- 
ants of Japheth ; in the subjugation of the Egyptians and Ethiopians ; in 
the enslavement of Africans in almost all ages of the world, even down 
to the present day, and their miserable enslavement of each other." 
What a wonderful prophetic summary, in three short verses, of the his- 
tory of the world ! Who but an omniscient and omnipotent God could 
have inspired such a prediction 1 

The genealogical! line of the Messiah extends from Noah to Shem, 

* Qatan, in the twenty- fourth verse, translated ' ' younger, " is elsewhere rendered ' 'youngest" 
O xvii. 14), and its literal meaning is "little." "Little son," or "young son," 
with the Jews of ten meant grandson : so that many scholars think that the expression here, de- 
notes Noah's gransdon, Canaan : and they suppose that Canaan first saw Noah and told his father 
Ham, who then told Shem and Japheth. The word Canaan means low, and denotes him and his 
posterity as low, morally, socially and Geographically. The CanaaniteB mainly inhabited the Medi- 
terranean lowlands of Palestine and the low-depreBsed valley of the Jordan. Like their father, 
they were exceedingly sensual and depraved. Sodom and Gomorrah were Can aanite cities. 

t The tenth chapter of Genesis is the most interesting and valuable ethnological record in the 
world. The latest and most critical scientific researches establish its entire accuracy. 


Shem to Arphaxad, Arphaxad to Salah, Salah to Eber, Eber to Peleg,. 
Peleg to Eeu, Reu to Serug, Serug to Nahor, Nahor to Terah, and Terah: 
to Abram. " The footsteps of the flock " are very difficult to trace along 
this period of 400 years. The knowledge and true worship of God seem 
to have been pretty much confined to the patriarchs, while nearly all 
their descendants were enveloped in darkness. Indeed, some of the 
patriarchs themselves appear to have been tainted with idolatry. About 
100 years after the flood the town of Babel was commenced by the wicked 
descendants of Noah in opposition to God's will and to the building of 
His spiritual kingdom. They were of one language and of one purpose, 
and that was to defy God and make a tower high enough to reach heaven, 
to make to themselves a name and build a city that would concentrate 
the people and rule the world. This same sort of enterprise has been un- 
dertaken by others since on nearly the same spot, but all has proved a 
failure. The language of the first builders was confounded* and they 
ceased to build ; God dispersed them. He has also dispersed their suc- 
cessors, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus and Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne and 
Napoleon. God came down and confounded their schemes. 

The great length of life, and the great distance of death, seemed to 
make the antediluvians more reckless and corrupt ; and therefore, after 
the flood, it pleased the Lord gradually to shorten human life from little. 
less than a thousand to less than a hundred years. All men have a nat- 
ural sense of dependence on a higher power, and therefore have some sort 
of religion ; but the natural heart of fallen man recoils from the perfect 
purity of the true God and a spiritual worship of Him, and " devises 
means and mediators of its own for approaching the Most High, paying 
adoration to the sun, moon and stars, and others of His works, even 
animals and stones ; making images to represent His attributes and wor- 
shiping them ; asking beings inferior to God but superior to himself to 
intercede with God on his behalf ; and, when most dark and degraded, 
resorting to magical charms and similar devices as means of obtaining the 
favor of the powers above. Thus, wherever men went, they forsook the 
pure worship of the true God, as it had been practiced by Noah, and in- 
stituted religious and idolatrous rites and practices of their own." — W. G. 

One bright streak penetrates this gloom from the flood to Abraham, 
and that is the experience of the patriarch Job.f He is thought to have 
been a descendant of Aram, son of Shem (Genesis x. 22, 23). He was a 
patriarch, a prophet, a man of God, a perfect man, one that feared God 
and eschewed evil, and one whose experience and writings have been 

* The confusion of tongues divinely produced at Babel accounts for all the radical differences 
between human languages. 

tUz. the country of Job, was probably in the middle of Northern Arabia; and the statement 
of Eusebius, that he lived two ages before Moses, or about the time of Isaac, some 1800 B C, is 
probably as correct as can now be ascertained. It is supposed that Moses became acquainted with 
the book of Job during his stay in Arabia, near Horeb, and introduced it into the Hebrew canon 
as calculated to teach the Israelites patience under their afflictions. Job's disease is believed to 
have been elephantiasis, or black leprosy, the most loathsome and terrible of all diseases (ii 7 
8 ; vii. 6, 7, 8, 13-16 ; xvi. 8 ; xix. 17 ; xxx. 17-21, 27, 29,30). 


interesting and profitable to the people of God in every generation since 
his day, and will be to the end of the world. He lived in the land of Uz, 
perhaps that portion of country occupied by Uz, the son of Aram (Gen. 
x. 23). It no doubt included the land of Edom, and was a vast country at 
one time, stretching far into Arabia and the East. Hence Job is called 
one of " the sons of the East." His book is one of the oldest of the in- 
spired writings, having been written probably .long before Moses was 
born, and wonderfully preserved, so as to be placed in the sacred canon. 
It was probably written by Job himself, with the exception of the last 
line, which mentions his death ; that of course was added by the hand of 
a friend. Job was a real, not an imaginary, person. So the book de- 
clares, and God honors him by associating his name with that of Noah 
and Daniel (Ezekiel xiv. 14-20). The Apostle James mentions him as an 
example of patience (James v. 11). The extreme antiquity of the book of 
Job (as evinced by internal evidence), its compact, powerful and majestic 
style, and its solemn, profound and sublime conceptions, demonstrate the 
high intellectuality of primeval man. The leading object of the book 
seems to proclaim the sovereignty and infinite power, wisdom, righteous- 
ness, faithfulness and mercy of God, and the purity and omnipotence of 
His grace in the hearts of His people, causing them to serve Him freely 
from love of His adorable character, and to triumph at last over all their 

" The patience and the final perseverance of the saints, nowithstand- 
ing temporary distrust under Satan's persecutions, which entailed loss of 
family, friends, possessions and bodily health, are illustrated in Job's 
history. God's people serve Him for His own sake, not merely for the 
temporary reward which His service may bring ; they serve Him even in 
overwhelming trial. Herein is Job an imperfect type of Christ. Job's 
chief agony was, not so much his accumulated losses and sufferings, not 
even his being misunderstood by friends, but that God hid Mis face from, 
him, as these calamities too truly seemed to prove (xxiii. 3-9). Yet con- 
science told him he was no hypocrite, nay, though God was slaying him, 
he still trusted in God (xxiii. 10-15; compare Abraham, xxii. 1-19)." — 

"Job's chief error was his undue self -justification, which he at last 
utterly renounced." This book shows its author to have been a believer 
in a Savior to come, and to have been in possession of the gifts, graces 
and qualifications of the Holy Spirit, such as characterize the people of 
God now, and have characterized them in all ages of the world. His 
social and private virtues all bespeak him the child of God, and the 
church of God at this day would fellowship'such an individual and give 
him freely all the privileges and immunities that appertain to the heirs 
of promise. 

He was afflicted not as a punishment for his sins so much as for the 
trial of his faith— for his own good in the end, and for a pattern of 


patience and resignation that should encourage all the suffering saints of 
God, to the end of time. 

" Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, 

But trust Him for His grace ; 
Behind a frowning Providence 

He hides a smiling face. 

" Blind unbelief is sure to err, 

And scan God's work in vain ; 
God is His own interpreter, 

And He will make it plain." * 

About midway between the creation of Adam and the advent of the 
Messiah, about 2000 A. M. and 2000 B. C, a man was born in Ur of the 
Chaldees, in Mesopotamia, whose name first was Abram, and afterwards, 
at the ratification of God's covenant with him by circumcision (Gen. xvii. 
1-14), changed to Abraham. This man was chosen and called of God, and 
set up as the head of a family and progenitor of a nation, that should 
continue to exist for 2000 years t and become one highly favored of the 
Lord, and be greatly distinguished by spiritual blessings from all the 
other nations of the earth. In this family the true knowledge and wor- 
ship of God were to be preserved in the midst of the rapidly increasing 
idolatry of the world, and the church of God was to be manifested and 
be taken care of until the Messiah appeared, upon whose death the mid- 
dle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile was to be broken down, 
and then the blessings of salvation were to be extended to all nations, and 
the church of God be seen among every kindred and tribe of men. 

The call of Abram was by virtue of the sovereign, gracious will of 
God,t not at all dependent upon any human means or measures, and is a 
fit type of God's call to every man in nature's night, from darkness to 
light, and from the bondage of sin and Satan into the kingdom of God's 
dear Son. The first call of Abram moved the family with him ; for his 
father Terah and others accompanied him part of the way. The first 
stopping place was at Haran, called in the New Testament Oharram, east 
of the Euphrates, "the flood" which divided the old home of the family 
from the new land of promise. Here Terah died. Here it is thought 
Nahor remained. Haran, the oldest son, had died, and Abram and Nahor 
had married his daughters, Sarai and Milcah. At the second call of 
Abraham he crosses " the flood " (the river Euphrates) with his family 
and his nephew Lot and his family, Lot being a son of Haran and a 
brother of Abram's wife. Abram was now about seventy-five years old, 

* Elder Silas H. Durand, of Southampton, Penn., is the author of an admirable book called 
"The Trial of Job," price $1. (A Hymn and Tune Book, by Elders S. H. Durand and P G Lester 
may be had of Elder Durand for $1.25). • 

t Though now scattered over the world, the Jews are still a separate and distinct people— living 
proofs, everywhere among the Gentiles, of the truth of the Old Testament-an absolutely unicrae 
feature in the history of the world, which ought to enchain the serious attention of every think- 
ing mind: especially when this extraordinary fact was predicted by Moses 1600 years before their 
dispersion (Deut. xxx. 3). 

, t "In the midst of his polytheistic kindred, " says Prof. Max Muller, the ablest living philolo- 
gist, Abraham obtained his knowledge of the true God by a snecial divine revelation " So must 
every true child of God obtain a saving knowledge of the Most High (Matt. xi. 27 • xvi 17 • Gal i 12) 


having been bom about two years after the death of Noah. " His father 
Terah was the ninth of the patriarchs from Shem and. the nineteenth 
from Adam (inclusive). At the age of seventy (B. C. 2056) Terah begat 
three sons, Abram, Nahor and Haran. This is the order of dignity ; as 
■when we read of Shem, Ham and Japheth ; but there is no doubt that 
Haran was the oldest and Abram the youngest of the three. The name 
Abram signifies father of elevation, i. e., exalted fatlier, which was pro- 
phetic of his calling to be the ancestor of a race chosen for an exalted des- 
tiny, while the name Abraham, into which it was afterwards changed, 
signifies father of a multitude. Abram's future abode was described by 
Jehovah simply as 'a land that I will show thee ;' and so 'he went out 
not knowing whither he went.' This was the first great proof of that 
unwavering faith, which added to his two other names of father the title, 
' Father of the faithful." 1 God's promise to him runs thus; 'I will make 
of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great ; 
and thou shalt be a blessing [to others] : and I will bless them that bless 
thee, and curse him that curseth thee : and in thee shall all families of the 
earth be blessed' (Gen. xii. 3, 3). The last words already involve the 
crowning blessings of the old covenant, the promise of the Messiah, and 
that to the Gentiles, all families of the earth." — Smith. 

Abram leaves Haran, as it is said : " So Abram departed, as the Lord 
had spoken unto him ; and Lot went with him ; and Abram was seventy- 
five years old when he departed out of Haran. And Abram took Sarai 
his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had 
gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran : and they went 
forth to go into the land of Canaan ; and into the land of Canaan they 
came" (Gen. xii. 4, 5). 

Abram crossed the " Great River " (Euphrates), and passing through 
the great Syrian desert (as we suppose), reached at length the city of 
Damascus and tarried there awhile. There he added to his family that 
faithful steward of his house, Eliezer, who was a native of the place. 
Quitting Damascus, he enters the holy land, and finds a resting place in 
the valley of Shechem or Sichem, the first in the promised land. Here he 
built an altar, and here God again appeared to him, with the promise of 
giving his seed that goodly land. Nine times did God appear to him who 
was called "the friend of God." 

Abram next halted between Bethel and Ai. This was a delightful 
mountain region, but was scant of pasture for his cattle. He therefore 
kept moving southward till the presence of famine drove him out of the 
promised land into Egypt. Here he fared well ; but, for fear of losing 
his life, he called Sarai his sister, which she was indeed, according to 
the Hebrew and other languages, wherein a niece is called a sister, but 
was untrue in fact, and a misrepresentation to Pharaoh, who at first took 
her to be an unmarried woman.* Abram left Egypt " very rich in cattle, 

* No other book is so candid and truthful as the Bible. ' ' The faults of the most e m inent 
saints are not glossed over : each saint not only falls at times, but is represented as failing in the 
very grace (for example, Abraham in faith) for which he was most noted." This proves that an 


in silver and in gold," and traveled back through the south of Palestine 
to his old encampment near Bethel. 

He now soon experienced the inconvenience of having too much 
property. His herdmen and those of Lot disagreed, and, in order to keep 
peace, a separation was agreed on, Abram giving to Lot the choice of 
direction, in the true spirit of brotherly kindness ; and Lot chose the rich 
plains of the Jordan about Sodom, " well watered everywhere, as the 
garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt," which they had lately 

Abram removed to the oaks of Mamre, near Hebron, in the centre of 
the hills of the south, and there built an altar. Lot's new home brought 
Tiim into trouble. The five cities and kings of the plain became involved 
in war with Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who had established a strong 
empire in Western Asia, and thirteen years before placed these cities of 
the plain under tribute. They revolted, and the war was to force the 
payment of the tribute. The King of Elam secured the alliance of three 
other kings, and conquered the five kings, carrying off a great deal of 
booty and many captives, Lot being among the number with his goods. 

Upon hearing this Abram resolved to regain possession of his nephew, 
and to that end made an alliance with the three uncaptured kings ; and 
arming his servants, three hundred and eighteen in number, he overtook 
and punished the retiring hosts of Chedorlaomer, retook the spoils, and 
brought them, including Lot, to the valley again. He would receive no 
compensation for this outlay of time, trouble and endurance ; but after 
giving tithes of the spoils as an offering to God, he gave the remainder to 
the young kings who accompanied him. 

A remarkable scene occurred just here. Melchizedek, king of Salem, 
and priest of the Most High God, met Abram on his return from the ex- 
pedition and blessed him, and Abram gave to Melchizedek tithes of all 
the spoil. Said this priest, who also brought forth bread and wine for the 
occasion, " Blessed be Abram of the Most High God, possessor of heaven 
and earth : and blessed be the Most High God, which hath delivered thine 
enemies into thy hand." Here is a king and a priest not reckoned in the 
Hebrew or Noachian genealogy, and yet is fully accredited by Abram as 
a man of God, and one higher in authority than himself, who blesses 
Abram and receives tithes from him. Without controversy, the less is 
blessed by the greater. 

The Holy Ghost adopts this method of presenting to us the most per- 
fect type of the eternal priesthood of Christ. The Aaronic priesthood 
was insufficient, because they were not permitted to continue by reason 
of death ; and they were ordained by the law of a carnal commandment, 
but this by the power of an endless life ; without father, without mother, 
without descent, having neither beginning of days nor end of life (Heb. 

their Kraces were not of themselves, but were srif ts of God ; if He did not sustain them thev failed 
' ' It deserves to be noticed that throughout the history of the chosen race, Egypt was to them the 
scene of spiritual danprer, of covetousness and love of riches, of worldly security, of temptation 
to rest on an arm of flesh, on man's own understanding, and not on God only."— A R Fa/U8set 


ini.). This king bears a title, which Jews in after years would recognize 
as designating their own sovereign, and bearing gifts which recall to 
Christians the Lord's Supper. " Disappearing as suddenly as he came in, 
he is lost to the sacred writings for a thousand years ; and then a few 
emphatic words, for another moment, bring him into sight as a type of 
the coming Lord of David. Once more, after another thousand years, the 
Hebrew Christians are taught to see in him a proof that it was the con- 
sistent purpose of God to abolish the Levitical priesthood." Levi, who 
afterward received tithes of his brethren, paid tithes in Abraham ; for he 
was in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him. Thus we have 
presented to us, apart from the Mosaic genealogy, Job among the patri- 
archs, Melchizedek among the priests, and subsequently Balaam among 
the prophets. 

In order that Abram's faith might not fail, God renewed His promises 
to him. He bade him look toward heaven and tell the stars, if he was 
able to count them, and said unto him " So shall thy seed be." And 
Abram believed in the Lord, and He counted it to him for righteousness 
(Gen. xv. 5, 6). 

And when he was 99 years old God renewed His covenant with. 
him — changed his name to Abraham, because he was to be the father of 
many nations, and added the sign of circumcision to distinguish his male 
descendants from the rest of mankind. The name of Sarai (contentious} 
was also changed to Sarah (princess), and a son promised her, and his- 
name Isaac also given, before he was born. Isaac signifies laughter. 
Abraham fell on his face and laughed when God made the promise 
(xvii. 17). 

He therefore when born was appropriately called the child of prom- 
ise, because born out of the regular course of nature, and born by virtue 
of the promise. Typical was this birth of that of our blessed Savior, and 
also of every child of grace who is born into the spiritual world. 

Ishmael was born after the flesh, and not by promise. He was brought 
forth also by a bondmaid, and not by a free woman. Her child could not, 
therefore, either supplant or be heir with the son of the free woman. 
Ishmael was the product of the impatience of Sarah, who could not brook 
the delay in the fulfillment of God's promise, and to hasten it, put her 
servant Hagar into Abraham's bed.* The disappointment is well known ; 
and the plan and result are typical of all fleshly-made professors of reli- 
gion from that day to this. When born of the flesh, or of the blood,, or of 
the will of man, however much zeal may be manifested on the occasion, 
a mocking Ishmaelite only will be the result (Gal, iv. 22-31). Circum- 

•Polygamy began with the Cainites (Gen. iv. 19-24), and no doubt neatly helped t obringon 
the fearful ludginlnt of the flood (Gen vl 1-5). It was practiced by the Hebrews ^*A a h "f*S 
return from BaWlon. The desire of offspring among the Jew? was associated with .the hope 01 
the promised Redeemer. This in some degree palliates, though it does not Bttotte £°Fg*3L 
nage of Abraham and Jacob. The seeming laxity of morals thus tolerated is a ftaturein t ne cu 
vine plan arising from its progressive character. In the beginning, when W was s mlesfl^*oa 
made but one woman for one man. But, when man fell, and, ™ .thf jou™ of deTdopmg corrap 
tion, strayed more and more from the original law, God provisionally .sanctioned a . coae ™g£ 
imposed some checks on the Prevamnglicentiousness-theveryperinission £«*« « <$ffi B ^£w* 
the hardness of man's heart (Matt. six. 8). Christ restored the original pure code (Matt. six. i »). 


«ision was enjoined as a rite to be imposed on all the male descendants 
of Abraham, when eight days old, as well as on the servants and on all 
.slaves when they were purchased (Gen. xvii. 12, 13). 

Ishmael's share in the temporal promise was confirmed by his circum- 
cision ; and the rite is still observed by the Arabs, who are his descendants. 

Again God appeared to Abraham as he sat in his tent door, under the 
oak of Mamre. He became aware of the presence of " three mem," for 
such they appeared to him • and offered them that hospitality which is 
commemorated in the apostolic precept : "Be not forgetful to entertain 
strangers: for thereby some have often entertained angels unawares" 
(Heb. xiii. 2). " He soon learnt the dignity of his visitors, when they in- 
quired after Sarah, and rebuked her incredulity, by repeating the prom- 
ise that she should bear Abraham a son, and fixing the time for its fulfill- 
ment." Upon their departure with their faces toward Sodom, Abraham, 
as " the friend of God," brought them on their way, when the design of 
Sodom's overthrow was made known to him. Two of the persons left, 
and with the other Abraham conversed and interceded for the salvation 
of Sodom, but without avail, for not even ten righteous men could he 
found within that devoted city. The person addressed was God, we sup- 
pose, or the Son of God veiled in assumed humanity, and the two others 
were angels who went down to snatch from destruction Lot and his 
family from the city of Sodom. Lot and wife and two daughters are all 
that would leave. His wife, because she looked back, was turned to a 
pillar of salt ; and as he and two daughters entered the city of Zoar (a 
little city) at sunrise on the morning of the next day, Jehovah rained 
down upon the cities — Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim — " brim- 
stone and fire from Jehovah out of heaven; and He overthrew these 
cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that 
which grew upon the ground" (Gen. xix. 24, 25; compared with Deut. 
xxix. 23 ; Isaiah xiii. 19 ; Jer. xx. 16 ; 1. 40 ; Ezek. xvi. 49, 50 ; Hosea xi. 8 ; 
Amos iv. 11 ; Zeph. ii. 9).* 

" The plain in which the cities stood, hitherto fruitful ' as the garden 
of Jehovah,' became henceforth a scene of perpetual desolation. Our 
Lord Himself and the Apostles Peter and Jude have clearly taught the 
lasting lesson which is involved in the judgment ; that it is a type of the 
final destruction by fire of a world which will have reached a wickedness 
like that of Sodom and Gomorrah (Luke xvii. 29 ; 2 Peter ii. 6 ; Jude 7). 
A more special warning to those who, when once separated from an un- 
godly world, desire to turn back, is enforced by the fate of Lot's wife, 
who when she looked back from behind him, became a pillar of salt (Gen. 
xix. 26; Luke xvii. 32). 

* It is believed that the wicked cities occupied a part of the site now covered bv the Dead Sea 
There are vast quantities of sulphur and bitumen and salt, and numerous evidence of othM than 
volcanic combustion, in and around that most mysterious bodv of S tS» =,?£f»™ m "«K 
Dead Seals 1.300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and ilswaTer to the north™ part il 
1,800 feet deep It is the deepest depression on the surface of the larth and theai?aborcand 
around has a hot, steaming, stamanlt, sulphureous character; neither animals nSveSlbta 
live in the water ; dead dnftwood fringe i the shores-apt emblems of the LwnSrals of th^coSTnt 
inhabitants of the plam, and God's terrible Judgment upon them, -spiritual and Eternal death 


" Lot himself, though saved from Sodom, fell, like Noah after the 
deluge, into vile intoxication, of which his own daughters took advantage 
to indulge the incestuous passion, from which sprang the races of Moab 
an&Ammon (Gen. xix. 30-38)." — W. Smith. 

The fourth resting place of Abraham in the Holy Land was Beersheba, 
at the southwestern extremity of the country, so that the established 
formula to indicate the whole country was to say " from Dan to Beer- 
sheba." Abimelech reigned in the valley of Gerar, and, through fear 
of him, Abraham practiced another deception in regard to his wife 
(Gen. xx). 

In Beersheba Isaac was born, and the greatest trial of Abraham's 
faith was made when he was called upon to offer his son Isaac in sacrifice 
to God as a burnt-offering. There was not the slightest hesitation, how- 
ever, on the part of Abraham, in obeying this command. He took his 
son, then twenty-five years old, to the spot designated by the Lord, clave 
the wood, laid his son on the altar, and raised the knife to slay him, when 
he was arrested by a voice from heaven, forbidding his doing the deed. 

A ram was immediately seen caught in a thicket by his horns, and 
him Abraham took and offered in the stead of his son.* Thus a burnt 
offering was made and Isaac set free. Isaac became a figure of the church 
and the ram a figure of Christ. 

Abraham intended to slay his son, believing, no doubt, that God 
would restore >n'm to him alive, so that he and his son could both return 
to the young men again whom they had left with the ass at the foot of 
the mountain (Gen. xxii. 5; Heb. xi. 19). 

" And Abraham called the name of that place Jehovah-jireh [the Lord 
will provide] : as it is said to this day, In the mount of the Lord it shall 
be seen" (Gen. xxii. 14). 

Such a trying scene as this has never been surpassed, and to the end 
of time Abraham must be considered the father of the faithful ; so all 
that do believe in Christ are reckoned the children of Abraham. 

Abraham moved again to his old resting place at Hebron, and there 
Sarah died at the age of 127, which induced him to purchase land of the 
inhabitants for a burial place ; for up to this time he owned no land. He 
bought of Ephraim, the Hittite, the cave of Machpelah (or the Double 
Cave), close to the oak of Mamre, with the field in which it stood, for the 
sum of four hundred shekels' weight of silver, " current money with the 
merchant" (about two hundred and fifty dollars). "Here he buried 
Sarah; here he was buried by his sons Isaac and Ishmael; there they 
buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife ; Jacob and his wife Leah, and per- 
haps Joseph.f It is said that the sepulchre still exists under the mosque 

•It was then that Abraham saw Christ's day, and was glad (John viii. 66). It was Abraham's 
faith, not his work, that was imputed to him for righteousness (Gen. rv. 6 : Romans iv 1-25) : and 
yet that faith would not have proved its reality and vitality unless it had worked in loving oDeoi- 
enoe to God (1 Cor. xiii. 2: Gal. v. 6 ; James ii. H-16). 

t "Whence came the extraordinary, passionate affection of such sensible men as Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, father, son, grandson and great-grandson, for the hUly and rocky land 
of Canaan, inhabited by anidolatrous and most corrupt people, while aU that they possessed in 


of Hebron, and was first permitted to be seen by Europeans since the 
Crusades, when it was visited by the Prince of Wales in 1882. Hebron 
is held by the Mussulmans to be the fourth of the Holy Places ; Mecca, 
Medina and Jerusalem being the other three." 

After the burial of Sarah, Abraham seems to have returned to his old 
home again, Beersheba. His next care was to procure a wife for his son 
Isaac. She must not come from the idolatrous and depraved Canaanites 
among whom he dwelt, but must be taken from among his own family 
relations. Therefore, the oldest servant was sworn in the matter, and 
undertook the task of finding a wife for Isaac. With ten camels and 
divers outfits and presents he started on his journey and kept on his way, 
till he crossed "the flood," the great river Euphrates, and found the city 
of Haran, in Mesopotamia, where Terah, Nahor, Abraham and Lot first 
halted after leaving Ur of the Chaldees, and where Nahor remained when 
Abram and Lot recommenced their journey toward the land of Canaan. 
God prospered the servant's journey and search ; for there at Haran he 
found the damsel suited to his young master in the person of Rebekah, 
daughter of Bethnel and granddaughter of Nahor. She was the daughter, 
therefore, of Isaac's own cousin. The whole narrative, as recorded in 
the Bible, is very interesting, and clearly shows the hand of Providence 
as guiding the purpose of Abraham and directing the course of his ser- 
vant from first to last. 

Isaac took Rebekah into his mother's tent, and she became his wife, 
and he loved her, and was comforted after his mother's death (Gen. xxiv. 
67). Isaac was forty years old when he was married, and Ms residence 
was by the well of La-liai-rol, in the extreme south of Palestine. 

After the marriage of Isaac, Abraham formed a new union with 
Keturah, by whom he became the father of the Keturaite Arabs. He is 
said to have married Keturah, but perhaps the union was only that of 
concubinage, as her sons had no inheritance with Isaac and were sent off 
eastward with presents, so as to be entirely out of Isaac's way, as Ishmael 
was in the first instance. To Isaac he gave his great wealth, and then 
died in a good old age. He died, apparently at Beersheba, at the age of 
175. His sons Isaac and Ishmael met at his funeral and buried him in the 
cave of Machpelah. Ishmael survived him just fifty years, and died at 
the age of 137. 

The character of Abraham is one of the noblest in history. Modest, 
courteous, judicious, hospitable, generous and affectionate, full of rever- 
ence, love and submission to God, he lived a life of pre-eminent faith and 
prayer, and brought up his children in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord. Yet twice, influenced by the fear of man, he denied his own wife, 

that land was little more than a grave ? What drew Abraham to it from the fertile plain of Meso- 

Eotamia, brought him back to it from wealthy and civilized Esrypt, and would not let him hear of 
saac leaving it ? What made its attractions so irresistible to Jacob, brining him back to it after 
Ions: absence, in spite of his exceeding fear of Esau ? What made Joseph, the great lord of Egypt, 
decline the honors of pyramid and mausoleum, and bind his brethren so solemnly to bury his 
bones in the soil of Canaan ? Of these strange facts no other feasible explanation can be devised 
than that it was the promise of God to give to them and their posterity the land of Canaan, and to 
cause to be born of their descendants, rn that land, one in whom all the families of the earth 
were to be blessed."— W. G. Blaikie. 


and he yielded to her wishes, when Isaac's birth was delayed and he he- 
came a polygamist. 

The Bible is different from all other books ; it whitewashes none of 
its heroes, patriarchs, prophets, priests or kings, but gives an unvarnished 
statement of all their most important actions, whether good or bad, with 
the consequences, so that all may properly judge of them, and, while 
imitating their virtues, avoid their vices. The ancient worthies of the 
Old Testament, who, according to the Apostle Paul, form such a great 
crowd of witnesses for the truth (Heb. xi.), as well as the Apostles and 
mini sters of the New Testament, who give such honor and glory to God, 
were all sinners saved by grace, and liable to err either in faith or prac- 
tice occasionally, during the term of their natural lives. There is no per- 
fection in the flesh, even if it is the flesh of saints. But their sins bring 
sorrow to their hearts, and produce a continual repentance toward God for 
the same. 



About twenty years after the marriage of Isaac to Rebekah (her bar- 
renness being removed), she brought forth twins, Esau (hairy) or Edom 
(red) and Jacob (the supplanter). Perhaps no twin brothers were ever 
more dissimilar in appearance and character than these. There was 
commotion in the womb, and at birth the hand of Jacob grasped the heel 
of the first born, Esau, denoting that craft by which he should eventually 
supplant his brother, and gain the birthright.* They were unlike each 
other mentally and physically. Esau was ruddy and hairy, and became 
a wild hunter ; while Jacob was a smooth man and became a quiet deni- 
zen of the tent. These differences of character were fostered by the im- 
proper partiality of the parents, which always produces unhappiness in 
the family circle. " Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison; 
but Rebekah loved Jacob " (Gen. xxv. 21-28). 

Esau parted with his birthright, and thereby became a " profane per- 
son^' according to the Apostle Paul (Heb. xii. 16), and he was not in the 
regular line of succession from Abraham to Christ. On returning from 
hunting once, very much fatigued and quite hungry, he discovered Jacob 
preparing some red pottage of lentils, and quickly asked for " some of 
that red, red." Being impatient for it, his brother seized on the occasion 
to buy his birthright, and Esau readily promised it to him for the sake of 
the pottage. He parted with a great deal for a very little. By right of 
birth he was the head of the family and entitled to be its prophet, priest 
and king. By birthright he was the head of the chosen family ; on him 
devolved the blessing of Abraham, that in his seed all families of the 
earth should be blessed (Gen. xxii. 18). By " despising his birthright" he 
"despised" those rich provisions and great temporal and spiritual bless- 
ings which God had in store for the family of Abraham. 

When the time came, therefore, for his father Isaac to impart the 
patriarchal blessing to his first son, Jacob, f at the command of Rebekah, 

* " Ab Jacob took Ms brother by the heel in the womb (Hos. xii 3), bo the spiritual Israel, 
every believer, having: no right in himself to the inheritance, yet by faith, when being- born again 
of the Spirit, takes hold of the bruised heel, the Divine humanity, of Christ crucified, the first- 
born of many brethren."— J.. R. Fcmsset. 

t "Jacob's seeking- a right end by wrong; means entailed upon him a lifelong- retribution in 
kind. Instead of occupying the first place of honor in the family, he had to flee for his life; in- 
stead of a double portion, he fled with only a staff in his hand." And, as he had deceived Isaac, 
Bo Laban deceived him in regard to Leah and his wageB; and his other sons cruelly deceived him 
in regard to Joseph, pretending that he had been slain by wild beasts, when they had sold bim 
into bondage. 


served the savory meat to his father, and received the blessing "before 
Esau came "with his venison. Isaac was deceived, but would not recant 
or change his blessing, believing it to be God's will that Jacob should 
have it ; and Esau could not obtain it though he sought it with tears (Gen. 
xxvii. 34). Isaac dwelt quietly in the land of Palestine, his life forming 
a great contrast to that of his father, Abraham. About Beersheba he re- 
sided mostly, and was not allowed to go down into Egypt or out of the 
promised land. He was much mortified at the marriage of Esau to his two 
Hittite wives, and favored the errand of Jacob into the land of Padan- 
aram (Mesopotamia) in search of a wife from among his own kindred- 
Many years afterward, when Jacob visited him at Hebron, he died, at the 
age of 180 years. 

Jacob pursued his journey toward the land of Padan-aram, with staff 
in hand, a solitary wanderer, along the path by which Abraham had 
traversed Canaan. Proceeding northward he lighted on a place, the site, 
doubtless, of Abraham's encampment near Bethel, twelve miles north of 
Jerusalem, where he found some stones which probably belonged to the 
altar set up by Abraham, one of which he made his pillow. Though a 
poor, selfish sinner and an outcast, in a " waste, howling wilderness " 
(Deut. xxxii. 9, 10), a covenant-keeping God graciously visited him in a, 
dream,* showed him a ladder f reaching from earth to Heaven, upon 
which the angels of God were ascending and descending, and he heard 
the voice of God renewing His promises of protection. Jacob concluded 
that place to be the house of God and the gate of Heaven. He set up his. 
pillow for a monument, consecrating it with oil, and called the place 

•Among- the most insoluble mysteries, and among - the strongest proofs of human ignorance, 
are the phenomena of dreams, hypnotism, somnambulism and insanity. This strange region is 
not accessible to accurate ana adequate scientific observation ; and therefore numerous conflict- 
ing opinions prevail in regard to it. The Scriptures, as well as physiology and psychology, prove- 
that many, if not most, dreams have a natural origin, being due to some peculiar conditions of 
the body or mind (Eccles. v. 3; Isaiah xxix. 8; Jude 8) ; they seem to be broken fragments of former 
thoughts revived, and hetero#eneously brought together, well compared to "chaff" by the Lord 
to the prophet Jeremiah (xxiii. 28). Some think that the mind is always active, whether asleep or 
awake: others think that, during profound sleep, all the mental powers are dormant. It isagreed 
that, during dreams, the reason is nearly always, and the will is always, dormant or asleep., 
and the mind is therefore passive or receptive. On this account it is, as Elihu says (Job xxxiii. 
15-17), that in dreams God sometimes "opens the ears of men, and seals their instruction, that He 
may withdraw man from his purpose, and hide pride from man." When man's reason and will are 
asleep, he can take no credit to himself for the impressions on his mind. This was to be, not only 
under the old, but also under the new, dispensation (Joel ii. 28; Acts ii.17). And we know from 
the direct testimony of Scripture that some dreams, under both dispensations, have had a super- 
natural, a Divine, origin. God sent instructive dreams to Abimelech (Gen. xx. 3), to Jacob (Gen. 
xxviii. 12-15), to Laban (Gen. xxxi. 24), to Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 5), to Pharaoh's butler and baker 
(Gen. xl. 6), to Pharaoh (Gen. xli. 1-32), to aMidianite (Judges vii. 13), to Solomon (1 Kings iii.6), to- 
Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel ii. and iv.), to Daniel (vii. 1). to Joseph, the husband of Mary (Matt. i.20; 
ii. 22), to the wise men from the East (Matt. ii. 12), and to Pilate's wife (Matt, xxvii. 19). Visionsof 
the night are identified in the Bible with dreams (Gen. xlvi. 2; Num. xii. 6: Jobxx. 8: xxxiii. 14, 
15; Daniel ii. 28; vii. 1). Not only Abraham, Jacob, Balaam, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and Zechariah. 
had visions from God, but also Peter and Cornelius (Acts x.), Paul (Acts xxi. 9, 10; 2 Cor. xii. l-4> 
and John (Rev.). It thus appears that unregenerate as well as regenerate men have had dreams - ' 
and visions from God. A religion, therefore, based entirely upon dreams, is worthless. Instead 
of placing 1 our chief dependence upon such uncertainties, we should remember that ' ' we have a. 
more sure word of prophecy [the Holy Scriptures], whereunto we do well to take heed, as unto a* 
light that shineth in a dark place " (2 Peter 1. 19). Yet we know, from Acts ii. 17, and from Christian 
experience, that God still comforts, warns and instructs, and humbles His people in dreams, 
according' to His sovereign will. 

tThe ladder in Jacob's dream seems first to have represented "God's grace and providence 
arranging all things for His people's good through the ministry of angels (Gen. xxxii. 1, 2 ; Heb. i. 
14) : but chiefly typified the Messiah through whom Heaven is opened and also joined to earth, 
and angels minister with ceaseless activity to Him first, then to His people (John i. 51; xiv.6; 
Heb. x. 19, 20). Jacob, the man of guile, saw Him at a distance, at the top of the ladder ; Nathanael, 
an Israelite without guile, saw Him near him at the bottom in His humiliation, which was the 
necessary first step upward to glory."— A. R. Fausset. 


Bethel—the house of God. He is thought at this time to have been in his 
seventy-seventh year. Jacob arrived at length at Padan-aram, and there 
the pastoral scenes are revived that were presented to Abraham's servant 
when he reached there in search of a wife for Isaac. Rachel, the daugh- 
ter of his uncle Laban, comes with her sheep to the well, like her aunt 
Rebekah just a century before, and brings him to the house. Jacob re- 
mained with Laban twenty years— fourteen of them for his daughter 
Rachel, and six on wages. It cannot be said that he served a day for 
Leah, but she was imposed on him by the craft and deception of her 
father. During the second seven years Jacob had born to him, by his 
two * wives and their handmaids, eleven sons and one daughter. Ben- 
jamin was born on his return to Palestine, near Bethlehem, and his 
mother died from the effect of giving him birth, and called him Ben-oni 
(son of my sorrow). But his fond father changed his name to Ben-jamin 
(son of the right hand). 

The following is a list of the twelve sons and a daughter : 
"(I.) The sons of Leah: Reuben (see! a son), Simeon (hearing), Levi 
(joined), Judah (praise), Issachar (hire), Zebulon (dwelling). 
. "(II.) The sons of Rachel: Joseph (adding), Benjamin (son of the right 
" (III.) The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid : Dan (judging), Naphtali 

(my wrestling). 
" (IV.) The sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid : Gad (a troop), Asher (happy) . 
Besides Dinah (judgment), the daughter of Leah (Gen. xxxv. 23-26)." 
— W. Smith. 

After twenty years' absence from Canaan, and just after escaping 
from his avaricious father-in-law— Laban — Jacob, returning to Palestine, 
has to meet his dreaded brother Esau, whom he had defrauded of his 
birthright and his blessing. The God of Bethel comforts Jacob again 
with a vision of angels at Mahanaim. But Jacob learns that Esau is ap- 
proaching him with four hundred men. What shall he do with his large 
a,nd helpless family and flocks'? Defenseless, distressed and terrified, 
poor Jacob betakes himself to his only possible resort, a covenant God, 
and utters the first recorded prayer of Scripture (Gen. xxxii. 9-12), a prayer 
most remarkable for faith, fervor, humility and tenderness. Peeling un- 
worthy of the least of all God's manifold mercies and truth, he implores 
the God of the covenant to deliver him and his family from the hand of 
bis brother Esau ; and he pleads the Divine promises in his behalf. Ris- 
ing up the next morning, he sends his brother a present of five hundred 
and fifty cattle to appease his anger ; he takes his family across the brook 
Jabbok, and returns himself alone to the north bank of the stream. That 
night — the most solemn of Jacob's life — the angel of Jehovah (Christ) ap- 

* ' ' Jacob's polygamy was contrary to the original law of paradise (Gen. ii. 23, 24 ; Matt. xix. 5). 
Xeah was impoBedon him, when he had designed to marry Eachel only; and the maids were given 
him by his wives to obtain offspring. The times of ignorance, when the gospel had not yet restored 
the original standard, tolerated evils which would be inexcusable now. Jealousies were the result 
of polygamy in Jacob's case, as was sure to happen."— Fausset. 


pears to him in human form, and Jacob wrestles with him until the break 
of day, for a blessing (compare Luke vi. 12). " God frequently does not 
answer the prayer of His people till the last moment — till, by the very de- 
lay — strengthening the spirit of prayer, and by the continued exercise of 
it — their hearts are brought into such a state of submission and of faith 
that they become suitable recipients of the blessing." Then, to show that 
the blessing is all of grace, the angel touches Jacob's thigh and puts it out 
of joint, and, when the poor man is able to put forth no more strength of 
his own, he still hangs upon the angel with supplication and tears (Hosea 
xii. 3, 4 ; Heb. v. 7) ; and thus " not by might or power, but by the indwell- 
ing Spirit of the Lord of hosts," (Zech. iv. 6) he prevails at last, " teaching 
us the Irresistible might of conscious weakness,lianging on Almighty strength" 
(Job xxiii. 6 ; Isaiah xxvii. 5 ; xl. 29-31 ; 2 Cor. xii. 9, 10). Jacob's name is 
changed by the angel to Israel, wrestler with God, because he has been 
permitted by grace (Zech. iv. 7) to struggle with God and prevail. He 
asks God's name, and the only reply is, God " blessed him there." Bless- 
ing is God's name or character wherein He reveals Himself to His people 
(Ex. xxxiv. 5-7). Jacob called the place Peniel, the face of God. The 
sun arises upon him, naturally and spiritually, and he rejoices in its 
beams ; but, stripped of vain self-confidence, he goes a poor cripple — a 
poor sinner saved by grace — all the remainder of his life. When Jacob 
meets Esau the next day, the anger of the latter is all gone, and the occa- 
sion is one of tenderness, and weeping, and love (Prov. xvi. 7). 

Abraham bought only a burial place in Canaan ; Jacob bought a 
dwelling-place near Shechem (or Sychar), and in his field dug a deep 
"well, through the rocks, where Christ afterwards rested (John iv. 6). He 
erected an altar for the worship of God, and soon after was greatly 
troubled because of the sins of Dinah, Simeon and Levi. By God's di- 
rection he removed to Bethel, and there also raised an altar to God, and 
purged his house of idols ; and God again appeared to him and renewed 
the covenant of promise. Soon after, he lost his beloved Rachel, and he 
and Esau buried their father Isaac, who died at the age of one hundred 
and eighty years. 

The vision of Abraham, notifying him of the sojourn of his posterity 
in the land of Egypt four hundred years, as in a house of bondage, must 
be verified, and the envy of Joseph's brethren made way for it. Joseph 
was the favorite son of his father, and this partiality was so clearly seen 
that it produced envy in the minds of his ten older brethren. This was 
the fault of his father, but none of Joseph's. The character of Joseph is 
one of the purest in the Bible ; his history one of the most interesting, an! 
his life one of the most forcible types * of the Messiah. His dreams pre- 

* Joseph was a type of Christ in his father's special love for him, in his being- sent to hiB breth- 
ren, rejected by them, sold to the Gentiles, delivered to death, in the sanctity of his life, in his 
humiliation, in his exaltation to be a prince and a savior, in the bowing- down of his kindred be- 
fore him, in his first speaking to them harshly, to humble them, but all the while loviner them, 
and dealing- kindly towards them, not taking: their money for his corn, and finally settling- all of 
them in the g-oodly land of Goshen, for which they paid nothing-. He was a prophetic interpreter 
of dreams, married in a priestly family, and ruled as a king- over Egypt. He was thirty years old 
Tvhen he entered on his public ministry. He was the first-born son of Jacob and his favorite wife. 


dieted the superiority of his position to theirs, and they but hated him the 
more for his dreams, and they resolved to kill him. On being sent by his- 
father to see how they fared while watching their sheep, he found them 
at Dothan, and there they designed to destroy him, but were diverted 
from their purpose, and they finally sold him to a company of Midianites 
that were passing by on their way to Egypt, bearing spices and gums from 
the Syrian desert. They sold him for twenty pieces of silver, and the 
purchasers took him into Egypt and resold him to Potiphar, captain of 
the king's guard. Everything prospered in the house of Potiphar for 
Joseph's sake, and his wife became so enamored with him that she as- 
salted his virtue, unsuccessfully, however, and then became his bitter 
enemy and accused him to her husband, who thrust him into prison. 
Things in the prison prospered under his management, and he became an 
interpreter of dreams. Pharaoh had dreams, and Joseph was taken to his 
presence to interpret them. He did so under the enlightening influence 
of God's Spirit ; and told the king that there would be in Egypt seven 
years of plenty, to be immediately followed by seven years of famine ; 
and advised him to appoint some one to superintend the matter, and gather 
up in store a sufficiency during the plentiful years to support the people 
during the seven years of scarcity. 

Pharaoh wisely concluded that he who interpreted the dreams was the 
most suitable person to entrust the business with, and appointed Joseph 
second ruler in his kingdom. He made him his vicegerent over Egypt, 
and gave him his own signet, the indisputable mark of royal power. 
Clothed with fine linen robes, wearing a collar of gold, and riding in the 
second royal chariot, before which the people were bidden to fall pros- 
trate, Joseph was proclaimed, with all the ceremonies which we still see 
represented on the monuments, prime minister of Egypt. He was only 
then about thirty years old, being seventeen when sold by his brethren. 
" The Coptic name which Pharaoh gave him was Zaphnath-paaneah (a 
revealer of secrets). He also gave him for wife Asenath, the daughter 
of Poti-pherah, priest or prince of On (Heliopolis), who bore him two sons 
during the seven years of plenty. As a token of oblivion of his former 
life he named his elder son Manasseh (forgetting), and he called the 
younger son Ephraim (double fruitfulness), in grateful commemoration 
of his blessings. When Joseph afterward became his father's heir, the 
double share of inheritance which fell to him was indicated by each of his 
sons ranking with the sons of Jacob as the head of a distinct tribe." 

When the years of famine set in and the corn in Canaan was ex- 
hausted, Jacob sent his ten sons down to buy corn in Egypt. Joseph 
spake harshly to them, but let them have the corn without charge. The 
second time they went he was made known to them, and they returned 
home with the glad tidings to their father that Joseph was alive. The 
incidents of these two visits are, we have thought, among the most inter- 

Rachel, and received a double portion of his father's inheritance for Manasseh and EDhraim ■ and 
had from hiB father the blessings of the everlasting: hills. f ' 


«sting and thrilling in history ; and the pathetic appeal of Judah before 
Joseph in behalf of Benjamin's release is, for pathos and true merit, we 
think, unsurpassed by any oration ever committed to record. 

At the urgent request of Joseph, Jacob and his family went down into 
Egypt and settled in the goodly land of Goshen. Thus we find the 
church in Egypt, in the year of the world 2294, B.C. 1706, to be nursed by 
the Almighty, and to multiply until it became a nation to vindicate its own 
Tights and march through unfriendly nations to the promised land again. 

The number is made up as follows : 

I. — The children of Leah, 32, viz.: 

(1.) Reuben and four sons, 5 

(2.) Simeon and six sons, 7 

(3.) Levi and three sons. .'4 

(4.1 Judah and five sons (of whom 2 were dead) and two grandsons, 6 

(5.) Issachar and four sons, 5 

(6.) Zebulon and three sons, 4 

Dinah, 1 

II. — The children of Zilpah, considered as Leah's, 16, viz.: 

(8j Asher, four sons, one daughter, and two grandsons, . . 8 
III. — The children of Kachel, 14, viz.: 

(9.) Joseph (see below) 

(10.) Benjamin and ten sons, ....'.... 11 
IV. — The children of Bilhah, considered as Rachel's, 7, viz.: 

(11.) Dan and one son, 2 

(12.) Naphtali and four sons, 5 

Total of those that came with Jacob into Egypt, . . 66 
Tothese must be added Jacob, Joseph, and two sons, . 4 

Total of Israel's house, 70 

These are the numbers of the Hebrew text (Gen. xlvi.; Deut. x. 
22), but the Septuagint completes the genealogy by adding the chil- 
dren of Manasseh and Ephraim, who of course ranked with those of the 
sons of Jacob, namely, Machfr, the son of Manasseh, and Galeed (Gilead), 
the son of Machir (2), Sutalaam (Shutelah) and Taam (Tathath), the sons 
of Ephraim, and Edom, the son of Sutalaam (3), making five in all. 
These five added to the seventy makes seventy-five in all, the number 
mentioned by Stephen in his defense before the Sanhedrim, quoting from 
the Septuagint — the version commonly used then, especially by the Hel- 
lenistic Jews, with whom his discussion began (Acts vii. 14). Wonderful 
is the comparison between this handful of persons and that vast multitude 
who left Egypt under Moses, when the day of their bondage had ended. 
Moses then estimated them to be six hundred thousand men, able to bear 
arms, from twenty years old and upward, besides women of a correspond- 
ing age and all minors, both male and female. 

Pour hundred and thirty years are reckoned from the promise made 
to Abraham to the giving of the law at Sinai (B. C. 1921— B. C. 1491), ac- 
cording to the received chronology (Gal. iii. 17). This period of time was 
about equally divided by Abraham and his descendants — say 215 years in 


Canaan and 215 years in Egypt. From the death of Joseph to the exodus 
was 144 years, and we may conclude that the length of rigorous oppres- 
sion was only about 100 years. Their increase in numbers was perhaps 
unprecedented, as it is said of them, before another king arose who knew 
not Joseph: "And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased 
abundantly, and multiplied and waxed exceeding mighty ; and the land 
was filled with them " (Ex. i. 7). And when oppression came, their in- 
crease was not much retarded, but went on almost miraculously. 

The patriarch Jacob dwelt in Egypt seventeen years, and then, yield- 
ing up the ghost, was gathered to his fathers, and buried by Joseph and 
his brethren, the elders both of Israel and Egypt and a great military ret- 
inue, in the cave of Machpelah in the land of Canaan. He lived to the 
age of 147 years. 

Before dying, he called his sons to his bedside and told them what 
should befall them in the last days. He describes their characters and 
predicts their future tribal careers. This is a very interesting portion 
of Scripture, even to our dull understanding, and if we could exactly un- 
derstand all that is said, it would be more so. 

In the prophetic scene opened to the dying patriarch, Judah is the 
central figure (Gen. xlix. 8-12). He was to be the praise of his brethren, 
and the conqueror of his enemies. Jacob likens him to a lion ; the 
standard of this tribe afterwards was a lion. Jacob adds : " The sceptre 
shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until 
Shiloh come ; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be." All 
Jewish and Christian antiquity understood this to be a prophecy of the 
Messiah, or Christ. Judah was to be the chief or ruling tribe (as it indeed 
proved to be — all the descendants of Jacob now in the world being called 
Jews, from Judah) ; and Judah was not to lose its political existence and 
supremacy until Shiloh, or the Peace-giver, should appear out of that 
tribe, and unto Him should the obedience of the nations be. " Judah 
never ceased to be a tribe with at least a tribal sceptre and lawgiver, San- 
hedrim or Senators, until the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 70. The 
power of life and death is said to have been taken by the Roman procura- 
tors, or governors, about A. D. 30, or the time of the crucifixion of Christ 
(John xxiii. 31, 32). The Idumean, Herod the Great, though appointed by 
the Roman Senate king of Judah, B. C. 40, ruled as a native sovereign, 
even rebuilding or extensively repairing and beautifying the temple, until 
his death, B. C. 4. A short time before his death, in the same year, Christ 
was born. Archelaus, Herod's son and successor, was deposed A. D. 6. 
Then Rome appointed foreign procurators over Judea in the following 
order : Sabinus, Coponius, Ambivius, Rufus, Valerius, Gratus, and Pontius 
Pilate. This is the first of four Old Testament prophecies of the very 
time of the coming of Christ, the other three being Daniel ii. 44 • ix. 24-27 • 
Haggai ii. 6-9). 

Joseph survived his father fifty-four years ; no doubt he remained in 
favor at the Court of Pharaoh while he lived. Before dying he took an 


oath of Ms 'brethren, that they would carry his hones for hurial into the 
land of Canaan, when the Lord should visit them with deliverance. He 
died at the age of 110. His remains were embalmed and preserved in 
Egypt until the Israelites left it, and were then taken along with them 
and buried at last in Canaan. 

When there arose a new king over Egypt which knew not Joseph 
(Ex. i. 8), then the afflictions of the Israelites began in earnest. He was 
afraid of their numhers and doubted their allegiance. In case of a for- 
eign war he apprehended they might takes sides with the enemy and 
thereby achieve their own independence. Said he to his people, They 
" are more and mightier than we." " Let us deal wisely with them, lest 
they multiply," etc. (Gen. i. 9, 10). Task-masters were placed over them, 
heavy burdens imposed, and they were made to serve with rigor. They 
still increased. The king commanded the midwives to destroy their male 
children at birth. This command was disregarded, because the midwives 
feared Cod more than they did the king. Then he ordained that every 
male child should be thrown into the river, and charged all his people to 
carry into execution this edict. In this he overreached himself, as Satan 
often does ; for a Hebrew child thrown into the river was instrumental in 
plaguing his people, leading off every Israelite from his dominions, and 
spoiling the glory of his empire. 

" Amram, the son of Kohath, son of Levi, had espoused Jochebed, 
who was also of the tribe of Levi, and they had already two children, a 
daughter called Miriam (the same name as the Mary of the New Testa- 
ment), and a son named Aaron. Another son was born soon after the 
king's edict. With maternal fondness increased by the boy's beauty, and 
in faith (as it seems) on a prophetic intimation of his destiny, his mother 
hid him for three months (Ex. ii. 2). When concealment was no longer 
possible, Jochebed prepared a covered basket of papyrus, daubed with 
bitumen to make it water-tight, and placed it among the rushes on the 
banks of the Nile, or one of the canals, leaving Miriam to watch the result 
at a distance. To that very spot the daughter of Pharaoh came down to 
bathe. She saw the ark, and sent one of the maidens to fetch it. As she 
opened it the babe wept, and touched with pity she said, ' This is one of 
the Hebrews' children.' At this moment Miriam came forward, and hav- 
ing received the princess's permission to find a nurse, she went and 
fetched the child's mother. While she reared him as the son of Pharaoh's 
daughter, she douhtless taught him the knowledge of the true God and 
the history of the chosen race. In all other respects Moses was brought 
up as an Egyptian prince, and 'he was educated in all the wisdom of the 
Egyptians.' Stephen adds that ' he was mighty in words and in deeds ;' 
and whatever we may think of the traditions about this period of his life, 
it was certainly a part of his training for his great mission (Acts vii. 22)." 
— W. Smith. 

When Moses was grown he " refused to he called the son of Pharaoh's 
daughter ; choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than 


to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season, esteeming the reproach of 
Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt" (Heb. xi. 24-26). 

He went out to see how his brethren were faring under their grievous 
oppressions. He saw an Egyptian task-master beating one of them. He 
slew the oppressor and hid him in the sand. The second day he went out 
to see them, and found two of them striving together ; and said to him 
that did his neighbor wrong, "Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow V 
And he said, " Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? Wilt thou 
kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian 1 " And Moses feared and said, 
•" Surely this thing is known." When Pharaoh heard of it he sought to 
slay Moses, but Moses fled from his face and dwelt in the land of Midian 
(Ex. ii. 11-15). The Midianites were, no doubt, descendants of Abraham 
and Keturah, and at that time inhabited the desert which surrounded the 
head of the Red Sea. He made the acquaintance of Jethro (also called 
Reuel and Hobab), the priest or prince of Midian, who had seven daugh- 
ters, one of whom (Zipporah) was given to Moses in marriage. Moses 
dwelt in Midian forty years. His life may be said to have been divided 
into three equal parts, viz.: 1st, forty years an Egyptian ; 2d, forty years 
an Arabian ; and 3d, forty years the leader of Israel ; making one hun- 
dred and twenty years in all. His long and splendid human training in 
Egypt had not corrected his natural rashness and self-confidence ; there- 
fore God disciplines him in humility forty years in the wildernss, apart 
from human habitations ; and, as the result of his Divine schooling, Moses 
becomes the most meek, patient and self- distrustful of men, feeling him- 
self, when he was really most qualified, to be least qualified for the great 
work of delivering and leading Israel (Num. xii. 3 ; Ex. iv. 1-17). And 
so, about 1500 years afterwards, the rash and self-confident Saul of Tar- 
sus, who was to become the great Apostle of the Gentiles, was led by the 
providence and Spirit of God into this same Arabian desert, far from flesh 
and blood, and there effectually taught, not by men, but by God, the utter 
insufficiency of all human learning and all legal righteousness — even the 
strictest obedience to the law given by Moses— and the glorious freeness 
and almighty power of the gospel of the Son of God (Gal. i. 1-24 ; Phil, 
iii. 3-11; Rom. i. 15, 16). 

At the end of forty years in the desert, God appeared to Moses in 
the back side of the desert, on the mountain of God, even Horeb, and 
there gave him an unmistakable call as the leader of His people out of 
Egypt. The burning bush, which was not consumed, gave him a striking 
figure of the afflictions of the Israelites in Egypt, and also was a forcible 
type of God's people in all ages of the world. Like the thorn-bush of the 
desert, they are lowly and poor and naturally unattractive (Zeph. iii. 12; 
Isaiah liii. 2; Rom. viii. 29; 1 Cor. i. 27, 28) ; and they have been burning, 
and burning, and burning, under the cruel hand of oppression, throughout 
every dispensation to the present time, and are even yet not consumed. 
The promise of Christ has hitherto been fulfilled, and will be to the end 
of the world : " Upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of 


hell shall not prevail against it" (Matt. xvi. 18). The flame in the bush 
also represents that God dwells in His people (Ex. iii. 2 ; Zech. ii. 5 ; Isaiah 
iv. 4 ; lvii. 15 ; Mai. iii. 2 ; Matt. iii. 11 ; Acts ii. 3, 4). 

God assured Moses that he had seen the afflictions of His people in 
Egypt, had heard their cry and had come down to deliver them. Moses 
pleaded his want of eloquence and his slowness of speech, and wished to be 
excused from making the announcement to Israel, and from appearing 
before Pharaoh. But Jehovah was not to be put off with excuses. Moses 
was the chosen vessel of God to demand the release of His people from 
Pharaoh, and to lead them out of Egypt, and he must obey the call. His 
brother Aaron was to accompany him as the more fluent speaker. The 
former king had died, and Moses ventured to approach his successor. 
But he found two obstacles in the way; first, the unwillingness of 
Pharaoh, and afterwards, the unwillingness of the Israelites because of 
their increased burdens ; for, as the demands were repeated, their burdens 
were increased. 

Pharaoh refused to let the people go three days into the wilderness 
and worship their God, and the Almighty began to afflict Egypt. Some- 
times the heart of Pharaoh would begin to relent, but soon was hardened 
again, so that he would recall his promise and bid the task-masters in- 
crease their abuses of, and augment the heavy tasks imposed on, the poor 
afflicted people of God. 

The plagues came in this order : 1. The plague of blood ; 2, the plague 
of frogs ; 3, the plague of lice ; 4, the plague of flies ; 5, the plague of the 
murrain of beasts ; 6, the plague of boils and blains ; 7, the plague of 
hail ; 8, the plague of locusts ; 9, the plague of darkness ; and 10, the plague 
of slaying the first-born in every house. The last plague sufficed, and 
Pharaoh and his people rose up and urged the Israelites to leave their 

The Israelites were prepared to go ; having borrowed (or rather re- 
quested) what they would of the Egyptians— having killed the paschal 
lamb, sprinkled the lintels of their doors with its blood, and eaten its 
flesh as their paschal supper— with loins girded and staff in hand, they 
awaited the command to march. God gave the command through Moses, 
and His presence in the pillar of cloud to direct their course encouraged 
their hearts, and they moved out of the land of Goshen toward the Red 
Sea. It was a vast multitude, and, although so numerous, order was pre- 
served and no stragglers left behind. Their number is estimated to have 
been 2,500,000. They went out on the fourteenth day of the Jewish month 
Nisan or Abib (March to April), which begun about the time of the vernal 
equinox, and which thus made the first month of the ecclesiastical year. 
This was the great day of the feast when the paschal supper was eaten, 
but the preparations had already been made by the command of God. 
Seven days afterwards the Israelites were to eat unleavened bread, and 
no leaven was to be found in their houses. 

This paschal lamb typified the Savior of sinners, " the Lamb of God 


who taketh away the sin of the world" (John i. 29). The wrath of God 
passed over the houses of those whose door-posts were sprinkled with the 
blood of the lamb ; and so does the wrath of God pass over the souls of 
those the door-posts of whose hearts are sprinkled with the blood of the 
Lamb slain from the foundation of the world (Rev. xiii. 8). Says Paul to 
the Corinthians : " Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a 
new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacri- 
ficed for us ; therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither 
with the leaven of malice and wickedness ; but with the unleavened bread 
of sincerity and truth" (1 Cor. v. 7, 8). 

" This exodus or departure of the Israelites from Egypt closed the 
four hundred and thirty years of their pilgrimage, which began from the 
call of Abram out of Ur of the Chaldees. Having learned the discipline 
of God's chosen family, and having been welded by the hammer of afflic- 
tion into a nation, they were now called forth under the prophet of 
Jehovah, alike from the bondage and the sensual pleasures of Egypt, to 
receive the laws of their new state, amid the awful solitudes of Sinai." — 
W. Smith. 

Pharaoh, who is a type of Satan, after being compelled to let the peo- 
ple go, repented of his lenity, and grieved at the loss of his slaves. That 
he might be entirely overthrown, he gathered six hundred of his chosen 
chariots and all his military array, and pursued after them. He overtook 
them at Pi-hahiroth, about thirty miles in a direct line from where they 
started. They had gone three days' journey, and in doing so turned aside 
from the apparent direct course, and encamped before Pi-hahiroth, be- 
tween Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon. This apparently 
strange and unexpected route pleased Pharaoh well — the sea on their east, 
the mountains on their south and west, and the wilderness in their rear, 
with the pursuing army pressing on to cut off their retreat. Well might 
the king say, " They are entangled in the wilderness ; the sea hath shut 
them in" (Ex. xiv. 3). At the command of God, Moses commanded the 
people to hush their murmuring— to stand still and see the salvation of 
God. He stretched his rod over the sea, and then urged them to go for- 
ward, when the waters divided, standing up on the right hand and on the 
left, and the entire host passed over dry-shod, and rested on the opposite 
shore. The Egyptian army, though so near them, could not trouble the 
hosts of Israel, because the pillar of cloud went back, and stood at the 
rear of the Israelite army and in front of Pharaoh's, presenting darkness 
to the latter and light to the former, until the peril was over. Then the 
army of Pharaoh pursued along the same path in the sea, making slow 
progress, until their entire number was situated between the two shores ; 
when, at the command of God, Moses again lifted up his rod over the sea, 
and the waters returned to their original bed, drowning every man and 
beast of the entire Egyptian host. 

This was one of the most celebrated miracles ever performed and re- 
corded in the history of the chosen family of God since the flood. And, 


like that wonderful phenomenon, the remembrance of it hath run down the 
generations of man among contiguous and distant nations, outside the 
chosen family, to the present period, as well as having been noted and 
extolled, in song and sermon, by Jews and Christians, through all the past 
ages since its occurrence, and will be to the end of time. 

The Israelites, after giving thanks to God for their deliverance, took 
up their line of march for the mount of God. They thirsted and com- 
plained, and found the waters of Marah, which, being bitter and unpal- 
atable, they murmured the more. These were sweetened by a tree which 
Moses threw into the waters, and then the people became contented.* 
But great was their delight when they reached the beautiful oasis of Elim,. 
where there were twelve wells of water and three score and ten palm trees, 
the trees to afford them shelter and the wells to afford them water, as a 
recompense for their weary journey over thirsty land and in the heat of 
the sun. These were figurative of the twelve tribes and seventy elders, 
in the old dispensation, and the twelve apostles and seventy ministers of 
the gospel, in the new. Their food brought from Egypt failing them* 
God rained down manna from Heaven to them, which they only had to 
gather and eat, and this continued during their stay in the wilderness. 
The Sabbath may have been disregarded to some extent while they were 
in Egypt, and if so it was now revived and its observance enforced by the 
prohibition to gather any manna on that day, a double quantity being- 
gathered on the day previous (Ex. xvi. 4, 35). The manna is a forcible 
type of Christ, who is the bread that cometh down from Heaven, of which, 
if a man partake, he shall never die (John vii. 50). They next march to 
Kephidim, where they become thirsty, and break out in an angry rebellion 
against Moses. God commanded Moses to smite the rock in Horeb, which 
he did, and the waters gushed out in sufficient quantity to supply all their 
need. And not only so, but it continued to supply them during their 
iourneyings in the wilderness. Hence the Apostle considers this the rock 
that followed them, and that it was a type of Christ (1 Cor. x. 4 ; Ex. xvii. 
2-7; Psalm lxxviii. 16). It was at Rephidim that Israel fought his first 
great battle, and gained the victory. It was against his kinsman Amalek, 
a nomad tribe, descended from Eliphaz, the son of Esau. The Amalekites 
seem to have inhabited the southern part of Palestine and all Arabia 
Petrea, so as to command the routes leading from Egypt into Asia. The 
cause for attacking Israel is not stated ; whether for plunder or hatred 
we cannot determine. Israel prevailed by the sign of their lawgiver 
holding up and having his hands held up till the evening (probably rep- 
resenting "the efficacy of intercessory prayer"). When his hands were 
up, holding the rod, Israel prevailed ; and when his hands were down, 
Amalek prevailed. In order to victory, Moses was seated on a rock, and 
beside him on the mountain stood his brother Aaron, and Hur, the hus- 
band of Miriam, one on either side, sup porting his hands until the going 

* Even bo, as it has been beautifully remarked, the bitter waters of affliction are always sweet- 
ened by casting into them the tree of the cross. 


down of the sun. This battle was representative of all the others fought 
by them before their entrance into Canaan. For, in all the others, they 
sometimes lost and sometimes gained the victory, but finally gained until 
they crossed the Jordan in triumph. Joshua was chosen leader of the 
host. Moses was commanded of God to write this battle and triumph in 
a book and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua. " For," said he, " I will 
utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven." " And 
. Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-Nissi " (Jehovah 
is my banner), as though he had held up his God to the Amalekites when 
the battle was raging (Ex. xvii. 8-15) . About this time Moses' father-in-law 
Jethro visited him, and brought Moses' wife and children to him, and 
advised Viim to share his labors with others — to ordain captains over tens, 
fifties, hundreds, and thousands, which he did. 

The Israelites next halt at the wilderness of Sinai on the first day of 
the third month — Sivan, June (Ex. xix. 1, 2), and present themselves be- 
±ore the Lord. God had said to Moses, " When thou hast brought forth 
the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain " (Ex. iii. 
12) . They had now reached the place, and they awaited in awful adoration 
"what was to follow. Thus we behold a nation, at the foot of a mountain 
in a waste howling wilderness, preparing to sacrifice to and worship God! 
What a sublime spectacle ! History furnishes no parallel. Four hundred 
and thirty years before, one man was called out of Ur of the Chaldees and 
a numerous seed promised him. Two-and-a-half millions of his posterity 
(large numbers having died in Canaan and Egypt in the interim) appear 
"before Him this day, A. M. 2513, B. C. 1491. Here God was to address 
them from the mountain, and tell them what to do and what not to do. 
Here was a nation, as one man, looking up to God for direction, and prom- 
ising obedience to His commands. 

The lightnings and thunderings, the noise of the trumpet, the shak- 
ing of the mountain, the smoke on its crest, the voice of God addressed to 
ihem, all produced such dread and consternation that they were over- 
■whelmed with fear ; and they stood afar off beseeching Moses that they 
might not hear that voice again. The Ten Commandments were pro- 
claimed by the voice of the Almighty, and then written on two tablets of 
stone by Him, and entrusted to the care of Moses. The first four de- 
clared the duty of the people to God, and the remaining six their duty to 
each other (Ex. xx. 1-17). The Savior reduced them to two, and said, On 
these two hang all the Law and the Prophets— viz.: Love to God and love 
to man (Matt. xxii. 37-40). Moses was then taken into thick darkness on 
the mountain, where God spake with him so long, even forty days, impos- 
ing the observances of the judicial and ceremonial law, that the people 
lost their patience, and requested Aaron to make them gods to go before 
them, for " as for this man Moses, they wist not what had become of him." 

This was on the fortieth day of his absence. They gave their jewelry 
to Aaron, who threw it into the fire, and out came the likeness of a calf, 
the image of the Egyptian god, Apis, unto which they made an altar, be- 


fore which they feasted and rose up to play, crying, " These be thy gods, 
Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt " (Ex. xxxii. 1-6). 

Moses and Joshua, coming down the mountain, saw what the people 
were doing, and Moses was so filled with anger that he threw down and 
broke* the two tables of stone on which God had written the Ten Com- 
mandments. He reproved Aaron and the people for this idolatrous pro- 
ceeding — burnt the calf — made a powder of it — put it in water and com- 
pelled them to drink the mixture, and sent volunteers of the tribe of Levi 
through the camps slaying in all directions, until three thousand fell be- 
fore the terrible sword in one day, as a punishment for this great trans- 

The nation of Israelites at this time contained vast numbers within 
its limits that were not spiritual members of the mystical body of Christ 
— did not belong to His spiritual kingdom — by living faith in Him as their 
Redeemer to come. It is true that the nation was typical of the church of 
God under the Christian dispensation, in many respects ; yet there were 
those among them who were only children of the flesh and not the chil- 
dren of promise. " For they are not all Israel which are of Israel " (Rom* 
ix. 6). 

As a nation they were in covenant relation to God ; but many among 
them were continually breaking the covenant and rendering themselves 
obnoxious to His displeasure. Their wanderings in the wilderness are 
typical of the peculiar experience of God's people in their pilgrimage from 
bondage to rest — rest in the gospel church, and rest in Heaven, of both of 
which Canaan is, hi some respects, a type (Heb. iii. and iv.). 

God gave to Moses other tables of stone, like unto the first, and re- 
quired him to deposit them in the ark for safe keeping. The first repre- 
sented our safety in Adam, which failed; the second represented our 
safety in Christ, which cannot fail. 

Moses was commanded to make a tabernacle and its furniture ; and he 
did so according to the pattern shown him in the mount. This was set up 
for the worship of God ; in it were placed the ark of the covenant and all 
the vessels necessary for use in the worship of God. Aaron and his sons 
were anointed to the priesthood ; and God manifested His approval and 
presence by the cloud which rested upon the tabernacle and the fire that 
descended from Heaven on the sacred altar. This tabernacle was to be 
used in all their wanderings and wars until the temple of Solomon should 
be built, of which this was a model, and then its contents were to be 
placed within that magnificent structure, and the priests find rest for the 
soles of their feet. 

The court, or outer inclosure, of the tabernacle was surrounded by 
canvas screens, and inclosed a space of fifty cubits (about 75 feet) north 
and south, and a hundred cubits (150 feet) east and west. The entrance 
was at the eastern end. Between the entrance and the tabernacle proper 

* Typifying that the first use which man makes of God's law is to break it. 


-was the brazen altar of 'burnt offering ; and between the altar, and the 
tabernacle was the laver, at which the priests washed their hands and feet 
on entering the tabernacle. At the western end of the court or inclosure 
was the tabernacle proper, an oblong rectangular tent-covered structure, 
thirty cubits long by ten broad and ten high, open at the eastern end, and 
divided internally into two apartments. The central ridge-pole of the 
tent was fifteen cubits high. The first or eastern apartment of the taber- 

- nacle was twenty cubits long, and was called the first or outer or anterior 
tabernacle, or the sanctuary, or the holy place ; the second or western 
apartment was a cube of ten cubits each way, and was called the second 
or inner or interior tabernacle, or the oracle, or the sanctum sanctorum, 
or the Holy of Holies, or the Most Holy Place. Between these two apart- 
ments hung a veil of blue and purple and scarlet and white linen, the 
predominating color being blue. To every part of the tabernacle and its 
furniture was applied the holy anointing oil. On the south side of the 
Holy Place stood the seven-branched golden candlestick, supplied with 
pure olive oil every day, burning all night long, and snuffed with golden 
snuffers every morning, and the snuff carried off in .golden dishes. Oppo- 
site the golden candlestick, on the north side of the Holy Place, stood the 
gold-overlaid table of show-bread, on which were twelve cakes of un- 
leavened bread, arranged in two piles, with a golden cup of frankincense 
on each, and two bowls of wine between the piles, the loaves being re- 
newed every Sabbath, and the stale loaves with the frankincense being 
«aten by the priests. Between the table and the candlestick, in the Holy 
Place, just before the veil, stood the golden altar of incense, on which in- 
cense of a peculiar, rare, and sacred composition was offered every morn- 
ing and evening by the priests, the fire being always taken from the altar 
of burnt-offering. In the Most Holy Place, just within the veil, and in 
front of the altar of incense, was placed the ark of the covenant, contain- 
ing the two tables of the law, the golden pot of manna, and Aaron's rod 
that budded, and covered by the golden lid called the mercy-seat, on each 
end of which stood the figure of a cherub, with outstretched wings, and 
with faces inclined toward each other, and toward the mercy-seat. Be- 
tween the cherubim, and just above the mercy-seat, was the golden cloud 
of the Divine Presence, called the Shekinah, (or dwelling). The cost of 
the tabernacle and its furniture is estimated to have been a million and a 
quarter of dollars. In Solomon's temple, the general proportions of the 
tabernacle were doubled, the length being sixty cubits, the width twenty, 
and the height of the Holy Place thirty cubits, of the Most Holy Place 

* twenty cubits, making the latter a perfect cube, as in the tabernacle ; there 
was no window in the Most Holy Place. The estimates of the cost of 
Solomon's temple range from half a billion to five billion dollars, there 
being such a vast quantity of gold used in its construction. It was small 
but very costly. The court of Solomon's temple is thought to have been 
one hundred cubits north and south, and two hundred east and west. The 
temple of Zerubbabel was one hundred cubits long, sixty broad and sixty 


high ; and this temple, as thoroughly repaired by Herod, had an inclosure 
lour hundred cubits square (about a furlong square), containing three 
courts, those of the Gentiles, of women, and of Israelites. The dimen- 
sions of Ezekiel's ideal (millennial) temple at Jerusalem were the same as 
those of Solomon's temple ; but it had an outer court measuring five hun- 
dred reeds on each of its sides ; that is, about a mile square, which is larger 
than the entire area of ancient Jerusalem. 

Some of the spiritual lessons which God teaches Israel by the taber- 
nacle we will now endeavor briefly to indicate. The tabernacle represents 
Christ's mystical body, the church, in which God dwells, and Israel draws 
nigh to God through atonement and regeneration, and with offerings, 
prayers and praises. The court represents the Jewish dispensation ; the 
Holy Place, the Christian dispensation ; the Most Holy Place, the glorified 
church. In the world's great wilderness, the church is a little garden in- 
closed by divine grace. Its aspect is toward the rising Sun of Righteous- 
ness. Every one who enters the true church must have the saving appli- 
cation of the Holy Spirit, represented by the holy anointing oil, and 
must pass by the altar of burnt-offering, and with the eye of faith behold 
the Lamb of God atoning thereon for his sins ; and he must be washed in 
the laver of His precious blood — cleansed by the washing of regeneration 
and renewing of the Holy Ghost. The blood comes first, and then the 
water ; so faith in Christ's blood should come first, and then the water of 
baptism, and then admission into the church. In the midst of the spirit- 
vial darkness of this world, the child of God should let his light shine — 
that light proceeding entirely, not from the candlestick, but from the oil 
of the grace and Spirit of Christ in his heart. In order for that light to 
burn well, the snuffs of carnal thoughts, words and deeds will frequently 
have to be trimmed off with the snuffers of trial, reproof and admonition, 
and, so as not to defile the sanctuary, be carried off with the snuff- dishes 
of either repentance or church censure. Having the old leaven of nialice 
and wickedness thus purged out, he is prepared to approach the table of 
the Lord, and celebrate that sacred and solemn feast with the unleavened 
bread of sincerity and truth, and thus from Sabbath to Sabbath have his 
spiritual grace renewed. Though a poor sinner, and feeling himself to 
be such, he is yet a priest unto God, and therefore every morning and 
evening, and indeed evermore, should he desire to approach the golden 
altar, and draw as near as he may to the blessed mercy- seat, and, through 
the medium of Christ's prevailing atonement and intercession, pour out 
his fervent supplications and thanksgivings to the God of his salvation. 
His great High Priest and Mediator, after having made a real, an agoniz- 
ing and an efficacious atonement for him, passed beyond the veil of the 
white, scarlet and purple clouds, and the blue heavens, and entered the 
true Holy of Holies, and there now successfully pleads the merit of His 
blood for every member of His mystical body. The seven branches of 
the candlestick represent all the different churches of Christ at different 
times and places, each independent of the other in its local government, 


but all united to one stem, Christ, and pervaded by the oil or grace of 
one Spirit, having one Lord, one faith and one baptism. The twelve 
loaves of bread represent the twelve tribes of Israel, continually shown 
or presented before the Lord, dedicated to Him, and accepted, with all 
their offerings, by Him, through the sweet frankincense of Christ's media- 
tion, and ever partaking of His blessings. The profusion of gold repre- 
sents the preciousness, beauty, solidity and purity of the church of Christ. 
The perfect cube of the Holy of Holies, 10 by 10 by 10, with squares in 
every direction, containing the Shekinah in the midst of darkness, sym- 
bolizes the perfection, order and stability of the Divine Trinity, dwelling 
in inaccessible light, enveloped with impenetrable darkness. It is the 
parable of God's presence and nature in creation, in providence and in 
grace. The cherubim represent the highest creaturely life, at once mani- 
festing and concealing God, and glorying in loving submission to Him, 
and interested in His wonderful plan of redemption. The ark of the cov- 
enant is Christ Jesus, who above all others has ever kept the holy law of 
God, and who has kept that law for His people, so that the mercy of God 
covers all the violations of the law, and God always looks down upon 
them in mercy ; and Christ also has in His hand the rod of universal and 
eternal power, and an everlasting sufficiency of heavenly provision for all 
the needs of His covenant people. The perpetual preservation of the law 
in this innermost shrine of the Divine worship represents the infinite and 
unchangeable holiness of God, also requiring perfect holiness in all those 
who abide in His presence. None can so abide except the living, as indi- 
cated by the blood brought annually into the Most Holy Place by the 
High Priest ; for the blood is the life ; and yet, separated from the animal, 
it also represents death, signifying that, in order to worship God aright, 
the flesh must be slain, the heart must be dead to all creature-worship, 
and alive unto God. The duplication of the tabernacle in Solomon's tem- 
ple represented the double emphasizing of all these momentous truths. 

The priests typified all spiritual Israelites, while the High Priest typi- 
fied Christ. The priests (the family of Aaron) were especially chosen of 
God ; the peculiar property of God ; holy to God ; and offered gifts to 
God, and received gifts from God. Their ceremonial holiness was indi- 
cated by their original consecration by the holy anointing oil (represent- 
ing the Holy Spirit in every believer) ; by their constant purification by 
water ; by their cleanly linen robes ; by the completeness of their bodily 
parts, and by their avoidance of bodily defilement. They were to devote 
themselves to the service of the Lord, and were to have no earthly inherit- 
ance, but the Lord was to be their portion, and to supply all their needs. 
All elect saints are priests unto God (1 Peter ii. 5, 9 ; Rev. i. 6 ; v. 10), 
specially chosen by the Father, specially redeemed by the Son, and 
specially purified by the Spirit ; qualified to offer up to God the acceptable 
sacrifices of humble, broken and thankful hearts, and to receive assur- 
ances of His pardoning love ; and they should always keep their garments 
unspotted from the world ; and feel deeply to rejoice, whatever temporal 


ills may betide them, that the Lord is their all-sufficient and everlasting 

The High Priest was anointed far more abundantly than the priests 
with the holy anointing oil, which was poured upon his head, so that it 
ran down upon his beard, and even to the skirts of his garments ; just as 
Christ was anointed (the very name means anointed) with the Holy Spirit 
without measure, and this Spirit of holiness and love streams down from 
Him upon all, even the lowest members of His mystical body (John iii. 34 ; 
Psalm cxxxviii.; Matt. is. 20 ; John i. 16). The rich, gorgeous, variegated 
ephod of the High Priest, with its sky-blue robe, typified the glorious, 
heavenly righteousness of Christ. "The skirt of the robe was orna- 
mented with pomegranates of blue, purple and scarlet, a small golden 
bell being attached between each two of the pomegranates ; the bells' 
sound heard from within the veil by those outside assured them that the 
High Priest, though out of sight, was still alive, and was ministering in 
their behalf acceptably before God. These sweet-sounding bells typified 
the gospel's joyful sound (Psalm lxxxix. 15) ; and the pomegranates rep- 
resented the spiritual fruits which accompany gospel preaching (Eph. v. 
32,23). On the two shoulders of the High Priest were two onyx stones 
engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel ; and on his breast- 
plate were twelve precious stones, in four rows, also engraved with the 
names of the twelve tribes ; just as the names of the twelve tribes are on 
the twelve pearl gates of the New Jerusalem, and the names of the twelve 
Apostles of the Lamb in the twelve foundations of precious stones. Thus 
was it forcibly declared that the weight of our salvation, if we are 
spiritual Israelites, rests upon the shoulders of Christ, and our names are 
always on His heart before God, not one name being wanting (Isaiah xlix. 
16 ; John x. 3 ; Rev. ii. 17 ; hi. 12)." If any of our readers wish to know 
whether their names are on the jewelled breastplate and shoulder of the 
antitypical High Priest, in the Lamb's Book of Life, let them tremblingly 
and prayerfully read the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth verses of 
the third chapter of the prophecy of Malachi. In the breastplate of 
judgment were the Urim and Thummim (lights and perfections), by which 
the High Priest consulted the will of God in reference to Israel (Ex. 
xxviii. 30; Lev. viii. 8; Deut. xxxiii. 8). It is not known what these 
were. Some suppose that they were two stones, engraved with these two 
Divine attributes and placed in the folds of the breastplate, by gazing: 
upon which the High Priest was absorbed in heavenly ecstatic contempla- 
tion, and enabled to declare the Divine will ; others think that one of 
these stones taken out by him at random indicated the answer of God ; 
others, that the High Priest heard the voice of God from within the veil ; 
and others think that the Urim and Thummim were simply a change in 
the appearance of the twelve stones in the breastplate, indicating the 
Divine answer. After David's time the higher revelation by prophets 
superseded the Urim and Thummim. Christ is the perfect revelation of 
God's will. "Like the High Priest, Christ sacrificed for, prays for, 


blesses, instructs, oversees the service of His people in the spiritual tem- 
ple, blows the gospel trumpet, and judges. Having such a ' High Priest 
passed into the Heavens,' ' over the house of God,' we ought to ' hold fast 
our profession,' ' without wavering,' ever ' drawing near with a true 
heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil 
conscience ' (Heb. iv. 14; x. 21-23)." During 1560 years, from 1491 B. C. 
to 70 A. D., there were seventy-six High Priests. Then, at the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, the God of providence removes the needless type, as 
the God of grace had already sent the eternal antitype in the person of 
His Son. 

As it has been well said, the key-note of the whole sacrificial system 
is the same — self-abdication and a sense of dependence on God. Every 
sacrifice was assumed to have a vital connection with the spirit of the 
worshiper. The offering, unless accompanied with the heart of the offerer, 
was rejected by God (Psalm xl. 6; 1. 8-15; Prov. xxi. 3; Isaiah i. 11-15; 
Jer. vii. 21-23 ; Hosea vi. 6 ; Mieah vi. 7, 8 ; 1 Sam. xv. 22 ; Mart. v. 23, 24). 
There were three kinds of offerings for the altar, in the following histori- 
cal order: 1st, The burnt-offering, which, throughout Genesis, seems the 
only offering made by the people of God; 2d, the meat-offering (un- 
bloody), or the peace-offering (bloody) ; and 3d, the sin or trespass-offer- 
ing (Lev. i., ii., iii., iv.). The legal or ritual order was : 1st, The sin-offer- 
ing; 2d, the burnt-offering; and 3d, the peace-offering (Lev. viii.). The 
idea of sacrifice was complex, involving three elements, the expiatory, the 
self-dedicatory, and the eucharistic. All these three ideas entered into 
every sacrifice ; but expiation or propitiation or atonement was the pre- 
dominating element in the sin or trespass-offering ; and thanksgiving in 
the meat or peace-offering. The spiritual order corresponds to the ritual ; 
the sin of the worshiper must first be taken away by an atonement ; then 
he must be consecrated to God ; and then he can offer up acceptable sacri- 
fices of praise and love. The sin-offering was in part burnt upon the 
altar, in part given to the priests, or burnt outside the camp ; the burnt- 
offering was wholly burnt upon the altar; the peace-offering was shared 
between the altar, the priests and the sacrificer. The incense offered, 
after sacrifice, in the Holy Place, and (on the day of atonement) in the 
Holy of Holies, was a symbol of the intercession of the priest (as a type 
of the great High Priest), accompanying and making efficacious the 
prayer of the people. 

The same five animals that God commanded Abraham to offer in the 
sacrifice of the covenant (Gen. xv. 9) are the five alone named in the law 
for sacrifice: The ox, sheep, goat, dove and pigeon (the ancient Jews 
kept no home-bred fowls or chickens). These animals fulfilled the three 
legal conditions; they were legally clean, were commonly used for food, 
and formed a part of the home wealth of the sacrifices, who thus offered 
up the support of their life for that life itself. Every sacrificial animal 
was to be perfect, without spot or blemish, neither diseased nor deformed ; 
except that a victim with a disproportioned limb was allowed in a free- 


•will peace-offering. A male animal was generally required ; and the age 
was from a week to three years old. " Such animals only were allowed in 
sacrifice as are most useful and valuable to man, and such as are most do- 
mestic (or nearest to man), harmless, patient and cleanly. Neither filthy 
swine, nor devouring lions, nor the warlike horse, nor the subtle fox, nor 
the voracious dog, nor any creature that subsists on animal food, was ap- 
pointed for sacrifice ; but, in general, those alone which represent most 
aptly what Christ would be, and what His people ought to be ; as the 
laborious, patient ox ; the gentle, harmless and cleanly sheep ; and the 
tender, loving, mourning dove ; for even the useful goat was sacrificed far 
less frequently than sheep and oxen."— T. Scott. 

The unbloody offerings are generally acknowledged to have been ex- 
pressions of dependence, thankfulness, and homage to God ; but it is im- 
possible to explain satisfactorily the bloody offerings except as originat- 
ing by Divine appointment, and pointing forward to the one great spot- 
less antitypical Victim who was to come in the fullness of time, and suffer 
for the sins of the spiritual Israel. Life was the divinely appointed for- 
feit of sin (Gen. ii. 17 ; Ezek. xxiii. 20 ; Horn. vi. 23) ; the blood contains 
the life, according to both Scripture (Lev. xvii. 11) and science ; and, 
therefore, for the remission of sins, the life-blood must be taken (Ley. 
xvii. 11 ; Heb. ix. 22). But the victim must be more closely related to us 
than are the inferior animals ; he must be, according to the first procla- 
mation of the gospel, in Eden (Gen. iii. 15), a " seed of the woman ;" and 
yet he must be without any blemish or sin of his own, as typified by the 
legal sacrifices ; and he must be able to bruise the head of the serpent, or 
conquer Satan ; in other words, he must be a holy, omnipotent man, one 
partaking of the nature both of God and of man, the Son of God and the 
Son of man ; in order that, in His human capacity, He may render all the 
active and passive obedience that the law required, even unto death ; and 
that, in His Divine capacity, He may rise again, re-enter Heaven, and 
ever live to make efficacious intercession for the purchase of His blood. 
In the mind of every spiritual Israelite, even under the old dispensation, 
" the lessons conveyed in the symbols of the altar must have all con- 
verged, with more or less distinctness, towards the Lamb slain from the 
foundation of the world (Rev. xiii. 8), who was to come at the appointed 
time, that he might fulfill all righteousness (Matt. iii. 15), and realize in the 
eyes of men the true sin-offering, burnt-offering and peace-offering ; who 
has now been made sin for us, though He knew no sin, that we might 
be made the righteousness of God in Him (2 Cor. v. 21) ; who has given 
Himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling 
savor (Eph. v. 2) ; who is our peace, that He might bring us nigh by His 
blood (Eph. ii. 13, 14) ; our true paschal lamb which has been slain for 
us (1 Cor. v. 7), to the end that by eating His flesh and drinking His blood 
we might have eternal life (John vi. 54").— 8. Clark. The nature and 
effect of Christ's atoning sacrifice was forcibly illustrated by the ritual of 
the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.; xxiii. 26-32 ; Num. xxix. 7-11 ; Heb. ix.). 


This was the tenth day of the seventh month (third of October), five days 
before the Feast of Tabernacles. It was the only day of fasting and 
humiliation enjoined in the law. It was a Sabbath, a day of holy convo- 
cation or assembly, on which the children of Israel were to afflict their 
souls, and do no manner of work, under penalty of being cut off from the 
Lord's congregation. " The one absorbing thought of all was to be the 
great atonement by the High Priest on that day. No other priest was 
allowed to be in or about the sanctuary on that solemn day, teaching that 
his antitype, the Messiah, has a priesthood exclusively His own, and no 
work of another is to be added to His complete work of atonement. The 
High Priest bathed and dressed himself in white linen garments, symbol- 
izing the holiness required for the admission into God's presence— the 
holiness of Christ. This was the only day in the year on which the High 
Priest, even, entered the Holy of Holies. Taking a censer with burning 
coals from the brazen altar, and applying a handful of incense, he entered 
the Most Holy Place, where the mercy-seat became enveloped in the cloud 
of smoke from the incense, typifying Christ's merits incensing our prayers, 
so as to make them a sweet- smelling savor to God (Eev. viii. 3, 4). Then, 
being a sinner himself, the Jewish High Priest atoned for himself and 
family ; the true High Priest, being sinless, has to make no atonement for 
himself. Afterwards the High Priest offered an atonement for Israel. 
This consisted of two goats, on one being written ' For Jehovah,' on the 
other ' For Azazel ' (or ' For Complete Removal 1 ). The lots were cast, and 
one goat (that for Jehovah) was slain, and its blood was sprinkled upon 
and before the mercy-seat, typifying Jesus' vicarious bearing of our sins' 
penalty, death ; and the other, or scape-goat, after the High Priest had 
laid his hands upon its head and confessed over it all the sins of Israel, 
was sent away by a fit man into the wilderness, a land not inhabited, and 
there let loose, typifying the complete removal of our sins out of sight to 
where no witness will rise in judgment against us, ' as far as the east is 
from the west' (Psalm ciii. 12), ' Christ's rising again for our justification' 
(Rom. iv. 25), so that, being dead to sin and the law, we live by union 
with His resurrection life, sin being utterly put away in proportion as 
that life works in us (John xiv. 19 ; Rom. vi.; Col. iii.). Death and life 
are marvelously united alike in Christ and His people. The same fact 
was symbolized by the slain bird and the bird let loose after having been 
dipped in the blood of the killed bird (Lev. xix. 4-7). The Jewish High 
Priest entered the Most Holy Place once every year to repeat his typical 
atonement ; but the true High Priest infinitely transcends the type, for 
He entered Heaven, the Most Holy Place, not made with hands, once for 
all, having ' by one offering forever perfected them that are sanctified,' 
and 'obtained eternal redemption for us,' so that 'there is no more offer- 
ing for sin ' (which condemns the Roman Catholic notion of the Lord's 
supper being a sacrifice). After the typical High Priest's atonement, the 
veil between the Holy and the Most Holy Place continued as before to 
preclude access to priests and people alike ; but the veil was rent at 


Christ's death, throwing open the holiest Heaven continually to all be- 
lievers through faith in His sacrifice. The Jewish Gemara states that the 
High Priest tied a tongue-shaped piece of scarlet cloth on the scape-goat, 
and that as the goat was led away, the red cloth turned white as a token 
•of God's acceptance of the atonement, illustrating Isaiah i. 18, ' Though 
your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow ; ' but that no such 
change took place for forty years before the destruction of Jerusalem— a 
singular testimony from Jewish authority to Christ, as He was crucified, 
or made the true atonement, just forty years before the destruction of the 
loly city ; the type ceased when the antitype was realized. The day of 
atonement was the indispensable preparation for the joy that followed in 
-the Feast of Tabernacles; and so we can only truly 'joy in God' when 
' through our Lord Jesus Christ we have received the atonement ' (Rom. 
v. 11)."— -4. B. Fausset. , 

Including the Day of Atonement, the Jews, before the Babylonian cap- 
tivity, had nine sacred seasons, five connected with the Sabbath— the 
weekly Sabbath itself, the Feast of the New Moon, the Sabbatical Month 
and Feast of Trumpets, the Sabbatical Year, and the Year of Jubilee ; and 
■three great annual festivals— the Passover, the Feast of Pentecost, and the 
Feast of Tabernacles or Ingathering. After the captivity they had also 
the Feast of Purim and the Feast of Dedication. 

The weekly Sabbath was a day of rest and recreation and mercy after 
six days of labor, in celebration of God's completion of creation, and also 
of His deliverance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage. It was a day 
of holy convocation ; the morning and evening sacrifices were doubled ; 
the show bread was renewed ; in later times the worship of the sanctuary 
was enlivened by sacred music ; the people consulted the prophets ; and in- 
structed their children in sacred things. After the Babylonian captivity, 
and in the New Testament times, the Jews had public worship in their 
synagogues on the Sabbath day. Christ and His Apostles occasionally 
attended such worship. The monthly feast of the New Moon was an- 
nounced at the first sight of her new crescent by the sounding of two 
sacred silver trumpets ; the day, though not kept as a Sabbath, had special 
sacrifices. The Sabbatical Month was the month of Tisri, being the sev- 
enth of the ecclesiastical, and the first of the civil year ; its first day fell 
on a Sabbath, and this, the civil new year's day, was ushered in by the 
Mowing of trumpets, and was called the Feast of Trumpets. It was a holy 
convocation, and had special sacrifices. The tenth of this month was the 
great Day of Atonement ; and from the fifteenth to the twenty-second of 
the month was the Feast of the Tabernacles. The Sabbatical Year was 
each seventh year ; and God, the proprietor of the land, required His peo- 
ple not to sow the land that year, nor even to gather the spontaneous 
fruits, but to leave such for the poor, the slave, the stranger and the cat- 
tle, and to release all Hebrew slaves and debtors. Treble fertility in the 
sixth year was promised for the support of the people in the seventh, 
eighth and ninth years. They could in this year make their clothing, fish, 


hunt, take care of their bees and flocks, and repair their buildings and 
furniture ; and, especially in the Sabbatical year, were men, women, chil- 
dren and strangers to be gathered and taught the law. The non-observ- 
ance of the Sabbatical year was one of the chief national sins punished 
by the Babylonian captivity, during which the land was left desolate for 
seventy years, that it might enjoy its Sabbaths. The Year of Jubilee 
came after a Sabbatic series of Sabbatic years, and was every fiftieth or 
Pentecostal year. It began with the great Day of Atonement, the tenth day 
of the seventh month (Tisri). After the sacrifices of that solemn day the 
trumpet of jubilee pealed forth its joyful notes, proclaiming liberty to the 
captive prisoner and slave, and the restoration of land to its original pro- 
prietors — a great protection to the poor, and an effectual safeguard against 
the accumulation of vast estates. This year completed the great Sabbatic 
cycle, and made all things new. It was a year of rest from labor, and of 
religious worship. The very existence of these Sabbatical laws, so un- 
common in the world, and so irksome to the covetous nature of man, 
proves the reality of the miracles wrought by God through Moses ; for noth- 
ing else could have made an unspiritual people willing to submit to such 
restraining laws. All the Sabbatical seasons typified Christ, the true rest 
of spiritual Israel ; for He it is who, by virtue of His great atonement, has 
been anointed with the Spirit of the Lord, above measure, to preach the 
gospel to the poor, healing to the broken-hearted, deliverance to the cap- 
tives, recovering of sight to the blind, liberty to the bruised, and comfort 
to all that mourn in Zion, that they may be called trees of righteousness, 
the planting of the Lord, that He may be glorified (Isaiah lxi. 1-3 ; Luke 
iv. 16-21 ; Matt. xi. 28-30 ; Heb. iv. 3). Thus, by these constantly recurring 
seventh periods of rest, would God perpetually remind His spiritual peo- 
ple of their only true source of perfect rest, Christ Jesus. This glorious 
rest will not be fully realized by the people of God until the heavenly 
jubilee of the resurrection trumpet is sounded, when every redeemed 
man, with reunited and incorruptible soul and body, shall enter upon his 
eternal possession in the antitypical Canaan (Lev. xxv. 13 ; Isaiah xxxv. 
10; 1 Cor. xv. 53-57; 1 Thess. iv. 16-18; Heb. iv. 9; 1 Peter i. 1-5). 

Three times every year, at the three great annual festivals, Passover, 
Pentecost, and Tabernacles, all the Hebrew males were required to appear 
together before the Lord, at the tabernacle or temple, and make an offer- 
ing with a joyful heart. God's object was to promote, in this way, the 
religious zeal and knoivledge and union of His covenant people, to bring 
them frequently together in loving brotherly fellowship for the worship 
of God— the very same object that is now beautifully and pleasantly sub- 
served by the frequent assemblies of the people of God in their quarterly,, 
yearly, union, corresponding, and associational meetings. Devout women 
often attended these sacred festivals. Not only from all parts of Pales- 
tine, but, after the captivity, from all parts of the civilized world, the 
people of God assembled at these meetings (Acts ii. 5-11). The three, 
great annual feasts had a three-fold bearing— natural, historical and 


spiritual (or typical or prophetical); "the thing that hath been is that 
which shall be," says Solomon (Eccles. i. 9) ; or, as Bacon expresses it, 
" All history is prophecy." 

The Passover was about the first of April, and marked the beginning 
of the grain harvest ; the first green ears of barley were cut, a handful 
presented to the Lord, and others were parched and eaten by the people. 
It was a memorial of the nation's birth, when the destroying angel passed 
over the houses of the Israelites, whose door-posts were sprinkled with 
the blood of the paschal lamb, while he destroyed the first-born in every 
Egyptian family, thus delivering the Israelites from Egyptian bondage. 
For each family a lamb was slain and roasted entire, and eaten, with un- 
leavened bread and bitter herbs, by the members of the family, standing, 
with loins girt, feet shod, and staff in hand; and if any of the lamb re- 
mained till the morning it was to be consumed with fire. The first-born 
thus specially delivered by the Lord were specially devoted to Him, and 
specially redeemed (Ex. xi. 5, 7; xiii. 2, 13; Heb. xii. 23). Christ is the 
true paschal lamb sacrificed for spiritual Israel (1 Cor. v. 7). By His 
death, and His blood being applied by the Holy Spirit to our hearts, we 
are delivered from ruin. In celebrating the Christian Passover, or the 
Lord's Supper, we are to put away the leaven of hypocrisy and wicked- 
ness and eat the bitter herb of godly sorrow for our sins, and remember 
that we are pilgrims here, just ready, at any time, to depart to a better, 
even a heavenly country (Heb. xi. 13-16). We should be devoutly thank- 
ful and consecrated to God for being specially redeemed by the precious 
blood of the Lamb (1 Peter i. 15-21 ; Eev. v. 9). The body of the paschal 
lamb was cooked entire, no bone being broken, to denote the complete- 
ness of the redemption of Christ, and the indissoluble oneness of His mys- 
tical body ; and it was roasted, and not boiled in water and wasted, to in- 
dicate the preciousness of Christ's salvation and of His people ; and, if 
any remained till morning, it was consumed by purifying fire, to prevent 
it from seeing corruption or from being put to a common use — indicating 
that God's people are never to become reprobates. In later times, the 
Israelites, at the Passover, sang the Hallel, or Psalms cxiii.-cxviii. It is 
believed that this was the hymn sung by Christ and His Apostles after the 

The Pentecost, or Harvest Feast, or Feast of Weeks or First-Fruits, 
was about the last of May, fifty days or a week of weeks after the Pass- 
over, of which it was the supplement, and therefore was called by the 
Jews Ateereth, or the concluding assembly. As the Passover began, the 
Pentecost ended, the grain harvest, the wheat now being ripe, and two 
loaves of fine flour, were offered to the Lord, as a joyful dedication of the 
whole harvest to Him as the Giver— both the land and the people belong- 
ing to Him. Pentecost was a social thanksgiving feast, and the Levite, 
stranger, fatherless, and widow, were invited. Historically, it is believed 
to have been a memorial of the giving of the law from Sinai, the second 
great era in the history of the elect nation — the fiftieth day after the de- 


liverance from Egypt (Ex. xii. and xix). The second chapter of Acts ex- 
plains the typical significance of the Feast of Pentecost. As God de- 
scended in consuming fire on Mount Sinai to give the moral law to 
national Israel, so He descended in the purifying fire of the Holy Ghost 
upon His disciples in Jerusalem, and wrote the new law of love upon the 
fleshly tablets of the hearts of His covenant people (Acts ii.; John xvi. 
7-11 ; 2 Cor. iii.; Heb. viii.; Matt. xxii. 36-40). And, just as certainly as 
the Pentecost was the supplement or conclusion of the Passover, just so 
certainly will the Holy Ghost descend upon all the purchase of Christ's 
blood, and consecrate them to the service of God (Psalm ex.; cvii. 1-31 ; 
Isaiah xxxv. 10 ; xli. 14-20 ; liii.-lv.; lxi. 1-3; Jer. xxxi. 1-9, 31-37; Ezek. 
xxxvi., xxxvii.; Daniel vii. 13, 14; Zech. xii. 10-14 ; xiii.; Matt. i. 21 ; xi. 
27 ; xvi. 16-18 ; xxviii. 18 ; John i. 17, 29 ; v. 25 ; vi. 37, 44 ; x. 11, 14-16, 27- 
30 ; xvii. 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 24-26 ; Rom. v. 19-21 ; vi. 23 ; viii. 29-39 ; 1 Cor. i. 30 ; 
xv. 22, 23, 57 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6 ; v. 17-21 ; Gal. i. 4, 12,-15, 16 ; ii. 20 ; iii. 13, 17- 
29 ; iv. 4-6 ; Eph. i., ii.; Philip, i. 6 ; 1 Thess. v. 9, 10 ; 2 Thess. ii. 13, 14; 
2 Tim. i. 9, 10 ; Titus iii. 4-7 ; Heb. i. 3 ; viii. 8-12 ; ix. 14 ; x. 10, 14-18 ; xii. 
2 ; xiii. 20, 21 ; 1 Peter i. 1-5 ; 2 Peter i. 1-4 ; Rev. i. 5, 6 ; v. 9, 10 ; xiv. 1-5 ; 
xxi. 27). Like the sure following of the Pentecost upon the Passover, 
these Scriptures establish the reality and the efficacy of Christ's atone- 

The Feast of Tabernacles, or Ingathering, was about the first of Octo- 
ber, after the oil and wine had been gathered in ; and it was a great and 
joyful thanksgiving for all the harvests of the year. It was also a com- 
memoration of the time when the Israelites dwelt in tents during their 
passage through the wilderness, and called forth the gratitude of the 
people to God for their settled homes in a land of plenty. The people 
took boughs of palm and willows of the brook, and made temporary huts 
of the branches, and sat under the booths, during this festival. The 
weeping willow (Salix Babylonica, Psalm exxxvii.) was an emblem of 
sorrow ; but the willow of the brook (Salix Alba), because of its vigor, 
was a symbol of joyful prosperity (Isaiah xliv. 4). The palm was also an 
emblem of joy, because of its erect growth, its usefulness, and its rich 
foliage (Psalm xcii. 12-14; John xii. 13 ; Rev. vii. 9). In later times, at 
the hour of morning sacrifice, during the Feast of Tabernacles, water was 
drawn from the Pool of Siloam in a golden goblet, and poured into one of 
the two silver basins on the west side of the altar of burnt-offering, and 
wine into the other, while the words of Isaiah xii. 3 were repeated, in 
commemoration of the water drawn from the rock in the desert; the choir 
Bang the great Hallel, and waved branches of palm. It was in allusion to 
this ceremony that Christ stood and cried in the last day of this feast, "If 
any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink" (John vii. 2, 37). 
" Coming next day at day-break to the temple court, as they were extin- 
guishing the artificial lights, two colossal golden candlesticks in the cen- 
tre of the temple court, recalling the pillar of fire in the wilderness, Jesus 
said, ' I am the light of the world' (John viii. 1, 2, 12). As the sun by its 


natural light was eclipsing the artificial lights, so Jesus implies, I, the 
Sun of Righteousness, am superseding your typical light. The believer 
having received redemption and the Holy Ghost, waits still for his inherit- 
ance and abiding home. The Feast of Tabernacles points him to the 
heavenly Canaan, the everlasting inheritance, of which the Holy Spirit is 
the earnest (Eph. i. 13, 14; Heb. iv. 9). There shall the true church ever 
hold with her Divine Head a Feast of Tabernacles, rejoicing in His pres- 
ence, satisfied with His fullness, and her rest and pleasure will be 
heightened and enhanced by the remembrance of her toils and tribula- 
tions in this wilderness world forever past." 

" There was in the Three Feasts a clear prefigurement of the Three 
Persons of the Godhead ; the Father, in the work of Creation, specially 
adored in the Feast of Tabernacles ; the Son, in the Passover sacrifice ; 
and the Spirit, in the Pentecostal Feast." 

The Feast of Purim, or Lots, was an annual commemoration of the 
deliverance of the Jews in Persia from the massacre plotted for them by 
Hainan (see the book of Esther) ; it took place the last of February. The 
Feast of Dedication (mentioned in John x. 22) was instituted by Judas 
Maccabeus to commemorate the purification of the temple from the pro- 
fanations to which it had been subjected by Antiochus Epiphanes (B. C. 
165) ; it occurred about the twentieth of December. 

We have thus gone through the books of Exodus and Leviticus, and 
found the ceremonies and institutions of the Mosaic law replete with gos- 
pel truth. To every child of God the marvelous correspondence of these 
manifold types and antitypes is an unanswerable demonstration of the 
Divine origin and the plenary inspiration of the Pentateuch. A careful 
perusal of the book of Leviticus will convince every unprejudiced mind 
that not a single atonement, redemption, intercession, or purification 
therein mentioned was indefinite or conditional; but every one was special 
and effectual— every offering and cleansing was for & particular person or 
persons, and it was ceremonially effective; in a ritual sense, the sin was 
actually forgiven, the person was clean, the property was restored. The 
Armmian notion, therefore, that the atonement of Christ was indefinite and 
conditional, is annihilated by the divinely established legal types of that 

We proceed now with the historical narrative. God commanded 
Moses to number the men of war, and he still found the number to be 
about 600,000, viz.: Reuben, 46,500; Judah, 74,600; (Joseph) Ephraim, 
40,500; Simeon, 59,300 ; Issachar, 54,400 ; (Joseph) Manasseh, 32,200 ; Gad, 
45,650; Zebulon, 57,400; Benjamin, 35,400; Dan, 62,700; Asher, 41,500 ; 
Naphthali, 53,400 ; making all of the military array 603,550. 

The tribe of Levi is omitted because of the priesthood ; and the sons 
of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh are each included, which makes up the 
number twelve. 

In order to aid Moses in the government of the people, God directed 
him to appoint seventy men, who should be constituted into a Senate or 


Sanhedrim, and whose office continued until the time of Moses' death, 
after which we hear no more of it until the return from the Babylonish 

The wanderings of the Israelites were singular in consequence of the 
many different directions which they were compelled to take before 
reaching the promised land. Sometimes they came very near to it, and 
then went directly from it. For their murmurings and faithlessness, God 
punished them in various ways, and kept them in the wilderness forty 
years. Those twenty years old and upwards who came out of Egypt died 
in the wilderness, save Caleb and Joshua, who were two of the twelve 
spies sent into Canaan and reported favorably, while the other ten, dis- 
trusting the power and faithfulness of a covenant God, were destroyed by 
the plague. The manna was given them until they entered the promised 
land, then ceased. The manna was a double miracle inasmuch as, in its 
falling, none came on the Sabbath, and a double quantity on the day previ- 
ous ; and, if gathered on any other day except the day preceding the Sab- 
bath, it would spoil if kept over. 

The time for entering the promised land approached. Miriam, the sis- 
ter of Moses and Aaron, died. Aaron was taken to the top of Mount Hor 
and stripped of his garments by Moses, who placed them on Aaron's son 
Eleazar, and there Aaron died. The Israelites designed crossing the 
river Jordan into the promised land a little above the Dead Sea, and 
sought permission of the Amorites to pass through their country peacea- 
bly. Their king not only refused the request, but marched out all his 
forces to give Israel battle. He was slain, with his two sons, at Jahaz, 
and all his people, even to the women and children, were destroyed. 
Israel took possession of his land and dwelt in his cities from the Aroer 
and Arnon to the Jabbok. Thus fell Sihon, king of the Amorites. They 
followed up their victory by taking Jaazer, a stronghold of the Amorites 
in Mount Gilead ; and then they crossed the Jabbok into the district of 
Bashan. There they encountered the giant king Og, who ruled over sixty 
fenced cities in the district of Argob. He was defeated at Edrei, and slain 
with his sons and his people, as had been done to Sihon. The whole ter- 
ritory of these two kings, therefore, fell into the possession of the Israel- 
ites, unexpectedly to them. They supposed their inheritance was to be 
on the west side of Jordan only ; but, as these kings opposed their prog- 
ress to the river, they were compelled to make war with them, and the 
result was their extermination and the addition of their territory to the 
land of Canaan. So goodly was this land that the tribes of Reuben and 
Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh applied for it as their portion of the 
inheritance, and Moses gave it to them. At last the Israelites made their 
encampment on the east side of Jordan in " the desert plains of Moab," 
supposing that all opposition to their crossing the river was at an end. 
But there still remained work for them to do on the east side of the river. 
The hills of Abarim, which rose close behind them, were seen occupied 
by a watchful and wily enemy. "The conquest of the Amorites had 


roused the Moabites from their doubtful neutrality. Their king, Balak, 
the son of Zippor (the king who had been defeated and despoiled of part 
of his territory by Sihon), seeing that Israel was too strong for him in the 
held, made a confederacy with the sheikhs of Midian, several of whom 
appear to have led their Bedouin life within the territories of Moab, ow- 
ing a certain allegiance to the king. The united forces encamped on the 
heights of Abarim ; while Balak sought mightier help from another 
quarter. There was living at Pethor, in Mesopotamia, a prophet 
named Balaam, the son of Beor ; one of those who still retained (some) 
knowledge of the true God, by whom he was favored with prophetic 
visions. He seems, however, to have practiced the more questionable 
arts of divination, and to have made gain of his supernatural knowledge. 
His fame was spread far and wide among the tribes of the desert. ' I wot 
that he whom thou blessest is blessed, and he whom thou cursest is 
cursed' (Num. xii. 6), is the belief in which Balak grounded his invita- 
tion to Balaam to come and curse Israel, after which he hoped he might 
prevail against them and drive them out of the land. The message was 
carried by the elders, both of Moab and Midian, with the reward for his 
divinations in their hand. The temptation was too great for the prophet's 
integrity, and 'he forsook the right way and went astray,' into that 
which the Apostle Peter calls ' the way of Balaam, the son of Bosor, who* 
loved the wages of unrighteousness' (2 Peter ii. 15). In Jude 11 Balaam 
is ranked with Cain and Korah as types of the wickedness of the last 
days. Both as a prophet, and from the fame which had spread over all 
the surrounding countries, he must have known that Israel were the peo- 
ple of God, and that he had nothing to do with the messengers of Balak. 
, He hesitated, and was lost, but not without repeated warnings. Instead 
of dismissing the messengers, he invited them to remain for the night, 
while he consulted God. He received the plain answer : ' Thou shalt not 
go with them ; thou shalt not curse the people, for they are blessed ; ' and 
in the morning he sent them away (Num. xxii. 1-14). 

" Balak again sent more numerous and more honorable envoys, with a 
more pressing message, and promises of great honors and rewards. Balaam; 
declared his inability, for all the wealth of Balak — not to entertain the 
proposal for a moment, but — to go beyond the word of the Lord his God, 
to whom he again referred the case. And this time God visited him with 
the severest punishment, which He reserves for the willful sinner : He 
' gave him his own desire' (Psalm lxxviii. 29) ; but, while delivering him 
to the destruction he courted, He made him the instrument of blessing 
Israel in strains among the sublimestin sacred poetry. Balaam was com- 
manded to go with the men, but^as he himself had already said— to utter 
only the words that God should put in his mouth ; and, in all that follows, 
we see how vainly he strove to break through the prescribed limit and to 
earn the wages of his apostasy (Num. xxii. 15-21). 

" He received one last warning in a prodigy that befell him on the- 
road. The beast that bore him swerved twice from the way, and saved 


Mm from the uplifted sword of the Angel- Jehovah, who had come out to 
withstand him ; and the third time, where the pass was too narrow to 
«scape, she fell down beneath him, and, on his smiting her again, ' the 
■dumb ass, with man's voice, forbade the madness of the prophet ' (2 Peter 
ii. 16). His eyes were now opened, and he beheld the Angel, who refused 
the offer which he now made to turn back, and repeated the injunction t» 
go with the men, but to speak only what He should say to him (Num. 
xxii. 22-35. 

" Balak went to meet Balaam at a city on the Arnon (perhaps Aroer), 
and brought him to the city of Kirjath-huzoth (commonly interpreted a 
city of streets or of visions : it may have been a sacred city, and there- 
fore fit for the prophet's residence), where the king held a great feast in 
the prophet's honor. On the morrow Balak and Balaam began their un- 
hallowed, ceremonies (Num. xxii. 41-xxiii. 26). Thrice they ascended 
those eminences, which were consecrated to the worship of the heathen 
deities (compare Deut. xii. 2), as places whence the prophet might see 
and curse the people, and thrice did ' Jehovah their God turn the curse 
into a blessing, because Jehovah loved them.' Lest Balaam's courage 
should- fail him at the sight of the vast encampment surrounding the 
tabernacle, with its sign of Jehovah's presence in the cloud, Balak took 
him first to a hill sacred to Baal, whence he could see the utmost part of 
the people. Here Balaam bade Balak prepare seven altars, on each of 
which he offered a bullock and a ram, and then retired to another hill to 
■consult Jehovah. From His mouth the prophet received the word ; and 
he returned to confound Balak and his princes by asking, ' How shall I 
curse whom God hath not cursed 1 or how shall I defy whom Jehovah 
had not defied 1 ?' — at the same time prophesying Israel's separation from 
all nations, and their countless numbers; and concluded by the oft- 
quoted ejaculation, 'Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my 
last end be like his ! ' 

" The experiment was repeated from another eminence, ' The field of 
.Zophim on the top of the Pisgah,' a more elevated point of observation, 
hut still not commanding the great body of the camp. Here the same 
-ceremonies were repeated, with the same result ; and God's message by 
the prophet declared His own eternal truth ; His forgiving love to His 
people ; His perpetual presence among them, making them proof against 
•enchantment ; and their future career of lion-like prowess against their 
-enemies. Balak vented his disappointment in the cry, ' Neither curse 
them at all, nor bless them at all ;' but he would not give up without a last 
trial (Num. xxiii. 14-26). 

" This time he brought Balaam up to the very sanctuary of the 
national deity Peor, the same topmost summit— Nebo, the head of Pisgah 
— from which Moses soon after viewed the promised land. The seven-fold 
sacrifice was repeated, but Balaam laid aside his arts of divination, for 
he saw that it pleased Jehovah to bless Israel. His view embraced the 
whole camp of Israel spread out among the acacia groves by the river at 


his feet; it ranged over their promised possessions in the hills of Judah, 
Ephraim, and Gilead ; and as ' he saw Israel abiding in their tents, ac- 
cording to their tribes, the Spirit of God came upon htm, and he took up 
his parable,' the prophecy of the man whose eyes were at length opened. 
In the goodly array of their tents he saw the omen of destruction of the 
nations around : and ended, ' Blessed is he that blessetk thee ; and cursed 
is he that curseth thee ' (Num. xxiii. 27-xxiv. 9). . Heedless of the rage 
of Balak or of his cruel sarcasms, ' I thought to promote thee to great 
honor ; but, lo, Jehovah hath kept thee back from honor,' Balaam declared 
that, before returning to his home, he must complete his prophecy of 
what the people should do to the heathen in the last days (Num. xxiv. 
10-14). For the fourth time he opened his mouth and proclaimed his 
distant vision of the ' Star of Jacob,' the ' Sceptre of Israel,' who should 
smite Moab— a prophecy in part fulfilled by the victories of David ; but, 
as the titles plainly show, pointing forward to the kingdom of Messiah 
over the outcast branches of the chosen family. Then, as his eye ranged 
over the distant mountains of Seir, the home of Edom, and the table- land 
of the desert, over which the children of Amalek wandered, and the home 
of the Kenites full in his sight, among the rocks of Engedi, on the farther 
shores of the Dead Sea, he predicted their destruction ; till the vision 
carried him back to the banks of his native Euphrates, and he saw the 
conquests of Asshur overturned by ships coming from the coasts of Chit- 
tim, the unknown lands beyond the Western Sea, and he exclaimed, 
' Alas ! who shall live when God doeth this ! ' And he rose up, and re- 
turned to the place assigned for his abode (Num. xxiv. 15-25). 

"Balaam remained among the Moabites and Midianites, clinging 
doubtless to the chance of reward ; and provoked his fate by a new and 
more effectual plot against Israel. By his advice the people were tempted 
to share in the lascivious rites of Peor, and to commit whoredom with the 
daughters of Moab (Num. xxv. 1-3 ; xxi. 16). The wrath of Jehovah was 
shown in a plague which broke out in the camp, and destroved 24,000 
men. Moses doomed all the offenders to death, and Phinehas, the son of 
Eleazar, the high priest, set an example of zeal by transfixing with a 
javelin a man of Israel in the arms of a woman of Moab, whom he had 
brought into his tent in the face of the congregation as they wept before 
Jehovah. The plague was stayed, and the covenant of Jehovah was re- 
newed with the house of Eleazar, assuring (him a perpetual priesthood 
(Num. xxv. 4-15). 

" For these plots against Israel, as well as for their former inhospi- 
tality, the Moabites were excluded from the congregation to the tenth 
generation (Deut. xxi. 3-16) ; and the Midianites were doomed to destruc- 
tion (Num. xxv. 16-18). The execution of this sentence was the last act 
of the government of Moses. All the men of Midian were slain, with the 
princes who had been allied with Balak, and Balaam* died in the general 

* From such wonderful and sad cases as those of Balaam the Prophet, Saul the Klnp:, and Judas 
the Apostle, we learn— not that the child of God can eternally perish (John x. 28: Rom. vm. 38, 89: 


slaughter. Their cities were burnt and their spoil taken, and the women 
who had been saved alive were slain by the command of Moses, the 
female children only being spared. At the same time a law was made for 
the equitable division of the spoil between those who went forth to battle 
and those who remained in the camp " (Num. xxi.)— W. Smith. 

We have dwelt at an unusual length on this item in the Old Testa- 
ment history wherein Balaam was called in by Balak to curse Israel. It 
is an interesting and remarkable circumstance, showing the corrupt 
nature of man, even of a prophet of God, and the superabounding influ- 
ence of God's Spirit over the venal propensities of His professed servants. 

God told Balaam emphatically not to go to Balak — not to curse Israel, 
because Israel was already blessed. But his hankering after gold inclined 
him to go ; and when he asked God the second time, He told him to go — that 
he might have his own way and be destroyed, literally. He compelled 
him, however, even against his natural will, to declare glorious things 
concerning Israel, and also the setting up of the gospel kingdom in the 

Moses delivered a series of addresses to Israel, encouraging them to 
obedience, warning them against evils of rebellion and disobedience, and 
pronounced his last blessing on the twelve tribes. Joshua was conse- 
crated by the high priest Eleazar to be the successor of Moses, and Moses 
was summoned away into the immediate presence of his Maker. He 
" went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top 
of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the Lord shewed him all 
the land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, 
and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and the 
south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto 
Zoar. And the Lord said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto 
Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed : 
I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over 
thither. So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab, 
according to the word of the Lord. And He buried him in a valley in the 
land of Moab, over against Beth-peor ; but no man knoweth of his sepul- 
chre unto this day. And Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when 
he died ; his eye was not dim nor his natural force abated" (Deut. xxxiv. 
1-7.) The secrecy of his interment, in the wisdom of God, was perhaps to 
prevent the Israelites from gathering his bones to keep as sacred relics, 
which might lead to idolatry, and also to designate the end of the legal 

Joshua, as the leader of Israel, began his march from Shittim towards 

1 Peter i. 1-5)— but that any amount of religion in the head, even though accompanied with high 
religious office, will avail us nothing without the grace of God's love in our hearts (1 Cor. xiii. 
1-13: Matt. xxn. 36-40; 1 John m. 14). 

•Like Aaron and Moses, no doubt many other subjects of grace died in the wilderness, as 
afterwards m the Babylonian exile. The fact that Moses, by whom the law was given died before 
reaching Canaan, typifies that the people of God will reach Heaven, not by their obedience of the 
law, but by the wisdom, strength and righteousness of their Divine Joshua (Jesus or Jehovah- 


the Jordan, which allowed him to cross it dry shod, even as their fathers 
had done in crossing the Ked Sea. As soon as the feet of the priests bear- 
ing the ark touched the water it abated and was piled up below and 
above, and they stood in the midst of the bed of the river until all the 
people had crossed over; then they passed to the west bank of the river 
and the waters returned to their original condition. The host then en- 
camped in Gilgal, where Joshua set up*twelve stones taken from the bed 
of the river as a memorial of the event. The lied Sea was divided to 
allow Israel to pass out of Egypt, and the Jordan also, to allow them to 
pass into Canaan, without wetting their garments or having to baild 
bridges. It was according to Divine arrangement. 

They entered Canaan on the tenth day of the first month (Nisan — 
April B. C. 1451: Joshua iv. 19). This was the day appointed for the 
selection of the paschal lamb, and on the evening of the fourteenth day 
the people kept the Passover for the first time on the soil of their own in- 
heritance, exactly forty years after their fathers had first kept it before 
leaving Egypt. 

The forty years are made up about as follows : 

Tears. Months. Days. 

In Egypt before the Passover, 14 

From Egypt to Sinai, 1 16 

Encampment at Sinai, 11 20 

March to Kadesh, 4 10 

Wandering in wilderness, 37 6 

March from Kadesh to the plains of Moab, 10 

Encampment there to the passage of the Jordan, . ... 2 

Total 40 

Thus with a high hand and a stretched out arm the God of Israel had 
brought him out of Egypt and planted him in Canaan, a land flowing with 
milk and honey. Wonderful must have been the change to the tribes, 
when contrasting their goodly heritage with the barren wilderness through 
"which they had been wandering for such a great length of time. The 
manna ceased to fall, and they ate of the fruits of the earth thereafter. 

To the people of God, whose citizenship is in Heaven, this world is a 
wilderness land. During all the weary years of their sojourn here they 
are poor sinners, and are visited with the rod for their transgressions. 
Sometimes they go, as at first, directly toward Canaan, but sometimes 
"toward the Egypt of the world, and sometimes toward the Sinai of 
legalism, Jehovah, however, still not withdrawing His pillar of cloud and 
fire." The Lord is peculiarly their God all the while. When they could 
not deliver themselves, their covenant God delivered them from the ter- 
rible bondage of sin and Satan, and He loves them to the end. He writes 
His holy law upon the spiritual tablets of their hearts. He sustains their 
inner life with heavenly food and living water. He guides them every 
moment of the day and of the night. He defends them from their ene- 
mies. He teaches them their absolute dependence upon Him. He dwells 
above the mercy-seat for them evermore, and will never leave them nor 


forsake them ; but will assuredly at last conduct them across the Jordan 
of death into the glorious land of everlasting rest. Then let them repose 
continual and unfaltering trust in the God of their salvation. 

It is the omnipotent, eternal and unchangeable God of nature, of 
providence and of grace, who thus, by the events of a nation's history, 
illustrates His holy and merciful dealings with His spiritual people 
through all the generations of the world. 

Joshua was about twenty-five years (B. C. 1451-1426) in destroying 
and overcoming all the nations of the Canaanites and dividing their 
lands among the children of Israel ; the number of whom, when entering 
Canaan, was supposed to be about equal to the number that marched out of 
Egypt, viz., two-and-a-half -millions. The first attack was made on Jeri- 
cho, a well-fortified, populous and wealthy city that was situated in a 
grove of palm trees about six miles from the river Jordan, and ruled by a 

The manner of attack was of divine arrangement. The entire host 
was to encompass the city seven days. For six days they were to march 
around it once, the chosen warriors marching in front of the ark, before 
which seven priests were to bear seven trumpets of rams' horns ; the rest 
of the people were to follow in silence, while the trumpets alone made 
noise, sounding a continual defiance. And on the seventh day they were 
to encompass it seven times, and at the end thereof to give one long, loud 
blast with the trumpets. All tJiis was done according to direction ; and at 
the close of the seventh blast on the seventh day the walls of Jericho 
fell down flat, and all Israel went from where each man stood directly into 
the city, took the spoil and destroyed the people, not one of whom escaped 
except Rahab the harlot and her family, who were saved alive because 
she, believing in the God of Israel, protected the two men sent by Joshua 
previously to spy out the land. The fall of Jericho affords proof of 
miraculous interposition, equal to that of the plagues in Egypt, the cross- 
ing of the Bed Sea or Jordan, or any of the wonders in the wilderness. 
The city fell an easy prey to the invaders, and the curse of God rested 
upon it thenceforward. The city of Ai was next captured and the inhabi- 
tants destroyed, but the main camp of Joshua remained at Gilgal. These 
victories secured the passes of the Jordan, and gave the Israelites access 
to the open country in the centre of Palestine. Terror had already seized 
the Canaanites before Joshua crossed the Jordan, but, after the fall of 
Jericho and Ai, all the tribes were greatly alarmed and feared annihila- 
tion. The Gibeonites alone sought protection by submission and deceit. 
They succeeded, and saved themselves thereby from the general over- 
throw, but became slaves to Israel, mere "hewers of wood and drawers of 
water " the remnant of their days. By reason of the oath which Joshua 
and the princes made to them, while under deception, their lives were 
spared, but they had to be kept in subjection by the public authorities ; 
so that it became a proverb—" The Canaanite is still in the land." This 
was typical of the experience of God's spiritual Israel ; by reason of in- 


dwelling sin, they have to acknowledge " the Canaanite to be still in the 
land." They perpetually harassed, hut never could dispossess Israel. 
The other tings west of Jordan formed a league to resist Joshua and 
punish the Gibeonites. And, as they appeared before Gibeon, Joshua 
attacked them, took them by surprise, and utterly routed them near 
Beth-horon. He pursued them down the steep from the upper to the 
lower Beth-horon, and, as the Canaanites fled, they were overtaken by a 
hail storm, which slew more than had fallen in battle. Such was the suc- 
cess of the Israelites that Joshua desired the day lengthened, and com- 
manded the sun and moon to stand still, that the victory might be com- 
plete before night. The Lord granted his request, " so that the sun stood 
still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole 
day." * Joshua pursued them to Makkedah, where the five kings hid 
themselves in a cave ; he bade stones to be rolled to its mouth, and pursued 
his victory. Upon the return of the victorious army to Makkedah, Joshua 
caused the five kings to be brought out, and ordered the captains to place 
their feet upon their necks, as a sign that alike conquest should be gained 
over all their enemies ; and then he slew them and hanged them on five 
trees till the evening. Their bodies were then taken down and thrown 
into the same cave, and its mouth was closed with great stones. 

This great victory was followed by the conquest of the seven kings of 
Makkedah, Libnah, Lachish, Gezer, Eglon, Hebron and Debir. These 
were taken and utterly destroyed, together with all their people, and 
everything that had life, within their jurisdiction. Joshua again re- 
turned to his camp at Gilgal, in the valley of the Jordan. 

The Israelites were the chosen instruments of God (as the waters of 
the flood and the fire and brimstone from Heaven had been His chosen 
instruments in former times) to execute His righteous vengeance upon 
the idolatrous and sensual Canaanitish tribes ; to become themselves 
thoroughly convinced of the unity, spirituality and holiness of God, and 
to transmit this pure monotheistic faith to coming generations. The 
miraculous separation of the waters of the Jordan, and prostration of the 
walls of Jericho, and prolongation of the day at Joshua's command, 
showed the world that the extirpation of the wicked Canaanites was the 
work of a holy and sin-avenging God, who, having mercifully sent these 
people such spiritual teachers and examples as Abraham and Melchizedek, 
and then given them a most solemn warning in His fiery overthrow of the 
corrupt cities of the plain, was now about to visit them with utter de- 
struction, as He will the finally impenitent of all nations on the last day,. 

* Like Judges v. 20—" the stars in their courses fought against Sisera t " meaning that a terrific 
storm, as if from the stars, burst upon Sisera— so Joshua x. 12-14 is poetical and optical (being a 
quotation from an ancient anthology, " the book of Jasher"), meaning that "the light of the 
sun and moon was supernaturally prolonged by the same laws of refraction and reflection that 
ordinarily cause the sun to appear above the horizon, when he is in reality below it."— Jamieson- 
Pfeiffer connects the long day of Joshua and of Hezekiah (2 Kings xx. 11) with the Egyptian tradi- 
• tion of two strange days mentioned by Herodotus, ii. 142. Compare Ovid's Metamorphoses, Book 
ii. God may have actually stopped, for a while, the daily rotation of the earth upon its axis, and 
thus stopped the motion of the sun and moon in their apparent daily orbits, and He may have 
prevented all the natural evil consequences of such stoppage ; for all things are possible to omni- 


"when His people are gathered into the heavenly Canaan. The corrupt- 
ing influence of the few Canaanites left in the land proves the extreme 
importance of the destruction of those wicked idolaters for the preserva- 
tion of a true faith and a pure worship on earth. " To the doomed nations 
it was an act of just severity; to the world at large, of unspeakable 

Joshua next turned his attention to the nations in the northern part 
of Palestine, where many kings and tribes were leagued against him, 
whose numbers were reckoned " as the sand of the seashore for multi- 
tude," besides chariots and horses. Josephus estimates them at 300,000 
foot, 10,000 horse, and 20,000 chariots. Joshua routed this great army by 
the waters of Merom, and chased them as far as "great Zidon" and the 
valley of Mizpeh. 

Joshua cut the hoof sinews of the horses and burnt the chariots, in 
obedience to God's command (Joshua xi. 9). He next took Hazor, put- 
ting its king and inhabitants to the sword, with some other cities of the 
•confederates. Israel was now master of a large portion of the country. 
But some kings held out in their fenced cities for a number of years, and 
it was a long time before the land rested from war. 

The result of the conquest up to this time, say B. C. 1445, was about 
as follows, viz.: Two kings, Sihon and Og, on the east of Jordan, and 
thirty-one kings on the west of that river, including the seven nations 
mentioned in the first promise to Abraham — the Amorites, Canaanites, 
Girgashites, Hivites, Hittites, Jebusites and Perizzites (Josh, xii.) " The 
defeat of these thirty-one kings did not involve in every case the capture 
•of their cities. Jerusalem, for example, was not taken till after the death 
of Joshua (Judges i. 8), and its citadel remained in the hands of the 
Jebusites till the time of David. Many other cities held out for a long 
time. 1 ' 

And, besides these cities, there were yet whole tracts of country 
-promised to Abraham yet unsubdued, and which were not to be included 
in the conquests of Joshua (Josh. xiii. 1). ' They were reserved for his 
: successors to subdue, but Joshua included them in the division of land 
:among the twelve tribes. 

Joshua becoming old and well stricken in years, he calls the tribes 
together and gives them the last warning and word of encouragement. 
It was a solemn scene. He recounts to them much of the dealings of the 
Lord with them, and with their fathers before them, and urges them to 
obedience and the true service of God. Said he, " Be ye therefore very 
•courageous, to keep and do all that is written in the book of the law of 
Moses/" And he finally ends with an appeal that strikes them forcibly : 
■" If it seem evil unto you to serve the Lord, choose you this day whom ye 
will serve ; whether the gods which your fathers served that were on the 
other side of the flood [the Euphrates], or the gods of the Amorites, in 
Tvhose land ye dwell ; but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord" 
{Joshua xxiv. 15). The people responded with a great deal of earnest- 


Bess that they would serve God only and discard all idols. And they 
kept their word and remained faithful * to God during the life of Joshua, 
" and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had 
known all the works of the Lord that He had done for Israel." Joshua 
died at the age of one hundred and ten years, and was buried " in the 
border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, which is in Mount Ephraini 
on the north side of the hill of Gaash." " And the bones of Joseph which 
the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, 
in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor, the 
father of Shechem for a hundred pieces of silver [supposed to be about 
$62.50] ; and it became the inheritance of the children of Joseph." Eleazar 
also died about the same time of Joshua's decease (Joshua xxiv. 29-33). 
* Typifying the zeal and carefulness of the soul in its early lore. 



The ancient Canaan was about 170 miles in length, and 40 in average 
breadth, covering some 7,000 square miles, about the size of Wales. The 
length of the country under Solomon's dominion was about 200 miles, 
with a breadth of 60 miles, and an area of some 12,000 square miles. 

Canaan, or Palestine, " was designed and arranged by God when He 
laid the foundations of the earth and divided to the nations their inherit- 
ance, to be a natural fortress for the preservation of religious truth and 
purity ; a home in which a covenant people might be trained and educated 
in the household of God and directly under His eye, to be zealous of good 
works themselves, and to be a royal priesthood to mankind ; to carry out 
in their history God's promise to the founder of their race, that in him 
should all the families of the earth be blessed. And therefore God sur- 
rounded it with natural fortifications, which kept it separate and seclu- 
ded — even although placed in the very midst of the most concentrated 
populations of the world, in the very focus toward which their intercourse 
with one another radiated — until the objects of the hermit-training and 
discipline of its inhabitants were accomplished. God hedged round the 
vineyard in which He planted His own noble vine with tower and trench, 
with sea and desert, against the boar of the wood and the beast of the 
field. From the foul Baal and Astarte worship of Syria in the north, it 
was defended by the lofty mountains of Lebanon ; from the degrading 
brute and plant idolatry of Egypt it was guarded, in the south, by a long 
stretch of pathless wilderness ; from the Assyrian deification of lawless 
force, and the monstrous incarnations of the east, the deep depression of 
the Jordan valley, the swift, deep current of the river, and the intricate 
fastnesses of the arid hills and valleys beyond, formed a sufficient pro- 
tection ; while between the people and the baneful effects of the beautiful 
and captivating human apotheoses of Greece and Eome, the Great Sea 
rolled its wide waste of waters. This remarkable isolation of the country 
prevented the inhabitants from having any commercial intercourse with 
the outlying nations (Num. xxiii. 9). With the single and very doubtful 
exception of Joppa, there was no suitable harbor in which ships could be 
sheltered ; all the havens along the western coast being unsafe. Not a 
single navigable river flowed from the interior to the sea ; the principal 
stream, the Jordan, flowing parallel with the coast, and being very rapid, 


crooked and broken, and so deep below the surface of the adjacent coun- 
try as to be invisible and difficult of approach, and finally losing itself 
in an inland gulf which is as far below the level of the ocean as the 
mountains around it are above. Not a single one of the many cities that 
at different times held the rank of capital was situated on the seashore, 
Jerusalem being built in the wildest and most inaccessible part of the in- 
terior. All these circumstances favored the design of God, and acted in 
harmony with the spirit of the Jewish law, which discountenanced com- 
merce as much as it encouraged agriculture. The Jews could not help 
being a nation of farmers. As a new seed of Adam, subjected to a new 
trial of obedience, they were placed in this new garden of Eden, to dress 
and keep it, in order that through their tilling of the ground the wilder- 
ness and the solitary place might be made glad, and the desert rejoice 
and blossom as the rose. Very rich and varied were the natural resources 
of Canaan. No other country in the world presented, within a limited 
area, such diversities of soil and climate. On the one side it rose ten 
thousand feet above the level of the sea ; on the other it sank one thou- 
sand three hundred feet below it ; and between these two extremes there 
was the utmost variety of scenery, temperature and productions. All the 
seasons had their perpetual abode in this favored country. Perpetual 
Spring smiled on the green slopes of Galilee ; Summer that knew no 
blight glowed on the tree-covered hills of Carmel; Autumn lingered 
around the corn-fields of Bethlehem and the purple vineyards of Hebron ; 
while grim Winter sat forever on his icy throne on the brow of Lebanon, 
and sent his cooling breath over but dared not lift his destroying arm 
upon the land. Going from the north to the south was like passing 
through the circle of the year and the zones of the earth. In the deep 
trench of the Jordan there was the sweltering heat of the tropics ; in the 
hill country of Judea the mild dews and soft air of the temperate zone ; 
and far up the sides of Lebanon the icy rigor of the Arctic regions. Al- 
most every species of the vegetable kingdom — forest-tree, fruit and flower, 
field and garden product — is found in Palestine. Containing, in ancient 
times, from three to six million inhabitants, it was the most fertile and 
highly cultivated country in the world, and amply sufficed to sustain its 
population without any extraneous support, without any need of com- 
merce or merchandise. The whole landed property of the country was 
divided inalienably among the inhabitants in such a way as that the pos- 
session of each family was capable of yielding, in years of ordinary pro- 
ductiveness, not merely a comfortable, but even a luxurious maintenance. 
Each Israelite sat under his own vine and fig-tree, without fear of famine. 
The whole land was self-contained and independent, and thus its isola- 
tion from surrounding nations was still further secured. By the necessity 
of a careful cultivation of every inch of the soil, the Jews became, distin- 
guished above other nations for habits of industry, intelligence and 
economy ; while their world-wide variety of soil and climate fitted them 
for their universal destiny." — H. Macmillari's Sabbath of the Fields. 


Moses gives a fine description of the " pleasant," " goodly," " glorious 
land of promise " in Deut. viii. 7-10. And the Lord asks by the mouth of 
Isaiah (v. 4), " What could have been done more to my vineyard, that I 
have not done in it "I " 

The peculiar situation and boundaries, and the wonderful and un- 
rivalled excellences of ancient Palestine— the proofs of which excellences 
are even now plainly visible after eighteen centuries of war and ruin and. 
plunder and neglect— demonstrate the eternal foreknowledge, predestina- 
tion, omnipotence and special covenant love of God to Israel. They 
prove that the God of Israel is the God of the universe. 

All types are imperfect. Canaan is a type not only of the gospel 
church, but also of Heaven (Heb. iii. and iv). 

The descendants of Abraham are in possession of the promised land 
—by conquest and actual possession of a part of it, and by virtue of God's 
promise claiming the whole of it, and have already divided it by lot. 
They are in covenant relation to God, and as such typify the church un- 
der the gospel dispensation ; yet among the natural descendants of Abra- 
ham there are to be found, at all times, wicked and impenitent persons- 
who, being only children after the flesh, persecute children of the promise 
and of the Spirit. It is these spiritual Israelites, therefore, who consti- 
tute the true worshipers of God, and who suffer persecution at the hands 
of their fleshly brethren ; and also have to suffer for their brethren, who 
so often provoke the Most High to punish the whole people for the sins of 
a part. These two classes also typify the fleshly and spiritual natures in 
all Christians. The Israelites, notwithstanding their professions before 
Joshua of great faithfulness, soon forgot the God of their fathers and 
turned to the worship of idols ; for which the Lord punished them in 
various ways, and especially by giving their enemies the mastery over 
them, and causing them often to groan under the rigid oppression of the 
nations around them. 

During the history of the judges— about 320 years — they were much 
afflicted by reason of their transgressions, and had often to cry to God for 
mercy, who delivered them out of their distress. God raised up judges 
for their deliverance, but they would soon forget God and relapse into 
idolatry again. This sin beset them more or less until after the Babylon- 
ish captivity. The preface to the history of the judges represents the 
different tribes moving to acquire the possessions allotted them. Jvdah 
took the lead in this movement, accompanied by Simeon. These gained a 
signal victory over the Canaanites and Perrizzites in Bezek, and took 
prisoner Adoni-bezek, a great tyrant, who was justly punished for his 
cruelty to others. 

Judah then aided Simeon in recovering his lot. They took several 
cities, but could not entirely drive out the inhabitants ; and the various 
tribes mad e but small headway in gaining entire possession of their in- 
heritances. God told them, indeed, that as they had failed to keep His 
covenant, He would not drive out the people before them. They appar- 


ently repented, in a public demonstration, at a place which was afterward 
called Bochi/m (the weepers), which was thus named on account of their 
sacrifices and cries of repentance (Judges ii. 1-6). 

"After this introduction we have the general summary of the vicissi- 
tudes of idolatry and repentance, servitude and deliverance, which we 
have already noticed. It ends with the enumeration of the heathen na- 
tions which were still left, ' to prove Israel by them ;' a trial in which they 
failed, intermarrying with them, worshiping their gods, doing evil in the 
sight of Jehovah, forgetting their own God and serving ' Baalim and the 
groves' (Judges iii. 6, 7). These statements are illustrated by the dark 
records of idolatry, vice and cruelty which occupy the closing chapters of 
the book, and which seem to belong to the earlier part of the period of 
the judges. They are expressly mentioned as examples of the disorder of 
those days, when ' there was no king in Israel, but every man did that 
which was right in his own eyes ' " (Judges xvii. 6 ; xviii. 1 ; xix. 1 ; xxi. 

The affecting and interesting history of Kuth* the Moabitess occurred 
during the period of the judges. She became the wife of Boaz, and bore a 
son to him named Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David, front: 
whom sprang Christ, the Savior of sinners ; Boaz also being the son of a 
sinful Canaanitish woman, named Rahab, of the city of Jericho. Among 
the other wonderful things connected with the salvation of men is that of 
the condescension of our Lord to be born of such progenitors. Surely He- 
is the friend of sinners ; and His grace is able to cleanse and save the- 
vilest, Gentile as well as Jew. 

The judges in Israel were an extraordinary order of rulers, raised up 
in emergencies, and not contemplated or provided for in the constitution 
of the state. 

They did not succeed each other immediately or in regular order, but- 
were indicated by inspiration and signs, on great emergencies, which the 
people readily recognized, as a divine arrangement in their behalf. There 
were fifteen of them in all (including Abimelech, the usurper) from 
Othniel, Caleb's brother, to Samuel, who was both judge and prophet, 
viz.: Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Jair r 
Jephthah.t Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Sampson, Eli,t and Samuel. 

* ' ' We have nothing so lovely as the book of Ruth in the whole range of epic and idyllic poetry, " 
says Goethe. It has been beautifully called a ' ' Garden of Roses at the Gate of the Gospel." It 
affords touching illustrations of God's providence and grace, the afflictions, poverty and sorrows; 
of God's people, and the nature and results of true faith. Piety, virtue, humility and unselfish 
love. Naomi is a type of the church : Ruth a type of every child of grace ; and Boaz a tyjje of Christ. 
Naomi finds nothing: but sorrow in the land of Moab ; Ruth cleaves to her poor, despised mother- 
in-law with intense and undying- love : and her near, wealthy, powerful kinsman, furnishing- him- 
self aU the dowry, espouses her to himself. There is no more affecting- passage in all literature- 
than the language of Ruth to Naomi, ' ' Entreat me not to leave thee, or to return from f ollowinsr 
after thee: for whither thou g-oest, I will go: and where thou lode-est, I will lodge: thy people- 
shall be my people, and thy God my God : where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried ; 
the Lord do so to me, and more also, if aug-ht but death part thee and me."— Ruth i. 16, 17. Every 
one who has this feeling- toward the true church is a child of God. 

t Jephthah vowed that, if the JLord would give him victory over the Ammonites, whatsoever 
should come forth of the doors of his house to meet him on his return in peace, should surely be 
the Lord's, and (or'or) he would offer it up for a burnt offering. The margin states truly that the 
" and " may be rendered "or." If a person met him, he would renounce all claim to such person, 
and wholly dedicate h,™ or her to the service of the Lord's sanctuary ; if an inferior animal met 


The period of the judges was a very chequered one, in which, down 
to the time of Samuel, God taught the Israelites His hatred of sin, not by 
prophets, but by events. When the nation fell into idolatry and immor- 
ality, He allowed their enemies to defeat and oppress them ; and then, 
when they cried unto Him for mercy, He raised up judges to deliver them 
from their enemies. Thus were the people taught that the way of the 
transgressor is hard, but that the Divine blessing rests upon those who 
fear and serve the Lord. 

Among the eminent saints in private life, during the ruling of the 
judges, we might name Manoah and his wife, Naomi, Ruth, Boaz, El- 
kanah, and Hannah. 

During the government of the judges, a change took place in the suc- 
cession of the high-priesthood. It descended from Aaron to his oldest 
son Eleazar, and from him down to Uzzi. After Uzzi it was transferred 
to the house of Aaron's younger son Ithamar, and Eli is chosen high 
priest. This order remained until about eighty years after, when Solo- 
mon changed it back again to the house of Eleazar by deposing Abiathar 
and appointing Zadok in his stead. 

The ark during the time of the judges remained at different places— 
a long time at Shiloh, a still longer time at Kirjath-Jearim, then at Jeru- 
salem, and finally was deposited by Solomon in the magnificent temple 
which he had erected. When thus deposited, it contained nothing but 
the two tables of stone ; the golden pot of manna and Aaron's Rod that 
budded, having been lost during its capture or frequent removals. With 
little exception it remained in the Holy of Holies, in the temple, from its 
dedication B. C. 1003, to its destruction B. C. 588— a period of four hun- 
dred and fifteen years. Moses made it B. C. 1490, and it perished in Solo- 
mon's temple B. C. 588, having been in existence nine hundred and two 
years ! What a miraculous preservation ! The second temple had no 

The sacred historv of the four centuries from the passage of the Jor- 
dan to the reign of Saul is comprised in three short books, Joshua, 
Judges, Ruth, and a few pages in the first book of Samuel — all of which 
might be read in half a day ! We naturally inquire, Why so short 1 The 
answer is ready. The Holy Ghost who inspired the record preserves only 
such incidents as will be of spiritual profit to the people of God in after 

At the close of the period of the judges the kingly and the prophet- 
ical office was set up in Israel in regular succession. The priestly office 

him, he would offer it up on the altar. His only child, a daughter, first met him; and with a bra- 
ten heart, because it meant lifelong separation from her, he dedicated her life to Jehovah as a 
spiritual burnt offering: in a lifelong virginity. Volumes have been written upon this mysterious 
subject ; but this seems to be the view held by those who have investigated the matter most pro- 
foundly, especially by taking into consideration the following passages of Scripture- Deut. sB. 
29-31; Levit. xxvn. 1-6; Num. xviii. 15, 16; 1 Samuel i. 11, 20, 22, 28; Heb. xi. 17-19, 32. 

1 Let it never be forgotten that Eli and his house were cut off by God, because, though Eli was 
himself a pious man, yet when he knew his sons made themselves vile he simply reproved but did 
not exercise his parental authority to punish andrestrain them (1 Samuel iii. 13, 14)— a most solemn 
warning to all over-indulgent parents, pastors and rulers who fail to exercise proper discipline 
within their peculiar spheres. v 


was already established. There was a succession of prophets from Enoch, 
the seventh from Adam, to Moses, the great lawgiver and prophet, who 
died before the conquest. Among these might be named Noah, Job, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph. During the period of the judges, 
about three hundred and sixty years (including Joshua's leadership), 
there was an almost entire absence of the spirit of prophecy. But when 
Samuel, the child of faith and prayer, was called, a lively interest was 
manifested in him by the people. All recognized him as a prophet of God, 
and honored him as such from Dan to Beersheba (1 Samuel i.-iii.). From 
him there was kept up a constant line of prophets, men inspired of God 
and called to the work, during the kingly reigns over Israel to their ter- 
mination, and those over Judah down to the close of Malachi's prophecy, 
about four hundred years B. C. These men spake as with authority from 
the Most High, and, as a general thing, kings, priests and people were 
subject to them (Jer i.) ; and from Enoch to Moses, and from Samuel to 
Malachi, they were pious men and eminent servants of God. The chief 
vacancies appear to be from Moses to Samuel, and from Malachi to the 
coming of Christ. Some of the prophets under the kingly reigns appear 
on the stage, deliver their messages and retire, without any record of 
their names even ; others chiefly in the courts of kings ; others mostly in- 
termingling with the people. 

Some leave no record of their predictions or admonitions, while 
others, sixteen in all, have done so, and their books may be found in the 
canon of Scripture, viz.: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, called the 
four greater ; and Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, 
Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, called the twelve 
lesser prophets. They spoke the truth fearlessly, whether it offended or 
pleased others. This was the spirit that characterized them, " As the 
Lord liveth, what the Lord saith unto me, that will I speak " (1 Kings 
xxii. 14; Jer. xxxiii. 20-40). False prophets sometimes arose and oc- 
casioned great trouble. When fairly detected they were to be put to 
death according to law (Deut. xiii.), and this was the reason why Elijah 
had so little opposition in having four hundred of them put to death, on 
the memorable occasion of the sacrifice at Carmel. The people, however, 
were so idolatrous themselves that they would often let the false prophet 
escape and punish the true one. 

There were "companies" or "sons" of the prophets (1 Samuel xix:. 
J9, 20; 2 Kings ii. 3, 5; iv. 38-41 ; vi. 1-7), but the object and end of their 
associations are little known to us. They are mentioned only in the days 
of Samuel, David, Elijah and Elisha. They appear to have been young 
men who admired the prophets — sought their society — waited on them 
and received instruction from them in sacred music (1 Samuel x. 5 ; 2 
Kings iii. 15 ; 1 Chron. xxv. 1-7), but could not be made prophets of by their 
teachers. God chose whom he would and raised them to the prophetical 
office, without any regard to their former human training (Amos vii. 14, 
15 ; 1 Kings xix. 15-21). The collections of these young men were located 


at different places, such as Kamah, Bethel, Jericho and Gilgal (1 Samuel 
xix. 18-24 ; 2 Kings ii. 1-5 ; iv. 38 ; xxii. 14). Nothing of the kind appears 
in the New Testament. 

From Samuel to Malachi were six hundred and fifty years, a long 
time for the continuation of the prophetic line set up in Samuel. What a 
vast volume of warnings, predictions and commands must have been 
poured forth hy them in that period of time ! Well might the apostle 
have said, " God, who at sundry times and in divers manners, spake in 
times past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken 
unto us by His Son" (Heb. i. 1). 

The God of Israel communicated with these ancient men of God in 
various ways, just as it pleased the sovereign of the universe — by inward 
revelations, in dreams, visions, voices and by angels. And the effects 
upon the bodies and spirits of the prophets were sometimes remarkable 
(Gen. xv. 12 ; Daniel viii. 10-18 ; x. 1-21 ; Hab. iii. 16 ; Ezek. i. 18). 

" The priests were at first Israel's teachers in God's statutes by types, 
acts and words (Lev. x. 11). But when under the judges the nation re- 
peatedly apostatized, and no longer regarded the dumb acted lessons of 
the ceremonial law, God sent a new order — the prophets — to witness for 
Him in plainer warnings." " They were bold reformers, and reprovers 
of idolatry, iniquity, and hypocrisy ; they called the attention of the 
people to the moral law, the standard of true holiness ; they showed the 
inefficacy of ceremonial observances, without the obedience of faith and 
love ; and they kept up and encouraged the expectation of the promised 
Messiah, and more fully declared the sufferings of Christ and the glory 
which should follow. Their claims to be considered as God's appointed 
servants were demonstrated by the unimpeachable integrity of their 
characters, by the intrinsic excellence and tendency of their instructions, 
and by the disinterested zeal and undaunted fortitude with which they 
persevered in their great design. These were still further confirmed by 
the miraculous proofs which they gave of Divine support, and by the 
immediate completion of many smaller predictions which they uttered." 
Their grandest object was to declare the spirituality of God's religion, 
the necessity of repentance, and the fullness and freeness of the Divine 
salvation which was to be wrought out by the coming Messiah ; we see 
the truth of this remark especially in Isaiah and in the last and greatest 
of the prophets before Christ, John the Baptist. The ancient Jews 
always acknowledged that the chief design of the prophets was to foretell 
the times of the Messiah. " The dress of the prophets was a hairy gar- 
ment with a leathern girdle (Isaiah xx. 2 ; Zech. xiii. 4 ; Matt. iii. 4) ; and 
their diet was the simplest (2 Kings iv. 10, 38 ; 1 Kings xix. 6), a virtual 
protest against abounding luxury. " " The absence of greater clearness 
in their predictions is due to God's purpose to give light enough to guide 
the spiritual, to leave darkness enough to confound the carnal mind. 
Many of the prophecies have a temporary and local, foreshadowing their 


final Messianic, fulfillment. The prophets were the poets and historians of 
their people." 

" While it is certain that, for some two thousand or seventeen hun- 
dred years, the prophecies of the Old and New Testament Scriptures have 
been read in public assemblies, dispersed into several countries, trans- 
lated into several languages, and quoted and commented upon by differ- 
ent nations, so that there is no room to suspect so much as a possibility of 
forgery or illusion, it is certain that we see many of these prophecies ful- 
filled and fulfilling at the present day. We see the descendants of Shem 
and Japheth ruling and enlarged in Asia, Europe and America, and the 
curse of servitude still attending the wretched descendants of Ham in 
Africa. We see the posterity of Ishmael multiplied exceedingly, and 
become a great nation in the Arabians ; yet living like wild men, and 
shifting from place to place in the wilderness ; their hand against every 
man, and every man's hand against them ; and still dwelling a free people 
in the presence of all their brethren and of all their enemies. We see the 
family of Esau totally extinct, and that of Jacob subsisting at this day; 
the sceptre departed from Judah, the people living nowhere in authority, 
everywhere in subjection, the Jews still dwelling alone among the 
nations. We see the Jews severely punished for their infidelity and dis- 
obedience to their great prophet like unto Moses ; plucked from off their- 
own land, and removed into all the kingdoms of the earth, oppressed and 
spoiled evermore, and made a proverb and a by -word among all nations ; 
still by a constant miracle preserved everywhere as a distinct people for 
the demonstration among the Gentiles of the truth of the Scriptures and 
for the completion of other prophecies relating to them ; while their 
great conquerors are everywhere destroyed — the Assyrian Nineveh de- 
voured by fire and barely able to be exhumed from the rubbish of its. 
ruins — Babylon made a desolation for ever, a possession for the bittern, 
and pools of water — Tyre become like the top of a rock, a place for fishers, 
to spread their nets upon — and Egypt a base kingdom, the basest of the 
kingdoms, still tributary and subject to strangers. We see, of the four 
great empires of the world (the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, the 
Grseco-Macedonian, and the Boman) represented by the great image in. 
Nebuchadnezzar's dream, the fourth and last, which was greater and 
more powerful than any of the former^ first divided into the Eastern and. 
Western Boman Empires, and then subdivided into many smaller and 
weaker nations, and among them the great idolatrous apostasy of the 
Christian Church, in a city seated upon seven mountains, wearing out the 
saints of the Most High, and thinking to change times and laws, his tem- 
poral dominion now taken from him (Daniel xii. 26), but still asserting 
his spiritual power, forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from 
meats, enjoining the worship of Mary and other departed saints, and. 
opposing and exalting himself above all laws, human and divine, and sit- 
ting as God in the Church of God, proclaiming himself the infallible 


vicegerent of God on earth, the last Supreme Judge of the human race." 
—Fausset, Scott, Gray and Newton. 

Our remarks upon the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, 
shown to be fulfilled in the New, are reserved for the close of the Old 
Testament period. 

The fulfilled and fulfilling prophecies of the Scriptures peremptorily 
demonstrate the Divine inspiration of the Bible, and God's absolute fore- 
knowledge and control of all tilings for the salvation of His people. 

Toward the close of Samuel's life the kingly power was set up in Saul. 
Samuel's sons, like those of Eli, were too unworthy to become his succes- 
sors. The people demanded a king in order to be like other nations ; and 
although forewarned of the evil consequences of a monarchy by Samuel, 
they disregarded all, and urged him to select a king for them. This dis- 
pleased Samuel ; yet God said unto him, " They have not rejected thee, 
but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them." " Hearken 
unto their voice : howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and shew them 
the manner of the king that shall reign over them." Samuel did so, but 
"they disregarded his warnings and demanded a king ; which God gave 
them in His anger, and yet did not forsake them. He directed Samuel to 
anoint Saul, the son of Kish, a Benjamite, to be a king over them, and to 
go forth as their captain to deliver them out of the hand of the Philis- 
tines, because their cry under oppression had come unto Him (1 Samuel 
ix. 15, 16). In making up the army of Israel cavalry was forbidden, lest 
the kings and people should trust in horses and chariots, and exhaust 
their resources too rapidly by keeping up such an expensive show of for- 
midable array, and be tempted to engage in demoralizing foreign wars. 
They were rather to trust in the living God, while they went forth in per- 
son to combat. The kingly power, thus set up, did not overturn the pre- 
viously existing theocracy ; for the king was only the servant still, or 
vicegerent, of God, to enforce His commands, and to be established in 
Ms authority or dethroned, as seemed good in His sight. The king's 
authority extended to all temporal and spiritual affairs, and in this respect 
«hurch and state were united, God, however, being admitted to be the 
righteous Buler and Governor over all. 

Saul, for unfaithfulness and presumptuous sins in office, was rejected 
from the throne, as was all his house. David, the youngest son of Jesse, 
was anointed and appointed to succeed Saul, and in his family it pleased 
God to make the kingly power hereditary. Saul came to the throne B. C. 
1095, and reigned over all Israel forty years. In the battle of Gilboa he 
was defeated by the Philistines, and took his own life. Saul was aware 
of David's having been anointed by God's prophet to be king over Israel, 
yet sought often to kill David so as to defeat God's purpose in this re- 
spect. Quite similar was the conduct of Herod about one thousand years 
afterwards, when, after having been specially informed that the king of 
the Jews was born in Bethlehem, who was to reign over the house of 
Jacob forever, he sent forth executioners, who slew all the male children 


m that vicinity from two years old and under, in order to frustrate the 
declared purpose of God ! How unreasonable, impious and inconsistent 
is the unrenewed mind of man ! 

David was first proclaimed king over the tribes of Judah and Benja- 
min at Hebron, B.C. 1055, and reigned there seven years. Ishbosheth,. 
Saul's son, was proclaimed king over the ten tribes at Mahanaim, and a 
seven years' war ensued between him and David. David finally pre- 
vailed, and was anointed king over all Israel, B. C. 1048. This was his 
third anointing. The year following he made Jerusalem the capital, and 
reigned there thirty and three years, making forty years in all. He 
shortly after removed the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem, and 
purposed building a house in which to worship God ; but, although this 
purpose was approved of God, yet he did not suffer David to carry it into 
execution, because he had been a man of war and had shed much blood. 
The work was reserved for his successor. For fifteen years after he began 
to reign in Jerusalem (1048 to 1033) he was almost continually engaged in 
war with the old enemies of Israel, such as the Edomites,*the Moabites, 
the Amalekites, the Ammonites, the Philistines and the Assyrians ; and, 
conquering and subduing all these nations, he pushed forward his do- 
minion until it had included all that had been originally promised to 
Abraham and his seed (Gen. xv. 18-21 ; Deut. xi. 23, 24 ; Joshua i. 4, com- 
pared with 1 Kings iv. 21-24 ; 2 Chron. ix. 26) . Of all the kings that reigned 
over Israel, David and Solomon only extended their jurisdiction to the 
utmost borders of the vast country promised originally to the Hebrews, 
viz.: from Egypt to the Euphrates, about fifty thousand square miles- 
Palestine only occupying twelve thousand square miles; and their joint 
reigns lasted but eighty years. Nevertheless, these two reigns constituted 
the golden age of the temporal grandeur and spiritual enjoyment of the 
chosen people. 

David was said to have been a man after God's own heart (1 Samuel 
xiii. 14) ; his name signifies beloved; he was a type of Christ and of the 
church, and his experience is that of every child of grace, more or less. 
Even after his regeneration he committed great sins ; but God gave him 
great grace, superabounding over. his sins (Romans v. 20), and enabling 
him truly to repent (like Peter— Psalm li ; Luke xxii. 61, 62) ; God for- 
gave him, but, to vindicate His own holiness (Leviticus x. 3), and to give 
His servant the needed discipline (Heb. xii. 5-11), He declared that the 
sword should never depart from his house, and he'afforded him recom- 
pense in kind for his transgression (2 Samuel xii. 7-14). His nature was 
exceedingly devotional— sometimes enthusiastic. The Psalms written by 
him reveal his character as a humble, penitent and devout worshiper of 
the Most High. 

" The three most eminent men in the Hebrew annals — Moses, David 
and Solomon — were three of their most distinguished poets. The hymns 
of David excel no less in sublimity and tenderness of expression than in 
holiness and purity of religious sentiment. In comparison with them the 


sacred poetry of all other nations sinks into mediocrity. They have em- 
bodied so exquisitely the universal language of religious emotion, that (a 
few very fierce and vindictive passages excepted, natural in the warrior 
poet of a sterner age) they have entered with unquestioned propriety into 
the ritual of the holier and more perfect religion of Christ. The songs 
which cheered the solitude of the desert caves of Engedi, or resounded 
from the voice of the Hebrew people as they wound along the glens or 
- the hillsides of Judea, have been repeated for ages in almost every part 
■of the habitable world, in the remotest island of the ocean, among the 
forests of America and the sands of Africa. How many human hearts 
have they (under the application of the Spirit of God) softened, purified, 
exalted ! of how many wretched beings have they been the secret conso- 
lation ! on how many communities have they drawn down the blessings 
of Divine Providence, by bringing the affections into union with their 
devotional fervor." — Milmem. 

And notwithstanding all that may be said in favor of this eminent 
servant of God, we should not forget that he was a man — a depraved 
mortal — a man of like passions with ourselves — at best a sinner saved 
by grace, and liable to err through the temptations of Satan, the seduc- 
tions of the world, and the deceitfulness of his own heart. He did err 
greatly ; the Lord punished him for it severely ; he repented deeply, and 
God in mercy forgave, him freely. All these things are carefully set down 
for warning, admonition and encouragement to spiritual Israel thencefor- 
ward to the end of time. 

Solomon, the son of David, succeeded his father, and was crowned 
king B. C. 1014, in a time of profound peace, and equalled him in the 
length of his reign — forty years. He was much devoted to God in the 
first part of his reign. He built the temple,* placed the ark within it, 

* Solomon? 8 Temple Spiritualized; or, Gospel Light Brought Out of the Temple at Jerusalem, by 
John Bunyan, is probably the most wonderful piece of spiritual interpretation of Scripture in 
the world. A few of Bunyan's seventy points we must give. Mount Moriah, on which Solomon's 
-temple was built, was a type of Christ, the mountain of the Lord's house, the rock against which 
the gates of hell cannot prevail. The foundation stones of the temple were types of the prophets 
and Apostles. Christ is the foundation of His church personally and meritoriously- but the 
prophets and Apostles, doctrinally and ministerially. Solomon, the wise and wealthy and peacea- 
ble King, as the builder of the temple, was a type of Christ. The trees and stones of which the 
temple was built were first selected out of the forest and quarry where there were others equally 

food by nature, and were thoroughly hewed and squared and fitted for their proper place, ana 
hen brought to the temple and properly adjusted without noise or confusion ■ so with God's 
people, who are chosen by Him in the wild field of nature, then hewed and squared bv His word 
and doctrine applied by His Spirit, and afterwards brought in and added quietly by Him to His 
Zion. The temple, with its chambers, was narrowest downwards, and largest upwards— different 
from all other buildings; so the hearts of God's people should be narrow in their desires for 
earthly things, but wide in their desires for spiritual and eternal things; those in the church who 
are nearest or most concerned with earth are the most narrow-spirited as to the things of God. 
The pinnacles of the temple were types of those lofty, airy, heady notions with which some men 
delight themselves while they hover like birds above the solid and godly truths of Christ ■ these 
are dangerous places-Satan tried to destroy Christ on one of them. Christians, to be safe, should 
be low and little in their own eyes. The porters had charge of the treasure-chambers, and had to 
ieep diligent watch leBt any not duly qualified should enter the house of the Lord- these were 
types of Gpd's ministers. The door of the temple represented Christ. The wall of the temple was 
His divinely sustained humanity, and the fine gold on the wall a type of His righteousness. The 
windows were narrow without, but wide within : types of the written word, through which as 
through .a glass .we now darkly see something of the glory of the Sun of Righteousness; bythe 
light of the written word, the church can see the dismal state of the world and how to avoid it, 
but by that light the world sees but little of the beauty of the church. The chambers represented 
rest, safety, treasure, solace, and continuance. The two winding stairs from the first to the sec- 
ond story, and from the second to the third, were types of the two- told repentance of the child of 
God, that by which he turns from nature to grace, and that by which he turus from the imper- 
fections which attend a state of grace to glory. The molten sea was a figure of the pure word of 
the gospej. without men's inventions, mingled with the fire of the Holy Ghost. The twelve oxen 


and dedicated it. He was seven years and a half in building it, and com- 
pleted it B. C. 1004. Immense sacrifices were offered to God upon its 
dedication ; the glory of God filled the house after the ark was carried 
into it, so that the priests could not minister because of the cloud ; Solo- 
mon, kneeling, spread forth his hands towards Heaven, and offered the 
prayer of dedication ; after which he dismissed the people, who returned 
to their homes joyful and with glad hearts (1 Kings viii. 1-66). This, no 
doubt, was the greatest and happiest day that the Hebrew nation ever 
witnessed. The hundreds of thousands who coidd not be present at the 
dedication considered themselves equally interested and alike participat- 
ing in the joyful festivities of the occasion. Wisdom was specially given 
to Solomon. God asked him, before this time, what he would have, and 
he asked for wisdom to govern Israel well. They were God's people — 
they were then a great people — and he desired wisdom to govern them 
well for their good and God's glory. He did not ask for long life, or for 
Tiches or honor, but for wisdom. The Lord granted his request, and, in 
addition to wisdom, conferred on him riches and honor exceeding that of 
all other men. The temple was a small structure in comparison to many 
others, both ancient and modern ; but it was the most costly of all, 
chiefly on account of the quantity of gold and silver used in its con- 
struction. In this respect it was a forcible type of the true church in all 
ages of the world, which, though so much smaller than the false church, 
is yet the most costly of all— having cost the precious blood of Christ as 
of a lamb slain from the foundation of the world, and being clothed with 
His imputed righteousness, which outshines by far all the righteousness 
of man. 

After the dedication the Lord appeared unto Solomon again, assuring 
him that He had heard bis prayer and had blessed the temple, and would 
establish his (Solomon's) throne over Israel forever if he proved faithful ; 
"but, should he turn from the Lord and serve other gods, He would cut off 
Israel out of the land, and cast the house which He [had hallowed out of 
His sight ! (1 Kings ix. 2-7.) 

Now was the zenith of Hebrew greatness. The sun of national Israel 
had pierced the horizon when Abram was first called from "Ur of the 
Chaldees," and had, been gradually rising higher and higher— higher and 
higher still — for nearly a thousand years, until, at this auspicious period, 
he stood (forth in his meridian splendor, shedding his benign rays over 
the beautiful land of Palestine, the garden-spot of the world, with all the 

upon whose backs the sea Btood were types of the Apostles and ministers of Christ, who should 
keep their uncomely parts covered with gospel grace, and should proclaim the gospel in all the 
world. A golden censer is a gracious heart, heavenly fire is the Holy Ghost, and sweet incense the 
effectual, fervent prayer of faith. The Holy Place was a type of the church militant; and the 
Most Holy Place a type of the church triumphant. Both partB of the house have the same foun- 
dation, and the same family of occupants. The way into Heaven is through the true church of 
Chr ist on earth. Things in the Most Holy Place could not be seen by even the highest light of 
this world, but .only by the light of the fire of the altar, a type of the sninings of the Holy Ghost. 
The floor of the temple was overlaid with gold, like the pure golden streets of the New Jerusalem. 
The walk of God's people should be beautiful and clean ; and, when we happily reach the Celestial 
City, we shall jio more step into the mire or stumble upon blocks and stones, or fall into holes 
and snares, but all our steps will be in pure gold. Oh what speaking things, says Bunyan, are 
types, shadows and parables, had we but eyes to see, had we but ears to. hear ! 


tributary nations around it. Added to this was the religious character 
of the people ; who were loud in their praises of, and faithful in adoring, 
the only true God. Israel in spirit was but little annoyed by Israel after 
the flesh : the sons of Belial shrunk back from persecuting the sons of 
God, and all seemed united in love, peace and prosperity — from Dan to- 
Beersheba, and from the great river to the sea. Spiritual Israel here 
had rest,* indicative of that which remains for the people of God in 
Heaven, and indicative of that rest which all experience when changed 
from the legal to the Christian dispensation, or translated from the king- 
dom of Satan into the kingdom of God's dear Son. But these halcyon 
days under the reign of Solomon were of short duration — God's people 
must not expect a long continuance either of temporal or spiritual hap- 
piness in this poor, sinful world — both are fleeting in their character and 
soon pass away; but, while spiritual enjoyments are renewed from time 
to time until they are perfected by the transcendent glories of eternity, 
temporal enjoyments terminate at the grave. 

Solomon transgressed the law of his God. He did not prove faithful 
to the end. He gave himself up to carnal pleasures. He made an affinity 
with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, by marrying his daughter, and took many 
wives from the heathen nations around him, all of which was expressly 
forbidden. His strange wives were idolaters, and he indulged them in 
idolatry. He built them high places for the worship of their deities, and 
joined some of them in their infamous worship. With the decline of his 
zeal for God and the honor of his name came a decline of his earthly 
greatness. God made known to him His displeasure, and notified hi™ of 
the downfall of his kingdom and the rending off the ten tribes in the days 
of his successors. He appeared not then to repent of his sins, but no 
doubt did before his death, which took place B. C. 975, when he was suc- 
ceeded by his son Rehoboam (1 Kings xii.). 

During the reigns of both David and Solomon, as at all other past 
times since the fall of Adam, while there were a few spiritual worshipers 
of God, the mass of the people either worshiped idols, or only outwardly 
worshiped God in accordance with the will, the example or the command 
of their rulers. " But the constant tendency was to idolatry ; and the 
intercourse with foreign nations which Solomon maintained, as well as 
his own example, greatly increased the tendency. Under Solomon, in- 
deed, idolatry struck its roots so deep that all the zeal of the reforming 
kings that followed him failed to eradicate it. It was not till the seventy 
years' captivity of Babylon that the soil of Palestine was thoroughly 
' purged of the roots of that noxious weed."— W. G. Blaikie. 

The question is sometimes asked, Was Solomon a spiritual Israelite, 
a child of grace, an heir of God, and has he gone to Heaven 1 We an- 
swer, Yes. All the writers of the books both in the Old and in the New 
Testaments were Heaven-born and Heaven-bound. God would not per- 

* The -word Solomon means peace. 


mit an unregenerate man, a heathen, a barbarian, to write a book for 
Him, and then place it in the sacred canon of Scripture. This would he 
a most preposterous thing. Besides, it is said that he "loved the Lord, 
walking in the statutes of David his father" (1 Kings iii. 3). And again, 
the Lord said of him, " He shall build an house for my name, and I will 
etablish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his Father, and he 
shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod 
of men, and with the stripes of the children of men : but my mercy shall 
not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away be- 
fore thee" (2 Samuel vii. 13-15). The Lord made two special revelations 
to him, and gave him more wisdom than any other man ; and this wisdom 
was spiritual as well as natural. And, in addition to all this, Solomon 
wrote three books that are preserved and handed down to us in the Old 
Testament, viz., the Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes and Proverbs ; in all of 
which there are evidences of a spiritual mind, and the unction of the 
Holy Spirit is clearly manifest. 

During the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon there was almost an 
entire absence of miracles, being a period of about 120 years ; yet the Lord 
revealed Himself to His people by Urim and Thummim, through his pro- 
phets ; also in visions, as in the case of Solomon and others ; also by visi- 
ble manifestations, as at the dedication, of the temple, when the cloud and 
the glory descended and filled it. 

We have said that during the reign of Solomon the sun of Israel's 
greatness was at his height ; and from his reign that sun began to de- 
cline, sinking lower and lower, until it finally set amidst the darkness and 
desolation that followed the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman army 
under Titus (A. D. 70). The nationality was then overthrown, and the 
remnant of Israel scattered among the nations. 

King Solomon was succeeded by his son Rehoboam ; and very soon 
thereafter the ten tribes revolted, and set up Jeroboam to reign over 
them. This separation continued until the return of the Jews from the 
Babylonish captivity, when what was left to return, both of Jews and 
Israelites, united as one nation again, and were thenceforward called 
Jews. The ten tribes had revolted twice before this against the throne 
of David ; first, under Abner and Ish-bosheth, after the death of Saul, for 
seven years ; second, under Absalom, and at his death under Sheba, for 
a short continuance. This last revolt (under Rehoboam) was about the 
year B. C. 975. The ten tribes were captured and carried away into As- 
syria by Shalmaneser, B. C. 721, which gave them an independence of the 
throne of David for 254 years. The kingdom of Judah, composed of the 
tribes of Judah and Benjamin and the most of Levi, continued from the 
setting up of Rehoboam to the first taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchad- 
nezzar (a period of 369 years), B. C. 606, from which the date of the seventy 
years' captivity commences. According to this, the two kingdoms, that 
of Judah and Israel, were separated 439 years, say from 975 to 536 B. C, 
when the seventy years were ended. During all this period of separation, 


however, they were one people still, in feeling, in origin, in religion and 
destiny, and had more or less intercourse with each other. Besides this, 
many from the ten tribes, during the wicked reigns of Jeroboam and his 
impious successors, found their way to Jerusalem and the jurisdiction of 
Rehoboam and his successors, before Israel was carried off into Assyria. 

It is deplorable to notice the sad declension of the ten tribes after 
this third revolt until carried away. They had not a righteous prince to 
rule over them during the whole period from Jeroboam the first to 
Hoshea the last. All were wicked, all idolatrous, and caused Israel to 
sin. What must have been the mortification and suffering of God's spir- 
itual worshipers among them for that long 254 years ! They had nineteen 
kings to rule over them in nine distinct dynasties. Of these nineteen, 
seven were murdered by conspirators, namely, Nadab, Elah, Jehoram, 
Zachariah, Shallum, Pekahiah, and Pekah; one, Zimri, after a brief 
reign, to avoid falling into the hands of his competitor to the throne, 
burnt himself up in his palace ; another, Ahab, died ingloriously in bat- 
tle, "whose blood the dogs licked;" another, Ahaziah, died in conse- 
quence of a fall through a lattice in his house ; and the last, Hoshea, was 
dethroned and carried a captive into Syria ; eight only died quietly in 
their beds, namely, Jeroboam, Baasha, Omri, Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jeroboam 
II., and Menahem. 

The kingdom of Israel was scourged with wars, and these were 
mostly with the kingdom of Judah. Their armies or populations were 
nearly the same, Judah having, as is supposed, two-thirds the number of 
Israel, some of the tribes having run down very low, and many persons 
uniting their fortunes to Judah, a powerful and the most religious tribe. 
The advantages gained on either side were about equal in the end. 

" The separate history of the idolatrous kingdom of Israel may be 
■well divided into four periods : 1st. Idolatry taking root— about fifty 
years, during the reigns of Jeroboam I., Nadab, Baasha, Elah and Zimri, 
and during the prophecies of Ahijah and Jehu. 2d. Idolatry rampant— 
about forty-eight years, during the reigns of Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah and 
Jehoram, and during the prophecies of Elijah, Micaiah and Elisha. 3d. 
Idolatry slightly checked— about one hundred and two years, during the 
Teins of Jehu, Jehoahaz, Joash, Jeroboam II., and Zachariah, and dining 
the prophecies of Jonah, Hosea, and Amos. 4th. Idolatry terminating in 
ruin— about fifty-four years, during the reigns of Shailum, Menahem, 

Pekaiah, Pekah and Hoshea, and during the prophecy of Oded." W. G. 


The enemies most to be dreaded by Israel were the Assyrians, who 
finally conquered and swept them away. Tiglath-pileser, king of 
Assyria, in the reign of Pekah, B. C. 740, conquered and carried into cap- 
tivity the two tribes, Reuben and Gad, the half tribe of Manasseh, east 
of Jordan, Naphtali, and portions of Galilee on the west (1 Kings xv. 20; 
1 Chron. v.; 2 Kingsxv.). The others of the tribes in the reign of Hoshea, 
B. C. 721, were carried away captive by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria. 


The captivity of the ten tribes was a punishment from God, "because 
they obeyed not the voice of the Lord their God, but transgressed His 
-covenant, and all that Moses the servant of the Lord commanded, and 
would not hear them nor do them " (2 Kings xvii., xviii.) This captivity 
was a terrible punishment to idolaters, but not more than they deserved 
and not more than God had already threatened. He was faithful to carry 
out His long-declared purpose, known to these wicked rulers and these 
wicked people, from generation to generation, by His holy prophets (2 
Kings xvii. 20-23; 1 Kings xiv. 7-16). This is the last account we have 
of these tribes as an independent and separate body of people. History 
is silent concerning them afterwards. Many of their descendants re- 
turned to Jerusalem, no doubt, upon the cessation of the Babylonish cap- 
tivity, when Israel and Judah became one stick again (Ezek. xxxvii. 16, 
17). The Babylonians conquered the Assyrians and carried many Israel- 
ites to that country, probably before the Jews were taken there from 
Jerusalem. When they met, they fraternized, and felt to be one people. 

The land of Israel was not left desolate when the king of Assyria 
depopulated the country. He brought in others to fill their places, men, 
women and children, from different provinces of his empire, to secure the 
country which he had conquered ; and in this way Samaria was settled. 
Here originated a most remarkable people, both in regard to their re- 
ligion and their perpetuity. The zealous king of Judah, Josiah, under- 
took to destroy the idols in the lands once occupied by the ten tribes, 
ninety-three years after their captivity. He met with resistance else- 
where, but not in Samaria. There he killed the idolatrous priests, which 
they were willing to, and had no objection to the worship set up by 
Josiah. Ninety-two years afterwards, viz., in the year B. C. 536, when 
Ezra under the decree of Cyrus was laying the foundation of the second 
temple, these people desired to assist him in the work on the ground of a 
common religion. Said they : " Let us build with you : for we seek your 
God, as ye do : and we do sacrifice unto Him since the days of Esar- 
haddon, king of Asshur, who brought us up hither." But the Jews re- 
plied : " Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house unto our God : 
but we ourselves together will build unto the Lord God of Israel as 
Cyrus, the king of Persia, hath commanded us " (Ezra iv.) Upon this re- 
fusal of their assistance they became much displeased, and did what 
they could ever afterwards to hinder the work, and actually prevailed 
with the king of Persia to put a stop to it for awhile. The bitterness 
engendered on that occasion has never passed away. It continued be- 
tween the two people all the time during the existence of the second 
temple. In the days of our Savior "the Jews had no dealings with the 
Samaritans," and we presume the prejudice remains to this day, whenever 
they come in contact. The Jewish nation has been broken up for 
eighteen hundred years, and their descendants are now dispersed abroad 
among the nations of the earth without the least sign of nationality ; 
while the Samaritans occupy their old ground still, hold fast to their old 


religion, and are full of their old prejudices. They worship on Mount 
Gerizim, and hold to the five books of Moses, with the books of Joshua 
and Judges in a corrupted form. The Pentateuch, however, is their 
Bible, and they still look for a Savior to come. 

Their copy of the Pentateuch is very ancient, and written in the an- 
cient Hebrew or Phoenician character. When they received it or what is 
the date of it is unknown— perhaps a little before the Babylonian cap- 

What are we to expect by the preservation of these people through 
twenty-five centuries f There is mystery involved. Conquering nations 
have swept over them for many long centuries like waves of the sea, but 
they have not been washed away ; there they are yet, on their same old 
Mount Gerizim, with Pentateuch in hand, affiliating with neit uer Jew nor 
Christian, Mohammedan nor Pagan, Eomanist nor Protestant, nor with the 
church of God, yet looking for the Messiah to come ! 

They are reduced in number, it is said, to about one hundred and 
fifty souls, the oldest, the smallest and the extremest sect in the world, 
and yet, for aught we know to the contrary, it may please the Divine 
Mind to allow them to remain until they shall behold from their same old 
mountain the true Messiah, coming in the clouds of Heaven with His 
holy angels, to gather His ransomed people home, and take vengeance 
on them that know not God — not the first, but the second time, without 
sin unto salvation. 

During the reign of nineteen kings in Israel, till their being carried 
away, there were only twelve who reigned in Judah, and nineteen in all 
down to the Babylonian captivity — and all these in a direct line from 

Behoboham, the son of Solomon, did well for a few years of his 
reign. He ruled wisely, and walked in the way of the better days of his 
father and grandfather. His reign was honored and revered, and so de- 
votional was he that numbers of priests, Levites and people of Israel, 
moved into Judea away from the idolatry and oppression of their own 
rulers. But a sudden change came over the mind of Rehoboam. So 
soon as he felt established on his throne and everything seemed prosper- 
ous around him, he forsook the law of the Lord and plunged into idola- 
try and almost every vice, and drew most of his subjects with him. God 
brought down his high looks and defiant attitude by sending Shishak, 
king of Egypt, to look after him. He invaded Judah, took the fenced 
cities, and approached Jerusalem. He and his princes came down at 
once, at the preaching of the prophet Shemaiah and the approach of 
Shishak's army, confessed their faults and pleaded for mercy, as did the 
Ninevites at the preaching of Jonah. The Lord hearkened and saved 
them from destruction by causing the invading forces to turn away after 
they had taken the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures 
of the king's house and Solomon's shields of gold. 

There was strong opposition by God's spiritual children in Judea all 


the time to the wicked devices of tlie king ; but they were in a minority, 
as usual, and could not prevail. Rehoboam did better after this, but 
never altogether reformed (2 Chron. xi. 5-23 ; xii. 1-16 ; 1 Kings xiv. 22-24). 

Abljah, son of Kehoboam, succeeded to the throne. He did not en- 
tirely reform abuses, but professed to be jealous for the honor of God, 
and reproached Jeroboam, king of Israel, with forsaking Him. He made 
war with Jeroboam, under this plea, among others, and relying upon the 
Lord, he went into battle with an odds of two to one against him, and 
defeated Jeroboam, slaying five hundred thousand of his men — being one 
hundred thousand more than was numbered in his own army. He 
strengthened his kingdom greatly, and died after a short reign (2 Chron. 
xiii. ; 1 Kings xv.). 

Abijah's son, Asa, succeeded him, and proved to be one of the best 
kings that ever reigned over Judea. He earnestly sought to extirpate 
idolatry and immorality from the land, and repaired the fortified places 
of Judea; and, in the strength of a covenant-keeping God (see his re- 
markable prayer in 2 Chron. xiv. 11), he met the mighty invading Ethio- 
pian host of a million men, under Zerah, and utterly routed them. En- 
couraged by the prophet Azariah, he now became still more zealous in the 
destruction of idolatry. But Baasha, king of Israel, moving against him, 
his faith in God seemed for a time to fail him, and he, with the treasures 
of his palace and the temple, hired Benhadad, king of Syria, to invade 
Baasha's northern frontier ; and, being rebuked for this by the faithful 
prophet of the Lord, Hanani, he cast the latter into prison. Asa was at- 
tacked with a disease in his feet ; and seeking not to the Lord, but to 
physicians (probably foreign idolaters), he died. 

His son Jehoshaphat succeeded him, and he proved another worthy 
son of the house of David. One of his first acts was to conclude a peace 
with Israel, which had been broken for sixty years. There had been 
trouble and war, more or less, existing between the two kingdoms from 
B. C. 975 to 915. This wise and virtuous king suppressed it altogether. 
He was zealous for the cause of God. He did more than others before 
him — he became a preacher — a public instructor in the law of the Lord. 
He went to the extent of his dominion exhorting the people to obey God, 
keep His law inviolate, and worship the God of their fathers exclu- 
sively. And as he established judges throughout his territories, from 
Beersheba to Mount Ephraim, in the various fenced cities, he exhorted 
them to discharge their duties in the fear of the Lord. He not only went 
himself, but he commissioned others to go and teach the people in the 
knowledge of the Lord and remove ignorance from their minds. " He 
sent five princes, accompanied by nine Levites and two priests, to teach 
in the cities of Judah : and they taught in Judah, and had the book of the 
law of the Lord with them, and went about all the cities of Judah and 
taught the people." This was in advance of anything ever before done 
in Judea, and seemed pointing to the spread of the gospel under the 
Christian dispensation. Our blessed Savior both preached His own 


gospel in the cities and villages of Palestine, and called and qualified His 
disciples to do the same thing. 

Jehoshaphat was unfortunate in agreeing to make an alliance with 
Ahab, king of Israel, and with Ahab's son and grandson — Ahaziah and 
Joram. It was of no advantage to Israel and great disadvantage to 
Judah. He was greatly blessed of the Lord, however : he strengthened 
his kingdom, and had an army, prepared for war, numbering one million, 
one hundred and sixty thousand men — seven hundred and eighty thou- 
sand of Judah and three hundred and eighty thousand of Benjamin. 

The two prosperous reigns of Asa and Jehoshaphat were soon shorn of 
their excellency by the wicked reign of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat. He 
married the daughter of Ahab, and engaged in the wickedness and idola- 
tries of that abominable house. He murdered in cold blood his brothers 
who were better than he, restored the idolatrous high places on the 
mountains of Judah, and endeavored to compel all the people to forsake 
the worship of the true God and go with him in all his impurities of idol- 
atrous worship. In the full tide of his apostasy he received a letter, 
written to him by the prophet Elijah, who died in the reign of his father, 
but who saw what the future course of this young prince would be when 
he came to the throne, and therefore wrote this letter, to be handed to 
him in proper time. He had fulfilled the prophecy to the letter. "He 
had not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat, his father, nor in the ways 
of Asa, king of Judah : but had walked in the way of the kings of Israel, 
and made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring, like 
to the whoredoms of the house of Ahab ; and had slain his brethren of his 
father's house which were better than he." All this he had done ! And 
what was to follow ? Heavy and miserable judgments, unless he should 
repent, and Judah with him. " Thus saith the Lord, Because thou hast 
so done, behold with a great plague will the Lord smite thy people, and 
thy children, and thy wives, and all thy goods ; and thou shalt have great 
sickness, by disease of thy bowels, until thy bowels 'all out by reason of 
the sickness day by day." This letter of Elijah -w is despised both by 
king and people. The judgments followed rapidly. The Edomites re- 
volted from under his hand. The Philistines and Arabians invaded his 
territories, entered Jerusalem, sacked his palace, carried away his wives 
and all his sons save one. " And after all this the Lord smote him in his 
bowels, with an incurable disease; and after the end of two years his 
bowels fell out by reason of his sickness : so he died of sore diseases, 
without being desired, after a reign of eight years ; his people made no 
burning for him, and gave him no burial in the sepulchre of the kings "' 
(2 Kings viii.; 2 Chron. xxi.). 

What a remarkable letter was this ! Was such a one ever written or 
received before that day 1 God is a being of infinite wisdom and fore- 
knowledge, and He inspired His prophet to write a letter to this man be- 
fore he came to the throne, telling him what he should do to others. 


what others would do to him, and with what disease he should die. He 
died, leaving a weak and wicked nation behind him. 

His son Ahaziah, sometimes called Azariah and Jehoahaz, succeeded 
him and walked in his footsteps. He also married in the wicked family 
of Ahab. He went to war against Hazael, king of Assyria, with Joram, 
king of Israel ; they were defeated, and returned, and both were slain 
by Jehu, king of Israel, who was raised up to take vengeance on the 
house of Ahab. Ahaziah was slain in the first year of his reign (2 Chron. 
xxii.; 2 Kings ix.). 

Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, upon learning the death of her sou 
(and who had counselled him for evil during his life), caused all the seed 
royal of the house of Judah to be put to death, except one that escaped, 
and then usurped the throne herself. Wickedness appeared to be tri- 
umphant at this juncture, and Baal's worshipers were in the ascendant. 
The valuable and sacred things of the temple were taken and bestowed 
upon the worship of Baal, and this idol was set up in Judah as it had 
been in Israel, with its altars, images and priests. 

"But Jehoiada the priest resolutely held the temple during the six 
years of Athaliah's usurpation, and conducted the services in the pre- 
scribed forms " (2 Kings xi. 1-16 ; 2 Chron. xxii., xxiii.) He was one of 
the most remarkable men of the times, and seemed to stand superior to 
any other in his day for wisdom, prudence, and devotion to God, from 
first to last, without any defection or abatement of zeal for the law of the 
Lord. He had great influence with the people ; they rjevered him as 
Israel did Samuel of old. He was contemporary with Solomon, Reho- 
boam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, and Ahaziah — seven kings. 
He secreted the escaped son of Ahaziah, Joash or Jehoash, his wife's 
nephew, in the temple until he could succeed in deposing Athaliah, which 
was done in the sixth year of her reign ; and he had Joash, a child of 
seven years, proclaimed king of Judah, who for twenty- seven years did 
that which was right in the sight of the Lord, because his uncle coun- 
selled him. He brought the people generally back to the worship of God, 
and the bright and peaceful days of Asa and Jehoshaphat seemed to 
be returning again. But Jehoiada died at the advanced age of one hun- 
dred and thirty years ; being kingly in life, he was honored with a kingly 
burial at his death. 

"And they buried him in the city of David among the kings, because 
he had done good in Israel, both toward God and toward his house." 

So soon as Jehoiada died, the young king fell into the hands of 
wicked men, who soon led him astray. " They left the house of the Lord 
God of their fathers and served groves and idols." " Yet the Lord sent 
prophets to bring them again unto the Lord, and they testified against 
them, but they would not give ear." 

Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, became high priest, and used his utmost 
exertions to stay the tide of the wide-spreading idolatry ; but a conspiracy 
was raised against him, and at the king's command he was stoned to 


death in the house of the Lord! Our Savior tells exactly where—" be- 
tween the temple and the altar" (Matt, xxiii. 35). Here was a priest of 
the Most High God slain in His sacred temple (while performing sacred 
rites), by order of a king whom his father secreted, protected, raised, had 
crowned king of Judah, and counselled for good all his life, and he a 
relative at that ! How could it be otherwise than that this blood should 
cry aloud to heaven for vengeance 1 It did cry aloud for vengeance, as 
well as that of Abel and of the Son of God ; and that divine wrath, which 
had been slumbering so long, fell upon an after-generation of this people, 
with untold misery and woe, and the remnant have been scattered to the 
four winds of heaven — the despised and persecuted people among the 
nations of the earth. 

The death of Zechariah is the first recorded martyrdom of a priest of 
the Most High God ; martyred while officiating in the holy temple service 
and by the professing people of the Lord ! How awful and gloomy the 
scene, and yet how frequently has it been re-enacted since the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into the world ! Ministers of the gospel, pastors and 
elders, have been torn from their flocks and from their ministrations in 
holy things, hundreds and thousands of them, and cruelly slain for their 
faithfulness to God by those who professed to be Christians, the people of 
God, and the servants of Christ ! 

God punished Joash by the hand of Hazael, king of Assyria, and 
afterwards his servants slew him in his bed (2 Kings xi., xii.; 2 Chron. 
xxiii., xxiv.). • 

Amaziah his son succeeded him, and his reign was an improvement 
upon that of his father, though it was far from being good. He made a 
successful war against the Edomites, but publicly introduced the gods of 
Edom into Jerusalem as his own, for which God punished him by ths 
hand of Joash, king of Israel. Joash made war on him, defeated and 
took him prisoner, destroyed part of the wall of Jerusalem, seized and 
carried off to Samaria part of the treasures of the temple and the king's 
house, after which he was conspired against and murdered (2 Kings xiv.; 
2 Chron. xxv.). While Amaziah reigned, Jonah, the first of the sixteen 
prophets whose writings appear in the sacred canon of Scripture, was 
prophesying in Israel (2 Kings xiv. 25). 

Uzziah, also called Azariah, succeeded to the throne of his father 
Amaziah, and had a long and somewhat prosperous reign. He reigned 
fifty-two years. He sought God in the days of Zechariah, another of the 
sixteen prophets whose writings are in the sacred canon. He fortified 
Jerusalem, increased his army, and became famous abroad. He permitted 
idolatry among the people, though he did not practice it himself. Pros- 
perity ruined him at last. He became so self-important that he attempted 
to officiate as priest in the temple, but Azariah, the chief priest, and 
eighty other priests, withstood him and thrust him out. And while he 
was wroth with them for so doing, leprosy rose up in his forehead, in the 
house of the Lord, beside the incense-altar, and he himself hasted to go 


out, because the Lord had smitten him. He was a leper to the day of his 
death (2 Chron. xxvi.). Joel prophesied during a part of his reign, and 
Isaiah the last year of it, -while Hosea and Amos prophesied in Israel (2 
€hron. xxvi.; 2 Kings xv.). 

Jotham was son and successor to his father Uzziah. Sacrifice and 
burning of incense were yet tolerated in high places, though Jotham was 
a moderately good king, and followed the general policy of his father. 
He did not attempt to usurp the priesthood. 

In his latter days the Lord began more seriously to press Judah with 
her old enemies, Syria and Israel (2 Chron. xvii.; 2 Kings xv.; Micah i., 
ii.). The next king in Judah was Ahaz, son of Jotham, who excelled all 
■of his predecessors in idolatry. He openly espoused it, " sacrificing and 
burning incense, in the high places, and on the hills, and under every 
green tree ;" and was the first of all the kings of Judah or Israel that 
sacrificed human sacrifices — even his own son — to the dumb idols ! He 
revolutionized the whole system of religious worship in Judea, completely 
ignored the worship of the true God, cut in pieces the vessels of the house 
of the Lord, caused the sacrifices of the temple to cease, turned the priests 
out of doors, and closed the doors of the temple, so that the worshipers 
of God found no entrance. Those doors which had remained open for 
267 years (B. C. 1005 to 738) were now closed, and remained so for twelve 
years. God punished him for all this. He set the king of Assyria on 
him, who defeated him in battle, and carried many of his people away as 
captives to Damascus. Pekah, king of Israel, also slew 120,000 of his sub- 
jects, and carried away 200,000 women and children captives to Samaria. 
The captives and spoil were returned, but none of the dead came back. 
The Edomites of the south rose up, smote Judah, and carried away cap- 
tives ; and the Philistines overran and retained possession of the south 
of Judah. Nothing seemed to touch the heart of this wicked king. He 
became more and more hardened, and deaf to all the appeals for reform 
that could be made to him. How the ways of Zion mourned during this 
long season of cruelty and idolatry, and how deep must have been the 
sorrow and mortification of all spiritual worshipers of the true God dur- 
ing this long night of abomination ! 

Hezekiah, the son of the wicked Ahaz, in the royal household, was 
fully alive to the wickedness of his father's course, and mourned in secret 
with other devout souls over the desolations of Zion. Expecting to 
occupy the throne at his father's death, he had already made up his mind 
to abolish these terrible abuses. Accordingly, in the first month of the 
first year of his reign, and on the first day of the month, here-opened and 
cleansed the house of the Lord. And he revived the celebration of the 
feast of the Passover, sending messengers all through the land of Israel 
as well as of Judah to invite the faithful to the sacred and solemn fes- 
tival, which was kept with greater joy than any since the days of Solo- 

Indeed, the whole course of the priests and the observance of the law 


appear in every particular to have been reconstructed and established by 
Hezekiah, and the reformation extended throughout Judah and Benja- 
min, and in Ephraim and Manasseh also. The groves were cut down, the 
high places thrown down, and the images broken to pieces. Hezekiah 
was honest and sincere in what he did ; his heart entered into the work ; 
and the worship of the true God was beautiful to behold in all quarters 
of his kingdom. Not so exactly with all the people ; for, in respect to 
many of them, Isaiah said : " Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as 
this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honor 
me ; but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me 
is taught by the precept of men ; therefore will I proceed to do a mar- 
velous work among the people," etc. (Isaiah xxix. 1-14, etc.). Hezekiah 
engaged in successful wars with both the Assyrians and Philistines (2 
Kings xviii. 1-16) ; but Sennacherib invaded his country in the fourteenth 
year of his reign, and forced him to tribute. Before the arrival of the 
Assyrian king, Hezekiah was miraculously healed of his sickness by the 
prophet Isaiah, and assured of the lengthening out of his life fifteen years 
by the sign of the going back ten degrees of the shadow on his dial.* 
And he was delivered out of the hand of Sennacherib, the Lord miracu- 
lously destroying his army. 

These favorable circumstances exalted Hezekiah, and he became vain ; 
they were a snare unto him. He was thought highly of and honored by 
the nations around him. The king of Babylon, Berodach-baladan, among 
others, had to send him ambassadors to congratulate him on the recovery 
from his sickness, and Hezekiah, in a fit of vanity and pride, showed them 
all his wealth and magnificence. 

The prophet Isaiah reproved him for this, and pronounced the judg- 
ment of the captivity against him, his family, and his kingdom. Upon 
this, " Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride of his heart, both he and 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem ; so that the wrath of the Lord came not 
upon them in the days of Hezekiah" (2 Kings xx.). So much for this 
worthy, patriotic, conscientious and devout king, Hezekiah. His son was 
a perfect contrast to him, and excelled in wickedness all who had pre- 
ceded him. 

Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, succeeded his father, and was crowned 
at the age of twelve years. Those who ruled him were sons of Belial, f 
and plunged him into the commission of almost every crime. If the exact 
opposite of every good thing his father did was set down to his account 
it would reveal in part, but not in whole, the carnal and Satanic course 
of Manasseh. "He shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled 
Jerusalem from one end to another ! " and finally succeeded in seducing 

* This effect may have been produced by a cloud or a modification of the laws of refraction ,- 
some eminent astronomers suppose that it may have been produced by an eclipse of the sun. But, 
by whatever method produced, we know that the retreat of the shadow ten degTees on the dial 
was not the work of man, but of Almighty God. 

t Belial means worthlessrms; it is not strictly a proper name, but used so by personification. 


and carrying the people along with him " to do more evils than did the 
nations whom the Lord destroyed before the children of Israel ! " He 
reigned in all fifty-five years. But in the twentieth year of his wicked 
career he was taken captive by Esar-haddon, the king of Assyria, and 
carried in chains to Babylon, then his capital. Manasseh was humbled 
by the Spirit of God, repented, and begged for mercy, and the Lord par- 
doned his sins and restored him to his kingdom again. He might have 
quoted Paul's experience, wherein he says, " That in me, the chiefest of 
sinners, Jesus Christ might show forth all long-suffering for a pattern to 
them which should hereafter believe on Him to life everlasting" (1 Tim. 
i. 15, 16). He devoted the remainder of his life to the service of God, and 
exhorted all the people to be zealous of the law. 

Anion succeeded Manasseh, and imitated his father's idolatry ; but his- 
life was suddenly terminated, in two years, by his assassination, in his. 
palace, by conspirators, and he thus gave way to Josiah, the last of the- 
pious kings of Judah. Josiah was crowned at the age of eight years, and 
at sixteen converted to God by His Spirit. He followed in the footsteps 
of Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah and Manasseh, and in personal piety ex- 
celled them all. Saith the Holy Spirit : " And like unto him was there 
no king before him, that turned to the Lord with all his heart, and with 
all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses ; 
neither after him arose there any like him" (2 Kings xxiii. 25). 

He made a thorough purification of the temple and city of Jerusalem, 
of all the cities and high places in his own kingdom ; and pushed his re- 
formation into other cities and places where he might be allowed. Israel 
had been carried away, but there was a people substituted in their place,, 
called Samaritans, who offered no resistance, and Josiah purged the cities 
of Manasseh, Ephraim and Simeon and a portion of Naphthali ; destroy- 
ing the houses of the high places in the cities of Samaria which the kings 
of Israel had made, and slaying the priests who sacrificed thereon. He 
made thorough work of it ; and during his reign the people had rest, and 
departed not from following the Lord God of their fathers. Near the 
close of his reign he opposed the march of the king of Egypt through his 
territories towards the Euphrates. He made battle against him and was 
wounded. He was brought to Jerusalem and died in peace. All Judah 
and Jerusalem, especially the prophet Jeremiah, mourned for him. Dur- 
ing his pious reign he enjoyed the ministry of the prophets Jeremiah, 
Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk (2 Chron. xxxiv., xxxv. ; 2 Kings xx., 
xxi. ; Lam. iv. 20). 

God's threatened wrath and captivity against Judah and Jerusalem 
were delayed during Josiah's reign, but, as soon as he was gathered to his 
fathers, the vials were poured out. 

His wicked son, Jehoahaz, succeeded him, and was deposed and car- 
ried away captive into Egypt by Pharaoh-necho, in three months after 
his coronation, and died there. Pharaoh-necho made Eliakim, another 
son of Josiah, king in his stead, changed his name to Jehoiakim, and laid 


him and his people under tribute. Urijah prophesied against the city 
and the land, for which Jehoiakim had him slain with the sword, and his 
hody cast contemptuously into the grave of the common people. 

Nineteen years before the accession of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah, the son 
of Hilkiah, a priest of Anathoth, three miles north of Jerusalem, in the 
territory of Benjamin, having before his birth been ordained of the Lord 
a prophet, had been called when a mere child to the sacred office. Natur- 
ally gentle, sensitive and timid, he was made, by the indwelling Spirit of 
God, strong, and bold, and fearless— a defenced city, an iron pillar and a 
brazen wall— against the wicked king, and princes, and priests, and false 
prophets, and people of the land, to declare to them their religious super- 
ficiality and hypocrisy, to denounce their idolatries and corruptions, and 
to predict that God would, for their abominations, carry them into sev- 
enty years' captivity * in Babylon ; but that, though he would make a full 
end of their Babylonian oppressors, He would not make a full end of 
them, but in covenant faithfulness would visit them again and restore 
them to their own land. Jeremiah was accused of being a traitor to his own 
people and a friend of the Babylonians : he was mocked and persecuted 
more than any other prophet— hated, taunted, derided, put in stocks and 
in a miry prison-pit, and sought to be killed. Both literally and spirit- 
ually, more than any other servant of God in the Old Testament dispen- 
sation, he experienced the fellowship of the sufferings of Chrisl^-his 
whole life being one long martyrdom in the cause of truth. At times, 
when left to himself, he became bitterly despondent, and bewailed, like Job 
in his extremest agony, the day on which he was born— feeling that his 
whole life was a failure (as the people did not heed his warnings), and 
doubting whether his very mission was not a delusion, and thinking that 
he would afterwards keep silent ; but the word of the Lord was like burn- 
ing Are in his bones, and he continued to deliver his solemn prophetic 
messages, and his eyes became fountains of tears for the sins and coming 
calamities of his people. Yet, " in that stormy sunset of prophecy, he be- 
holds, in spirit, the dawn of a brighter and eternal day. He sees that, if 
there is any hope of salvation for his people, it cannot be by a return to 
the old system and the old ordinances, divine though they once had been 
(xxxi. 31). There must be a new (and spiritual) covenant. The relations 
"between man and God must rest, not on an outward law with its require- 
ments of obedience, but on that of an inward fellowship with Him, and 
the consciousness of entire dependence. For all this he saw clearly there 
must be a personal centre " — the Messiah, the righteous and royal branch 
of David, the Lord our Righteousness, bringing salvation to Israel, writing 
His law in their minds and hearts, making a personal and inward revela- 

* ' 'The exact number of years of Sabbaths in 4!tn years, the period from Saul to the Babylonian 
captivity: righteous retribution for their violation of the Sabbath (Lev. xxvi. 83-86; 2 Chron. 
xxxvi. 20. 21). The Beventy years probably betrin from the fourth year of Jehoiakim, when Jeru- 
salem was first captured, and many captives, as well as the treasure of the temple, were carried 
away; they end with the first year of Cyrus, who, on taking- Babylon, issued an edict for the res- 
toration of the Jews (Ezra 1. 1) Daniel's seventy prophetic weeks are based on the 70 years of the 
captivity (Dan. lx. 2, 24)."— A. R. Fausset. 


tion of Himself to them as their God, and forgiving their iniquities (xxiii. 
5, 6 ; xxxi. 31-34). Of this Messiah, in His persecution by and His suffer- 
ing for His people, there was no more striking human type than Jere- 
miah, who is believed to have been finally carried to Tahpanhes in Egypt, 
and there stoned by the Jews, irritated by his rebukes. 

The godless and reckless Jehoiakim, in the fourth year of his reign, 
rebelling against Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and 
carried off to Babylon the vessels of the temple, and a number of royal 
and noble, handsome and gifted Hebrew youths, including Daniel, Han- 
aniah (Shadrach), Mishael (Meshach), and Azariah (Abednego), to be 
trained in Chaldaean learning for his service. Jehoiakim, after reigning 
three years as a vassal of Nebuchadnezzar, rebelled again, and was con- 
quered and put to death, as Jeremiah had prophesied. His son Jehoia- 
chin (or Jeconiah, or Coniah — Jah or Jehovah having abandoned him) 
was placed on the throne of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar, but in three 
months and ten days he was dethroned by Nebuchadnezzar because of 
rebellion ; and the conqueror carried off to Babylon the king and all hit* 
officers, and all the chief men and soldiers and artisans, including Ezekiel 
and Shimei, the grandfather of Mordecai, and the remaining treasures of 
the temple and palace — leaving none but the very poorest people in 
Judea. Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, under the name of Zedekiah,. 
was made king over the miserable remnant. 

Zedekiah rebelled in the eighth year of his reign, and, upon the ap- 
proach of the Babylonian army, professed penitence ; but, as soon as the 
army turned away, he again broke his covenant with Babylon. Having 
defeated the king of Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar resumed the siege of Jeru- 
salem, and took the city for the third and last time, fulfilling the word of 
the Lord which he spake by the mouths of His prophets, " I will wipe 
Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it and turning it upside down" 
(2 Kings xxi. 10-13). Nebuchadnezzar took Zedekiah, slew his sons be- 
fore his eyes, then put out his eyes, bound him in fetters and carried him 
to Babylon, and kept him a close prisoner till he died. He made a public 
example of seventy-four distinguished men of Jerusalem, who had been 
engaged in [the rebellion, by putting them to death. He sacked the 
temple completely. " He burnt the house of the Lord, and the king's 
house, and all the houses of Jerusalem, and every great man's house he 
burnt with fire." He demolished the walls of the city, rooted and burnt 
out the population, leaving the city a heap of rubbish and smouldering 
ruins. With the exception of a few poor people, who were left in the 
fields and vineyards, he carried all away to Babylon as prisoners. " So 
Judah was carried away out of their land. " (2 Kings xxiv. 17 ; xxv. 1-21 ; 
Jer. xxxix. 1-19 ; liii. 1-23). 

"In the kingdom of Judah, as in that of the ten tribes, the captives 
had been carried off in three detachments : In B. C. 606, Daniel and his 
three comrades and other princes ; in B. C. 598, about 10,000 chief people, 
including Ezekiel, 7,000 soldiers, 1,000 craftsmen, and about 2,000 nobles ; 


and in B. C. 587, nearly all the people. A small remnant was still left in 
the land, under Gedaliah, most of whom were massacred by Ishmael ; of 
the remnant, the greater part went to Egypt with Johanan, while a very 
small fragment continued to hover about their ancient seats."— W. O. 

The threatenings of God had been fulfilled. The kings and priests 
and people would not take heed, but kept on their rebellious road to ruin. 
" The Lord God of their fathers sent to them by His messengers, rising 
up betimes and sending ; because He had compassion on His people and 
on His dwelling place ; but they mocked the messengers of God, and 
despised His words, and misused His prophets, until the wrath of the 
Lord rose against His people, till there was no remedy " (2 Chron. xxxvi. 
11-21). The land at last lay at rest and kept Sabbath for seventy years. 

Israel existed as an independent kingdom 254 years ; Judah 133 years 
longer, making 388 years to the captivity. During these 388 years Judah 
had seventeen kings and one queen — a usurper; and two more kings after 
she became tributary to Babylon, making nineteen kings in all, and every 
one of the house of David, according to the promise of God. 

" The separate history of the kingdom of Judah may be divided into 
four periods: 1st. First religious decline and first religious revival — about 
86 years, during the reigns of Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, 
Jehoram, Ahaziah, and Athaliah, and during the prophecies of Shemaiah, 
Iddo, Azariah, Hanani, Jehu, and Jahaziel. 2d. Second decline and sec- 
ond revival — about 207 years, during the reigns of Joash, Amaziah, Uz- 
ziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, and during the prophecies of Zech- 
ariah (son of Jehoiada), Joel, Zechariah (son of Berechiah), Isaiah, 
Micah, and Nahum. 3d. Third decline and third revival — about 88 years, 
during the reigns of Manasseh, Amon and Josiah, and during the prophe- 
cies of Zephaniah and Jeremiah. 4th. Final decline— about 23 years, 
during the reigns of Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, and 
during the prophecies of Habakkuk and Obadiah. After the return from 
the Babylonian captivity there was a revival under Zerubbabel, and this 
was followed by the Pharisaic decline, which has now lasted for more than 
2,000 years, but is destined, according to the sure word of prophecy, to be 
succeeded by the most glorious revival of any (Kom. xi. 15)."— W. G. 

Nebuchadnezzar appointed Gedaliah ruler over the land of Judah at 
the time he left a few people there. He had Jeremiah taken out of 
prison, and his fetters loosened, and gave him leave to go wherever he 
pleased. He offered to take him to Babylon and provide well for him, or 
allow him to remain with Gedaliah. The prophet, like a patriotic and 
true man, resolved to remain with Gedaliah and the remnant, and share 
their destiny. So the king's officer gave him victuals and a reward, and 
let him go to Gedaliah, who was at Mizpah, the seat of government after 
the destruction of Jerusalem. 

Baalis, king of the Ammonites, for some cause unknown, sent an 


assassin, in the person of one Ishmael, to slay the good governor Geda- 
liah, and he did so while feasting at his hospitable table ; and, with the 
assistance of ten men at his side, slew the Jews, the men of war, and the 
Chaldeans found there with him. He also slew eighty more unsuspecting 
men who came up from Shechem, Shiloh and Samaria for religious pur- 
poses. Then gathering the people together, he departed to go over to the 
Ammonites, but was speedily pursued by Johanan and the captains of the 
forces, and overtaken in Gibeon. The captives were recovered, but 
Ishmael made his escape to the Ammonites with eight men. 

Johanan and the leaders of the people, though having acted bravely 
and wisely, seemed to fear that the Chaldeans would come up and pun- 
ish them for Gedaliah's assassination. They loved idolatry still, and 
feignedly sought the advice of Jeremiah in regard to hiding down in 
Egypt. He forbade it, and warned them of the danger of going there, 
saying that the sword, pestilence and famine would overtake them if they 
did. They heeded not his warnings, but went down to Tahpanhes in 
Egypt, carrying the prophet with them. There they could indulge in 
idolatry to their hearts' content. Both men and women justified them- 
selves, saying " When we worshiped the queen of Heaven we saw no evil ; 
and when we ceased to worship her we w«re consumed with sword and 
famine." One of the most remarkable features of character in the Hebrew 
nation and people was their proneness to idolatry from the conquest of 
Jericho to the Babylonian captivity, in the face of everything that God 
had done for them and was continually doing for them through so many 
■centuries — continually blessing them in their allegiance to Him and curs- 
ing them in their worship of idols. 

Jeremiah's predictions in regard to those who slid off to Egypt came 
to pass. Sixteen years after they went down there (B. C. 570), Nebuchad- 
nezzar conquered Egypt, and the Jews perished under his hand, except a 
mere remnant who had settled there previously, or who had been com- 
pelled to go there like Jeremiah, against their will (Jer. xliv. 11-14, 28). 

All shadow of civil government had now passed away in Judah, and 
the government of the Hebrews in the land of Canaan had entirely 

What proportion of those carried away by Nebuchadnezzar were truly 
pious — were of the remnant of believers, though small, that were at all 
times reserved according to the election of grace — we cannot say ; nor the 
number of such who were forced down into Egypt along with Jeremiah ; 
yet we feel assured there was a remnant at that day as well as there had 
been at all times during the 864 years of their existence in Canaan. God 
never has left Himself without a witness on earth. 

With slight intermissions, the people of Judah, like those of Israel, 
became more and more corrupt — more wealthy, cultured, extravagant, 
luxurious, licentious, covetous, dishonest, venal, deceitful and oppressive 
to the poor ; and God sent upon them just punishment for their sins. 
They were now scattered in five different countries — Egypt, Palestine, 


Chaldea, Media and Assyria; the prophecy of Moses (Lev. xxvi. and 
Deut. xxviii.), uttered nearly 900 years before, had received its first but 
not its last and greatest fulfillment. 

A notable feature of Hebrew history during the kingly period is the 
readiness with which the people followed their kings in matters both 
secular and sacred. Their government was a theocracy, even when their 
kings reigned ; because the king was considered the agent or vicegerent 
of God to carry out His designs ; and, in cases of doubt, the last appeal 
was made to God. When the king did evil, so did the people ; and when 
he did well, so did the people— proving the correctness of Solomon when 
he said : " Where the word of a king is, there is power : and who may say 
unto him, What doest thou 1 ?" (Eccles. viii. 4). 

Down to the captivity the books of the Old Testament had been com- 
pleted to the second book of Chronicles, and the works of these prophets 
in chronological order, viz.: Jonah, Joel, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, 
Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Jeremiah, together with his Lamen- 
tations — eleven in all. 



The land of Judah, according to prophecy, was to enjoy its Sabbaths, 
and therefore the king of Babylon did not do with that what the king of 
Assyria had done with Israel, viz.: Substitute another population in place 
of the people removed. This country remained open and at rest, ready 
to be reoccupied when the people to whom it had been given should re- 
turn from their captivity. • 

The history of the ten tribes from their captivity to the captivity of 
Judah — one hundred and thirty-three years — is a blank never to be filled. 
The distinction was no longer to exist. Israel was lost sight of. Many of 
the ten lost tribes * returned and associated themselves with Judah dur- 
ing the 133 years. The others were dispersed in the Assyrian provinces ; 
and, when the empire of Babylon included Egypt, Assyria, and other 
nations to the number of one hundred and twenty-seven provinces, the 
remnant of Israel belonged to that empire, and therefore were found to 
exist under the same government with their brethren of Judah after the 
fall of Jerusalem. They became one people again then, under the reign 
of the Babylonish kings, and were so reckoned and so treated by those 
great eastern rulers. Henceforward all the descendants of Abraham were 
called Jews down to the Christian era, and have been ever since so called. 
According to this view the ten lost tribes need no longer be searched for ; 
they are already found. Nebuchadnezzar was a great king; he was the 
great " head of gold " among the kings of the succeeding empires. He 
was " the great tree which grew and was strong, whose height reached 
unto the Heavens, and the sight thereof to all the earth : whose leaves 
were fair and the fruit thereof much, and in it was meat for all : under 
which the beasts of the field dwelt, and upon whose branches the fowls of 
Heaven had their habitation " (Dan. iv.). Under the shadow of this great 
tree the chosen people of God, Judah and Israel, now dwelt, and dwelt as 
one people, though scattered beneath the shadow of various branches of it. 

Daniel and his three friends, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, who 
had been carried down to Babylon when Nebuchadnezzar first took Jeru- 
salem, were destined to occupy places of distinction under the reign of 
that and succeeding monarchs. After four years' preparation they were 

.. * It has been seriously and learnedly argued, in recent books, that the American Indians are 
the ten lost tribes of Israel. 


permitted to stand before the king, and he gave them positions even 
within the royal court itself, where they might be prepared, when neces- 
sary, to render assistance to their kindred in captivity. 

Ezekiel, who had been carried to Babylon in the second deportation 
from Jerusalem, was called to the prophetic office about B. C. 595. He 
was located among the captives on the river Chebar, which is described 
as falling into the Euphrates about two hundred miles north of Babylon. 
Thus far away in the heart of this vast empire his solitary voice was 
heard, and the people received his communications and sought his instr ac- 
tion (Ezek. viii., xiv., xx.). He prophesied in all about twenty-two years. 
His prophecies, regarding the destruction of Jerusalem and the conquest 
of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, are the same in substance with those of 
Jeremiah, though widely separated, and unable to hold correspondence 
with each other. The prophecies were fulfilled to the letter. This proves 
them to have been prophets of God, and both moved by the Holy Ghost 
to speak and write as they did (Ezek. i.-xxiv.). Ezekiel died B. C. 574. 

Daniel was known to Ezekiel, for he twice names him in his prophe- 
cies (Ezek. xiv. 14; xxviii. 3). Daniel attained a high distinction in the 
king's court among the heathen, as well as among his own people, and 
was regarded by both as being superior to all other men for wisdom and 

He was very similarly situated at the court of Nebuchadnezzar, as 
was Joseph at the court of Pharaoh. 

"The one stood near the beginning and the other near the end 
of the Jewish history of revelation ; both were representatives of God at 
heathen courts ; both interpreters of the dim presentiments of truth ex- 
pressed in God-sent dreams, and therefore raised to honor by the powers 
of the world ; so representing Israel's calling to be a royal priesthood 
among the nations ; and types of Christ, the true Israel, and of Israel's 
destination to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, as Romans xi. 12, 15, fore- 
tells." — Auberlen. " Among the prominent characteristics of Daniel are 
his personal purity and self-restraint amidst the world's corrupting luxu- 
ries (Dan. i. 8-16 ; compare Moses, Heb. xi. 24-27 ; Joseph, Gen. xxxix. 9); 
his faithfulness to God at all costs, and fearless witnessing for God be- 
fore great men (Dan. v. 17-23), unbribed by lucre and unawed by threats 
(vi. 10, 11) ; his pure patriotism, which, with burning prayers, interceded 
for his chastened countrymen (ix.) ; and his intimate communion with 
God, so that, like the beloved disciple and apocalyptic seer of the New 
Testament, John, he also is called ' a man greatly beloved,' and this twice, 
by the angel of the Lord (ix. 23 ; x. 11), and received the exactest dis- 
closure of the date of Messiah's advent, and the successive events down 
to the Lord's final advent for the deliverance of His people. 

" The infidel philosopher, Porphyry (born A. D. 233 ; died 304), as- 
serted that the book of Daniel was a forgery of the time of the Maccabees 
(B. C. 170-164)— a time when confessedly there were no prophets, written 
after the events as to Antiochus Epiphanes, which it professed to foretell, 


so accurate are the details — a conclusive proof of Daniel's inspiration, if 
his prophecies can be shown to have been before those events. Now we 
know from Josephus that the Jews in Christ's day recognized Daniel as in 
the canon. Zechariah, Ezra and Nehemiah, centuries before Antioehus, 
jefer to it. Jesus refers to it in His characteristic designation, ' Son of 
man' (Matt. xxiv. 30; Daniel vii. 13), also, expressly by name, and as a 
' prophet' (Matt. xxiv. 15, 21 ; Daniel xii. 1, etc.), and in the moment that 
decided His life (Matt. xxvi. 64) or death, when the high priest adjured 
Him by the living God. Also in Luke i. 19-26, 'Gabriel' is mentioned, 
whose name occurs nowhere else in Scripture save Daniel viii. 16, and ix. 
31. Besides the references to it in Revelation, Paul confirms the prophet- 
ical part of it, as to the blasphemous king (Dan. vii. 8, 25 ; xi. 36) in 1 Cor. 
vi. 2, and 2 Thess. ii. 3, 4 ; the narrative part, as to the miraculous deliver- 
ances fron the lions and the fire in Heb. xi. 33, 34. Thus the book is ex- 
pressly attested by the New Testament on the three points made the 
stumbling block of neologists — the predictions, the narratives of miracles, 
and the manifestations of angels." — Fausset. The language of the book 
of Daniel, partly Hebrew and partly Chaldee, and the exact knowledge 
which the writer shows of the ancient Babylonian manners and customs, 
as confirmed by the latest monumental discoveries, prove the authenticity 
of the book. The ancient Jews classed Daniel in the same division of the 
Scriptures (Ketubim, writings) as the Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Kuth, Eccle- 
siastes, Canticles, Esther, Lamentations, Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles ; 
and they showed their high regard for the book of Daniel by having it, 
with other portions of the Ketubim, read before the high priest on the 
night of the Day of Atonement. 

The astonishingly exact fulfillment of many of the prophecies of Dan- 
iel demonstrates the divine inspiration of the book. The extraordinary 
importance of this book must be our excuse for the extended space that 
we give to its consideration in this work. 

" Daniel, with deliberate purpose of heart, would not defile himself 
with the king's meat or wine ; because to have partaken of it would have 
been a tacit sanction of idolatry, seeing that an initiatory offering had 
been made of it to consecrate the whole meal to idols. He who was to be 
the interpreter of Jehovah's revelations against the heathen world-power, 
must not himself feed on the dainties, nor drink from the intoxicating 
cup of the world. Like Moses, he must ' choose rather to suffer affliction 
with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season.' 
Faith was the secret principle of Daniel's consistency. Faith alone can 
enable the young to overcome the carnal appetites of sense, which are 
especially strong in early life and youthful vigor. They who would excel 
in wisdom and piety must learn early to keep the body in subjection to 
the spirit. Temperance is conducive alike to the health of body and soul. 
A pampered body clogs the intellect, . and still more incapacitates the 
man for spiritual exercises."— Fausset. 

The second and the seventh chapters of Daniel, under different fig- 


ures, foretell the same events— the successive existence of four great 
world-empires, to be followed by a fifth indestructible and finally-uni- 
versal spiritual kingdom to be set up by the God of Heaven and the Son 
of man. "In the second chapter, the world-kingdoms are seen by the 
heathen king in their outward unity and glory, yet without life, a metal 
colossus ; in the seventh chapter they appear to the prophet of God in 
their real character, as instinct with life, but mere beast life, terrible ani- 
mal power, but no true manhood ; for true manhood can only be realized 
by conscious union with God, in whose image man was made. The Son 
of God as the ' Son of man ' is the true ideal standard and head of regen- 
erated humanity. When Nebuchadnezzar glorified and deified self he 
became beast-like and consorted with the beasts ; but, when he lifted up 
his eyes to Heaven, his understanding returned, and he blessed the Most 
High, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion." — Fansset. The first 
world-kingdom is represented by the golden head of the image and by 
the lion with eagle's wings ; the second by the arms and breast of silver, 
and by the bear with three ribs in its mouth ; the third by the belly and 
thighs of brass, and by the four-headed and four- winged leopard ; and 
the fourth by the legs of iron and feet partly of iron and partly of clay, 
and by an unnamed, terrible, exceedingly strong, ten -horned, iron-toothed, 
brazen-nailed beast, different from all the others, and devouring and 
stamping the others in pieces. The first world-kingdom, as Daniel him- 
self says, was the Babylonian, whose vigor began and ended with Nebu- 
chadnezzar — chief among the kingdoms, like gold among the metals, and 
the lion among beasts, with wide-spread and rapidly acquired power, 
indicated by the wings of an eagle. The second world-kingdom is al- 
most universally admitted to have been the Medo-Persian, formed by the 
union of two nations, the Medes and the Persians, as the two arms are 
united in the breast — inferior to the Babylonian kingdom in antiquity — 
and its early effeminacy and the dependence of its king on his nobles, as 
silver is inferior to gold and the bear to the lion — cruel and slow-moving 
like the bear — the three ribs in its mouth representing Lydia, Babylon 
and Egypt, not properly parts of its body, but seized by Medo-Persia. 
The third world-kingdom is by almost all admitted to have been the 
Greeco-Macedonian, formed by the union of the Greeks and the Macedo- 
nians, as the two thighs are united in the body (or the two thighs may 
represent the principal and longest-lived kingdoms into which the Mace- 
donian empire was divided, that of the Seleucidee in Syria and that of the 
Ptolemies in Egypt), of an inferior mercenary character, and with its 
soldiers clothed with brass or bronze armor— the leopard representing 
slyness and pertinacity, and the four wings the unexampled rapidity of 
the conquests of Alexander the Great, and the four heads the four 
Diodochi, or successors, among whom Alexander's dominions were 
divided, Ptolemy in Egypt, Seleucus in Asia, Lysimachus in Thrace, and 
Cassander in Greece ; the inferiority of the Macedonian empire is forcibly 
illustrated by the repeated and protracted debauchery and intemperance 


of Alexander and his army, and by the very brief duration of his empire. 
Divine Providence brings good out of evil; the wide diffusion of the 
Greek language in Western Asia was among the most important natural 
preparations for the spread of Christianity. In regard to the identifica- 
tion of the fourth world-kingdom opinions vary. A few modern scholars 
think that it was the Syrian monarchy of the Seleucidse, or the Seleucidse 
of Syria and the Ptolemies of Egypt ; the ten toes and horns representing 
the monarchs of the Syrian dynasty especially— the foreign Greek ele- 
ment the iron, and the native Oriental element the clay ; intermarrying 
with the Ptolemies, but still hostile to them ; the little horn plucking up 
three others, and having the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great 
things, being supposed to be the Syrian king, Antiochus (IV.) Epiphanes, 
of whom it is generally agreed that Daniel prophesies in his eighth, 
eleventh and twelfth chapters. But the Seleucidse and Ptolemies were the 
thigh sequelae of the brazen Macedonian kingdom ; and it was the almost 
universal opinion of the ancient Jewish and Christian scholars, and it is 
still advocated by a very large proportion of English and German inter- 
preters, that the fourth world-kingdom was the Eoman. If not the 
Eoman, then the prophet, in his anticipatory survey of the kingdoms of 
the world, has omitted the greatest world-kingdom that ever existed, and 
one which was existing not only long before but actually when Christ came 
into the world, and one with which and its subdivisions His kingdom has 
had the most to do ; and yet the prophet, at the proper place in his predic- 
tions has used remarkable language that applies more appropriately to 
the Roman empire than to any that ever existed. For these reasons we 
are satisfied that the fourth world-kingdom was the Eoman. It was a 
gigantic monstrosity, surpassing, in terribleness, all the beasts of the 
field and all the other kingdoms of the world. " Irresistible in the battle- 
field, within there were internal weakness, the struggles of fierce factions, 
civil dissensions, and finally an oligarchy of rich men, the most corrupt, 
since the deluge, that ever existed on earth, before whom all manliness 
vanished away. To save itself it had to bow to the yoke of absolute 
power, and at length, from the necessities of administration, was divided 
into the western and eastern empires, symbolized by the two legs, in which 
there was still vast strength, but also much weakness, the extremities of 
the Eoman dominions being constantly harassed by incursions of the bar- 
barians, who often even carried their raids into the very heart of the em- 
pire. It was thus partly strong and partly broken (or brittle), because, 
while its armies of mercenaries were irresistible, its own subjects were too 
feeble to defend themselves ; and its toes were of iron, if protected by 
fortresses and regular armies, but of clay if these aids were withdrawn. 
As finally the government of this vast realm was ever the prize- of revolt, 
of artifice and of crime, the emperors were always trying to strengthen 
themselves by ' mingling with the seed of men,' by marriages with mem- 
bers of rival families, and by national alliances, but in vain. The two 
dreams carry the description of the Eoman empire down to a period long 


subsequent to the foundation of the Messiah's kingdom— the ten toes and 
ten horns representing the subdivisions of the Roman empire, the number 
ten being the prevalent one at the chief turning points of Roman history, 
and it may be the number of kingdoms into which Rome shall be found 
finally divided when Antichrist shall appear (Rev. xiii. 1 ; xvii. 12). And 
of Messiah's kingdom itself we have not merely the beginning, but the 
growth, until it had crushed and taken the place of all these empires."— 
B. P. Smith. The " little horn," in the seventh chapter, is the intensest 
development of the God-opposing, haughty spirit of the world repre- 
sented by the fourth monarchy, and plainly denotes the Pope of Rome, 
plucking up three horns, the exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of the 
Lombards, and the state of Rome, which constituted the Pope's domin- 
ions at first, obtained by Popes Zachary and Stephen II., A. D. 754, in re- 
turn for acknowledging the usurper Pepin lawful king of France— the 
fact of three states first constituting his dominions being still indicated 
by the Pope's triple-crown, a tiara with three coronets rising one above 
another. This little horn is diverse from the others, has in it the eyes as 
of a man, denoting intelligence and cunning, and a mouth speaking great 
words against the Most High— no other blasphemy ever equalled that of 
the Pope of Rome, and he wears out, persecutes and murders the saints 
of the Most High, and thinks to change times and laws, assuming to him- 
self all the authority of God on earth, and finally culminating in avowed 

These four great military world-kingdoms, though seemingly so 
splendid, powerful and enduring, are in reality but transitory shadows. 
" The metals in the image lessen in specific gravity as they go down- 
wards ; silver is not so heavy as gold, brass not so heavy as silver, and 
iron not so heavy as brass, the weight thus being arranged in the reverse 
of stability, indicating the ease with which the image can be destroyed." 
—Tregelles. A stone cut out of a mountain without hands smites the 
image upon its feet, and breaks it to pieces and makes it like the chaff of 
the summer threshing-floor, scattered and, as it were, annihilated by the 
wind, while the stone becomes a great mountain, and fills the whole earth ; 
that is, " in the days of these kings," the kings of the fourth or iron king- 
dom, the God of Heaven sets up a kingdom, which shall destroy all the 
world-kingdoms, and itself fill the earth, and stand forever. Or, as the 
same great fact is described in the seventh chapter, the Ancient of days, 
the Everlasting Father, the Infinitely Holy God, with garment white as 
snow, and hair like pure wool, appears upon a fiery throne, surrounded 
by myriads of the angelic host, during the existence of the fourth beast 
(verses 7, 9, 10, 11, 23) or fourth kingdom, which is to be destroyed and 
given to the burning flame, and the Son of man comes to the Ancient of 
days with the clouds of Heaven, and there is given to Him a universal 
and everlasting dominion. While the fourth or Roman empire was reign- 
ing over the world, the Son of God, the equal of the Father, conies down 
from the heavenly mount, not by human agency, but by Divine power, 


and veils Himself in flesh as the Son of man, the weeping Babe of Beth- 
lehem, like a poor, little, humble, worthless, off-cast, powerless stone upon 
the ground, and lives a life of poverty and persecution, and dies as a cru- 
cified malefactor ; but behold He soon arises from the grave, and, from 
the top of Mount Olivet, he ascends upon a radiant cloud to the Ancient 
of days, His eternal Father, and receives a dominion, glory, and a king- 
dom, wide as the universe, and lasting as eternity (Acts i. 9, 12 ; Matt, 
xxviii. 18). The ancient Jews understood the " stone " in the second, and 
the " Son of man " in the seventh chapter of Daniel, to be the Messiah. 
Metallic images are made by the hands of men ; but stones and moun- 
tains are made by God. Christ is " the stone of Israel " (Gen. xlix. 24), 
"rejected by the builders, but become the headstone of the corner" 
(Psalm cxviii. 22), a "stone of stumbling" to carnal Israel (Isaiah viii. 
14 ; Acts iv. 11 ; 1 Peter ii. 7, 8), but the sure chief foundation stone of the 
true church (Isaiah, xxviii. 16; Eph. ii. 20; Matt. xvi. 18). With distinct 
reference to these words of Daniel, Christ said : " Whosoever shall fall on 
this stone shall be broken ; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind 
him to powder " (Matt. xxi. 44 ; Luke xx. 17, 18). Cut out of the moun- 
tain originally, it ends in becoming a mountain ; coming from Heaven, it 
ends in establishing Heaven on earth. " High in the impalpable air, 
above the highest human colossus and human kingdom, projects itself 
another colossus formed from the mount and rock of the heavenly Zion. 
A stone from this holiest of mounts looses itself and falls. If it destroys 
the earthly material which it strikes, it brings also with it that new, pure, 
heavenly spirit and material which shall fill again the earth with a 
stronger mount, and found a new and better city, Zion." — Ewald. 

"Thus, then, the captive Jewish youth unrolled before the eyes of 
the tyrant that had crushed his country, his home, and the temple of his 
God, the course of the five universal empires. Four rise, one after 
another, each to fall. For a while they beat down and destroy and fill the 
fair surface of the earth with tears and misery : for their weapons are 
force, violence and cruelty ; and scarcely has one seized the sceptre be- 
fore another rises to wrench it from his loosening grasp. At length, 
ushered in by no trumpet-blast, with no clashing of arms nor banners 
fluttering in the breeze, but by a still, calm, unseen influence, the fifth 
empire begins to arise. Its armies are recruited from the poor, the out- 
cast, the slave. Those whom men despise are summoned to its standard ; 
and that standard is one of suffering; but with this for their symbol, they 
shall conquer. This empire has its heroes ; they are martyrs who bear the 
utmost cruelty that debased men can invent, and bear it with joy, for 
their love to Him who gave His life for them. It has its warriors — men 
who use no carnal weapons, and who wrestle not against flesh and blood, 
but against the powers of darkness. It has its armies — thousands whose 
joy it is to do well and bear evil for their Master's sake. And the regen- 
eration of the race will come when the Spirit of Christ, working in the 
hearts of all, has won the world for the Lord. The Persians robbed 


the Babylonians of the sceptre, the Greeks tore it from the Persians, and 
the Romans from the Greeks. But Christ is an eternal King, the true 
King of kings, and His people will never perish, for the very gates of hell 
will be forever powerless against the spiritual kingdom of our God." — B. 
P. Smith. 

The great, proud, lifeless, many -metalled colossus of the world stands 
up as the idol in every human heart, until the Spirit of God overturns this 
haughty image, humbles the heart, and prepares it to be filled with the 
glorious presence of Christ. 

Daniel's language, in his second and seventh chapters, contains an 
allusion, not only to the first, but to the second, coming of the Son of man. 
As He ascended to glory in a cloud, so shall He return, surrounded with 
His holy angels, to consign His enemies to the " burning flame," while He 
welcomes his people into " life eternal " (Acts i. 11 ; Eev. i. 7 ; Matt. xxv. 
31-46). Charlemagne, Charles V. and Napoleon have in vain endeavored 
to establish a fifth temporal universal empire. " The fourth, or Roman 
empire, in its subdivisions and colonies, still continues. We live under 
it ; our civilization, letters, language and laws are essentially connected 
with those of imperial Rome. This fourth kingdom, though now pro- 
fessedly Christianized, is regarded in Scripture still in its essence to be 
ranked among the God-opposed beast-like world-powers, not only not 
better, but actually worse, than its three predecessors, in the ultimate in- 
tensity of its opposition to God and His Christ, and the full development 
of Antichrist, ' the man of sin,' ' the son of perdition,' that denieth both 
Father and Son (2 Thess. ii.; 1 John ii. 18, 22 ; iv. 3). The New Testament 
views the present age of the world as essentially heathenish, which we 
cannot love without forsaking Christ (Rom. xii. 2 ; 1 Cor. i. 20 ; 2 Cor. iv. 
4; Gal. i. 4; Eph. ii. 2; 1 John ii. 15, 17). The present outward Chris- 
tianity is to give place for a time to an almost universal apostasy under 
the last Antichrist (2 Thess. ii.) As the first, or Old Testament Antichrist, 
Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria B.C. 176-164, whose career is circum- 
stantially predicted by Daniel in the eighth, eleventh and twelfth chap- 
ters of his prophecy, was the product of the highest ancient Greek civili- 
zation, so the last New Testament Antichrist is to be the product of the 
highest modern civilization, ignoring and despising God and vital re- 
ligion, and substituting therefor a false liberalism in faith and practice, 
a growing laxity of morals, and a worship of money and of human sci- 
ence and art and invention, degenerating into avowed atheism and an 
unholy alliance with the Pope of Rome, for the extermination of the 
Church of Christ."— A. B. Fausset. 

Upon the interpretation of his dream, Nebuchadnezzar conferred ex- 
traordinary honors on Daniel ; made him ruler over the whole province 
of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon, 
and declared the God of Daniel to be supreme over all gods. His three 
companions, whose Chaldean names now were Shadrach, Meshach and 


Abednego, were also made rulers over the affairs of Babylon, but Daniel 
sat in the gate* of the king. 

Kings' minds are changeable, as well as those of other people. 
Nebuchadnezzar soon forgot Daniel's God, and made one to suit him bet- 
ter. He set it up in the plain of Dura, and commanded all his subjects to 
fall down and worship it. Daniel was overlooked, it seems ; but Shad- 
rach, Meshach and Abednego were not. They were watched, and com- 
plaint made against them as refusing to obey. They still refused to 
worship the idol, and, as a punishment therefor, were thrown bound into 
a bnrning, fiery furnace,t heated seven times hotter than usual ; that is, 
as hot as possible. The heat of the furnace destroyed those who cast 
them in, but only burned off the shackles of the three who were willing 
to die rather than worship an idol. The king looked into the furnace and 
exclaimed : " Lo ! I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, 
and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God." He called on them to 
come out, and he blessed the Most High for their deliverance, and said : 
" I make a decree that every people, nation and language which speak 
anything amiss against the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego shall 
be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill, because there 
is no God that can deliver after this sort." Then the king again pro- 
moted them to their distinguished positions as before (Daniel iii.). 

Thus by faith the violence of fire was quenched. And the hearts of 
these three men, as well as of all the children of God who heard of it, 
were strengthened and confirmed. 

The king had a second dream in regard to himself more particularly. 
Daniel interpreted that, and then besought the king to break off his sins 
"by righteousness, and his iniquities by showing mercy to the poor — that it 
might be a lengthening of his tranquility ; but he heeded not the warning 
and went on his course, rejecting all allegiance to God and deifying him- 
self until the Almighty struck him down, divested him of reason,t turned 
him into a brute, and drove him from the haunts of men. Seven years 
passed over him — his reason was restored, and so was his kingdom. He 
was a changed man. He no longer desires to bind other people or take 
their lives if they do not do as he says, but, as a pardoned sinner, he looks 
to himself, and praises God for what He had done for him. " Now I 
Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol the God of Heaven, all whose works 
are truth, and His ways judgment ; and those that walk in pride He is 
able to abase" (Daniel iv. 37). Here was a God-fearing man upon the 

* ' ' The gate is the place of holding courts of justice and levees in the East (Est. ii. 19 : Job xxix. 
7). So ' the sublime Porte, or Gate, denotes the Sultan's government, his councils being formerly 
held in the entrance of his palace. Daniel was a chief counsellor of the king, and president over 
the governors of the different orders into which the Magi were divided.' "—Fausfiet. 

t The ancient cuneiform inscriptions on bricks found among the Babylonian ruins mention 
that burning was one of the national punishments of Babylon. 

X The mental disease with which God afflicted Nebuchadnezzar iH believed to have been one of 
a well-known class of maladies known by such names as lycanthropy C wolf-man), kynanthropy 
(dog-man), etc., according to the animal which the oatient imagines himself to be, and whose 
habits he imitates. During Iris madness, his counsellors and lords (Daniel iv. 36) carried on the 


throne now, ready to wield his power in protecting and enlarging the 
liberties of God's people dwelling in all parts of his dominion. 

Evil-Merodach, his son and successor, when he came to the throne of 
Babylon, soon released Jehoiachin from prison and honored him highly, 
and gave him ample support for the remainder of his life. His father, in 
the case of Jehoiachin, had commuted the death penalty into imprison- 
ment for life. And this act shows the kind feelings of this monarch to- 
ward the Lord's people, and that God, though He had sent Israel into 
captivity, remembered them in mercy. 

Belshazzar,* the son or grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, succeeded Evil- 
Merodach, and during his reign Darius the Median overthrew Babylon 
and took the kingdom. Belshazzar made a great feast, and among other 
impious acts of his, ordered the gold and silver vessels that had been 
taken from the temple in Jerusalem to be brought forth and used in this 
sacrilegious carousal, and the order was obeyed. At that moment the fin- 
gers of a man's hand appeared to be writing upon the wall, and these are 
the words written : " Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin." None could inter- 
pret the writing but Daniel. It may have been in the older Hebrew, or 
in altogether strange character's. Daniel was sent for, and interpreted it 
as follows: " Mene [numbered]; God hath numbered thy kingdom and 
finished it. Tekel [weighed]; thou art weighed in the balances, and art 
found wanting. Peres [divided]; thy kingdom is divided, and given to 
the Medes and Persians." (In upharsin, u means and, and pharsin means 
dividers; Peres, the singular passive participle, is substituted by Daniel 
for pliarsin, the plural active participle of the same verb, probably be- 
cause of its greater similarity to Persia.) Then they clothed Daniel with 
scarlet, and put a chain about his neck, and proclaimed him the third 
ruler in the kingdom. In that night was Belshazzar, the king of the 
Chaldeans, slain, and Darius the Median t took the kingdom (Daniel v.). 

" It is an appalling scene when a sinning mortal knows that the great 
God has come to meet him in the very midst of his sins ! How changed 
the scene from the glee of blasphemous revelry to paleness of cheek, con- 

* The identification of Belshazzar and of Darius the Median with persons mentioned by unin- 
spired writers is among: the most intricate problems of ancient history. Combining the evidence 
of Scripture and of profane historians and the cuneiform inscriptions, the succession in the Baby- 
lonian monarchy was probably as follows: Nebuchadnezzar, 43 years; Evil-Merodach, son of 
Nebuchadnezzar, 2 years— murdered and succeeded by his sister's husband, Neritrlissar, who 
reigned 4 years; the latter's son, Laborosoarchod, a mere child, reigned but 9 months, and was 
slain by a conspiracy, which elevated a usurper, Nabonnedus, to the throne, which he occupied 
17 years. During the latter part of his reign, he associated with him in the empire his oldest son, 
Belshazzar, who was grandson, on the mother's side, of Nebuchadnezzar. The term "son," in 
Scripture, often means grandson, or descendant. Nabounedus was at a neighboring city, Bor- 
sippa, where he surrendered to Cyrus; while Belshazzar perished in Babylon the same night of 
his sensual and blasphemous banquet. Such Joint kingships were not uncommon in ancient 
times. As his father and himself were the first and second rulers, Belshazzar offers to make 
Daniel only the third ruler in the kingdom (Daniel v. 16). [As to the identification of Darius the 
Median, see the next foot-note.] 

t It is most likely that Darius the Median was the same as Cyaxares II. (mentionsd by Xeno- 
phon), who was the son and successor of Astyages (called also Ahasuarus), kin* of Media. Cyrus, 
a Persian nobleman, conquered Astyages, and married the daughter of Cyaxares II (or Darius): 
and, uniting the Medes and Persians into one kingdom, and wishing to conciliate the Medes, he 
yielded his aged and weak uncle and father-in-law a nominal supremacy at Babylon, where, the 

— - * the Mede was Astyages himself, 

the grandf ather of Cyrus. 


vulsion of frame, remorse of conscience, and dread foreboding of doom !" 
—Cowles. "What a picture we have in king Belshazzar of every repro- 
bate sinner's course and final ruin ! Unwarned by the judgments inflicted 
on others before him, on account of pride and rebellion against God, the 
sinner still takes no heed to glorify the God in whose hand his breath is. 
Instead of humbling himself in repentance, he either openly or else vir- 
tually lifts up himself against the Lord of Heaven, following after world- 
liness, covetousness or sensuality as his portion, and making the perish- 
ing things of time his idol. At last judgment, long deferred in mercy, 
goes forth. God brings to the appointed end the allotted number of the 
sinner's days. Then follows the judgment whereby, weighed in the bal- 
ances of God, he is found wanting in the only thing that carries weight 
with God — faith working by love. His past privileges are taken from 
him forever, and given to another, whilst he himself is ' cut asunder, 
and his portion is appointed with the hypocrites, where shall be weeping 
and gnashing of teeth.' As God's writing against Belshazzar was per- 
fectly fulfilled, so let the impenitent be warned that no one tittle of God's 
writing in His volume of inspiration shall fail to come to pass : alike the 
self-righteous, when weighed in the balance of the law, and the formalist 
and hypocrite, weighed in tho balance of the gospel, shall be found want- 
ing and shall suffer accordingly. 

" Daniel faithfully and fearlessly sets before the proud, impious king- 
his great sin ; and he interprets the mysterious writing not for any hope 
of reward, though the unalterability of the decrees of the Medo-Persian 
kings thrusts the promised rewards upon him. Estimating all things, 
even spiritual realities, by the standard of money, the ungodly think that 
the godly do the same ; and therefore they try to bribe the servant of 
God (Dan. v. 16, 17) to procure for them deliverance from wrath, and an 
easy mind. But the true child of God will show a spirit superior to the 
love of gain, even as Daniel agreed to read and interpret the writing, but 
declined to accept the king's gifts and rewards. Nothing tends more to 
injure a believer's usefulness than that he should be seen by the world, 
like Balaam and Gehazi, to be greedy of gain ; and, on the contrary, noth- 
ing tends more to make the worldly feel that believers are influenced by 
principles far above their own, than that they should see the children of 
God, as Daniel and Paul (Acts xx. 33-35), ready to perform the work of 
faith and labor of love, without regard to worldly advantage." — Fausset. 

The Scripture prophecies relating to the conquests of Babylon, the 
method of the conquest (draining the river Euphrates), the name of the 
conqueror, Cyrus, and the restoration of Israel to their own land, may be 
seen in Isaiah xiii., xiv., xvi., xliv., and Jeremiah xxv., 1., li. How as- 
tonishing that Isaiah, in 712 B. C, should have predicted the very name of 
Cyrus, as the conqueror of Babylon in 538 B. C— 174 years before the 
event ! And then to state the exact method of conquest which Cyrus 
would employ ! What a clear proof of the Divine inspiration of the- 
prophet, and of the perfect foreknowledge of God ! 


When Belshazzar was overthrown, there was an end of the kings in 
Nebuchadnezzar's line, and an end of the first great universal monarchy 
mentioned in the prophecies of Daniel. 

Darius (associated with Cyrus or governing in his stead, by appoint- 
ment, at the time) was well apprised of the character and standing of 
Daniel, and appointed him chief of the three presidents, whom he set to 
aid him in managing the affairs of the nation, and also chose him as prime 
minister of the realm. Thus it appears that the captive Jews had friends 
at court still, notwithstanding the change in the dynasties. 

Others in court who hated the Jews and envied Daniel's distinction, 
not being able to bring an accusation against him in regard to his want 
of wisdom, or high moral standing, brought one against him for praying 
to his God in violation of a decree which themselves were the cunning 
authors of, and which they had with flatteries induced the king to sign 
and seal. Daniel, on learning the nature of the decree and the penalty 
attached to its violation, in the sublimest exhibition of Divine faith and 
moral courage, opened his windows, and, with Ms face turned toward 
Jerusalem, prayed three times a day to God, as he was wont to do. He 
was brought before the king for punishment, and much against his will 
he had to sentence Daniel to be thrown into a den of lions. Daniel was 
calm and quiet, and so were the lions, while the king was miserable and 
spent a sleepless night. He went early to the den and found Daniel alive, 
had him taken out and his accusers thrown in, with their wives and chil- 
dren, who were destroyed immediately by the wild beasts. Thus after 
his three friends had through faith " quenched the violence of fire," he 
by the same power "stopped the mouths of lions." Daniel's God locked 
their jaws. The same want of conformity to the world and faithfulness 
to God have characterized His elect people in all ages of the world, before 
and since the coming of Christ; and for their "stubbornness," as the 
world calls it— if for nothing else— they have been horribly maltreated, 
both under the legal and Christian dispensation*. And we in this con- 
nection would ask a candid world, who of all the people on the face of 
this earth at the present time, do they believe, would be as willing to fol- 
low these four men and sacrifice their lives, for the testimony of Jesus, as 
these people called Primitive Baptists 1 They may be called " stubborn," 
" unsocial," " unyielding," " too exacting," etc., but when the Son of man 
cometh again on earth, where will He find faith if He does not And it 
among them ? 

" Amidst the business of a vast empire Daniel found time habitually 
to pray three times a day. As Daniel, in exile, looked towards the earthly 
temple, so let us lift up our eyes towards Christ, our heavenly temple, 
from this earthly scene of our captivity. As Daniel prayed openly and 
avowedly, so let us act as God and conscience dictate, and not as the fear 
of man's anger or love of his praise might suggest. And as Daniel, even 
when earthly prospects were dark, and destruction seemed impending, 
still gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime, so have we, in our 


highly favored position, still more cause to thank God at all times, and to 
have his praise continually in our mouth (Psalm xxxiv. 1)."— Fansset. 

The years of captivity were nearly ended ; Daniel confessed his sins, 
and the sins of his brethren in captivity, and prayed to God for pardon 
for his sins and the sins of the captives. He prayed for the fulfillment qf 
the promise, and that the Lord would make a way for the return oi the 
people to Jerusalem, and give him a clearer insight into the particulars 
thereof. The Lord heard his petition, the angel Gabriel touched him and 
talked with him, and gave him to understand : 1. That a commandment 
should go forth for the return of the people and for the rebuilding of 
Jerusalem. 2. The long expected Messiah, the Prince, should come sixty- 
nine weeks from the rebuilding of the walls and settlement of Jerusalem. 
3. In the seventieth week He should be cut off, but not for Himself, but 
for His people ; and by the one offering of Himself should make reconcd- 
iation for iniquity, bringing in everlasting righteousness, doing away 
with all typical sacrifices, sealing up in fulfillment vision and prophecy 
respecting Himself, and making an end of the dispensation which looked 
forward to His advent. 4. Finally, after His advent and death, a people 
should come and destroy city, temple and sacrifice, and break up the civil 
state of the church forever. This is the third prophecy (Gen. xliv. 10 
being the first, and Dan. ii. 44 the second) that fixes the time of our Lord's 
appearing, and of the end of the civil constitution of the church of God 
(Dan. ix. 1-29). 

This is the most definite prophecy of the very time of Christ's coming 
that is contained in the Old Testament. The fact of its general fulfillment 
in the coming, ministry and crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth, which was 
followed, in about a generation, by the destruction of Jerusalem by the 
Roman army under Titus, A. D. 70, has been admitted by the ablest 
scholars for 1,700 years ; though there have been a great many different 
opinions as to the exact date when the seventy weeks, or 490 years, began 
and ended. The Jewish historian, Josephus, and both the old Jewish 
Gemaras, anil the prevailing Talmudic and Rabbinical traditions of the 
early centuries of the Christian era, considered the destruction of Jeru- 
salem by Titus predicted in Daniel ix. 26, 27. The Old Testament Scrip- 
tures had been carried over the civilized world before the birth of Christ ; 
and the old pagan Roman historions, Tacitus (Hist. v. 13) and Suetonius 
(Vesp. iv.), inform us that there was, on account of some ancient prophe- 
cies, a general expectation, in the first century of the Christian era, that 
there would arise out of Judea, at that time, a great personage, who 
would obtain the sovereignty of the world. The prophecies referred to 
were, no doubt, principally those in Daniel ix. 24-27. And the very 
learned Jewish Chief-Rabbi of Venice, Simon Luzzato, in 1590 A. D., de- 
clared that " the consequence of a too extended and profound investiga- 
tion on the part of Jewish scholars would be that they would all become 
Christians ; for it could not be denied that, according to Daniel's limita- 
tion of the time, the Messiah must have already appeared." Sir Isaac 


Newton says: "He who denies Daniel's prophecies undermines Chr 
tianity, which is founded on Daniel's prophecies concerning Christ." A 
Christ Himself (in Matt. xxix. 15, 21, 28, 34) not only affirms the prophe 
character of Daniel, but applies Daniel ix. 26, 27 to the destruction 
Jerusalem by the Romans, which was to take place before the passi 
away of that wicked generation that rejected and murdered Him. 

The word sliabuim, rendered tveeks in Daniel ix. 24-27, literally mea 
sevens, that is, as is probable from Daniel ix. 2, sevens of years (comps 
Lev. xxv. 4-8). Seventy sevens of years make 490 years. Now there 
allusion, in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, to five different conimar 
nients for the restoration of the temple or city of Jerusalem : 1st. T 
commandment of God, the date of which is not given (Ezra vi. 14) ; ! 
Of Cyrus, B. C. 536 (Ezra i. 1-4) ; 3d. Of Darius, B. C. 520 (Ezra vi. 1-1< 
4th. Of Artaxerxes to Ezra, in the seventh year of his reign, B. C. >. 
(Ezra vii. 11-26) ; 5th. Of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah, in the twentieth yt 
of his reign, B. C. 445 (Neh. ii. 1-8). The commandment of G-od, we kno 
was the cause of the other commandments ; but He has not revealed 
us its date. The commandments of Cyrus and Darius were of a gene: 
nature, not directed to any particular persons, and authorized the rebuil 
ing only of the temple. But the commandment of Artaxerxes to Ezra, 
C. 458, is special, full and explicit, authorizing Ezra to "organize the c< 
ony in Judea, and institute a regular government, according to the la 
of the Hebrew people, and by magistrates and rulers of their own nati< 
with full power of life and death." The text of Artaxerxes' commissi 
to Nehemiah is not given in Scripture ; but it is simply said that, at Nel 
miah's request, the king gave him letters to the governors beyond t 
river (Euphrates), ordering them to help him on his way, and to furni 
him with materials for building the palace and wall of the city. T 
weight of authority is, therefore, in favor of considering B. C. 458 as t 
initial date of the seventy sevens, or 490 years, in G-abriel's prophecy 
Daniel (ix. 24). In the next three verses this period of seventy wee 
is divided into three unequal periods — seven weeks, sixty -two weeks, a 
one week. The first seven weeks of years, or forty-nine years, was t 
closing period of Old Testament revelation, the age of Ezra, Nehemiah a 
Malachi. The sixty-two weeks, or 434 years, are the intermediate peri 
between the seven and the one, in which there was no new revelation c 
signed to increase the sacred canon. And the closing one week (or sev 
years), in the midst of which the Messiah was to be cut off, and cause i 
legal sacrifices and oblations to cease their virtue and efficacy, ineluc 
the three-and-a-half years of Jesus' own preaching to the Jews, a 
the three-and-a-half years of the Apostles' preaching to the Jews on] 
then the martyrdom of Stephen and the persecution following drove t 
evangelists from Jerusalem to Samaria. Soon afterwards Paul, the Ap< 
tie of the Gentiles, was called, and Peter, the Apostle of the circumcisi< 
preached the gospel to Cornelius, the Soman centurion ; and, thou 
multitudes of the Jews had been converted before, we read of very f 


laving been converted afterwards. The Jews were not immediately cast 
off upon their murder of Christ (Luke xxiv. 47 ; Acts iii. 12-26) ; but, after 
the martyrdom of Stephen, A. D. 33, they were virtually and theoretically 
dead, though Jerusalem was not destroyed by Titus till A. D. 70. All the 
arithmetics make a mistake in computing the interval of time between two 
dates, one of which was before, and the other after Christ ; as there is no 
year in history known as B. C. or A. D. 0, but the year immediately pre- 
ceding A. D. 1 is called B. C. 1, the sum of the nominal years must be 
diminished by one (Sir John Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, section 
916). Even the very learned and usually accurate A. R. Pausset and 
William Smith, apparently not aware of this fact, make the seventh year 
of Artaxerxes Longimanus 457 B. C. instead of 458 B. C, which it was, 
according to all the best authorities. Thus, 458 added to 33, and dimin- 
ished by one, makes the 490 years of the prophecy. Christ was born four 
years before the beginning of the common Christian era ; because He was 
born before Herod the Great died, and the latter died four years before 
the commencement of the common era. As he was 30 years old at His 
baptism, He was baptized 26 A. D. or 27 A. D., and crucified 30 A. D., in 
the midst of the last week (or seven years) of the prophecy. Still He, 
after three days, arose from the dead, and was present by His Spirit with 
His Apostles in confirming the covenant with many Jews the three-and- 
a-half years that composed the last half of the last prophetic week. 
Kanaph, translated overspreading, in verse 27, literally means wing. Sir 
Isaac Newton thinks that it refers to the Roman ensigns (silver eagles) 
brought to the east gate of the temple, and there sacrificed to by the 
aoldiers. During the siege of Jerusalem by Titus it was perfectly evi- 
dent, even to the Jewish general, historian and eye-witness, Josephus, 
that the Jews were " desolate," or forsaken of God. Josephus asserts that 
it was the most ungodly generation that ever existed on earth ; and he 
declares his belief that, if the Romans had not destroyed Jerusalem, the 
■city would have been " swallowed up by the earth, or overwhelmed with 
a flood, or consumed, like Sodom, with fire from Heaven." Titus besieged 
Jerusalem in April, A. D. 70, just after the feast of the passover, when 
twelve hundred thousand Jews, according to Josephus, or six hundred 
thousand, according to Tacitus, were crowded together in the city. 
Divided into three hostile factions, the Jews fought with and destroyed 
one another ; reduced to famine, mothers ate their own children, as Moses 
predicted (Deut. xxviii. 49-57) ; they suffered unexampled horrors, as 
Christ had foretold (Matt. xxiv. 21). And when the temple was burned, 
and the city fell, August 10th, A. D. 70, Josephus records that eleven 
hundred thousand had perished in the siege, and ninety-seven thousand 
wore sold into slavery. What an impressive commentary are these his- 
torical facts, related by an intelligent Jewish eye-witness, upon the 
twenty-sixth and twenty-seventh verses of the ninth chapter of Daniel, 
and upon the predictions of Moses and Christ ! And it is a most remarka- 
ble fact that, as Christ had warned His disciples (Luke xxi. 20, 21) to flee 


to the mountains when they saw Jerusalem compassed with armies, his- 
tory states that Cestius Gallus, prefect of Syria, having besieged Jerusa- 
lem for six days, when he might have captured it in an hotir or less, yet 
to the universal surprise, abandoned the siege, November, A. D. 66, and 
retreated, and his army was destroyed ; so that, before the final siege by 
Titus, in April, A. D. 70, all the Christians in Jerusalem, remembering 
the words of Christ, emigrated beyond the Jordan to Pella, in the north 
of Perea, in the mountains of Gilead (some sixty miles northeast of Jeru- 
salem), where king Herod Agrippa II., before whom Paul once stood, 
opened to them a safe asylum (Milman's History of the Jews, Book xiii.; 
Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, Book iii., chap, v.; Schaff's History of 
the Apostolic Church, section 98). These facts furnish a most forcible 
illustration of the ultimate salvation of all the true people of God, and the 
destruction of all their enemies. 

" It was the general impression of the Jews in exile that, after the 
seventy years of captivity should end, Messiah would come in glory to 
vindicate the cause of Israel, and to set up his kingdom in Jerusalem. 
Daniel is, therefore, commissioned, in the ninth chapter of his prophecy, 
to inform them that seventy times seven years must elapse after their re- 
turn before Messiah would come, and that even then Messiah would not 
come as yet in the glory foretold by the earlier prophets, and anticipated 
prematurely by the Jews, but would come to die for the making an end 
of sins. Thus, the faith and patience of the ancient servants of God were 
to be greatly exercised. Daniel studied the revelation given from God 
in the letters of Jeremiah (verse 2), in order to know the times and events 
foretold. Herein we see his teachableness and humanity." Gabriel told 
Daniel to "consider the vision, and understand the matter" (verse 23); 
just as Matthew, in reference to the same prophecy (xxiv. 15), says: 
" Whoso readeth, let him understand." " God's promise of deliverance 
from the Babylonish captivity did not restrain Daniel from prayer, but 
was rather his incentive to greater earnestness in supplications, as having 
the strongest ground of assurance that his prayers would be heard. Dan- 
iel humbly confessed, not only his nation's, but his own sins, and 
acknowledged the righteousness of God in their punishment, but pleaded, 
in his own and Israel's behalf, God's covenant and mercies and forgive- 
ness. Daniel's confession of sin precedes immediately the revelation as 
to the coming of Messiah. So it ever is. The Spirit first convicts the 
soul of its sin, and next points to Christ, ' the Lamb of God, which taketh 
away the sin of the world.' Messiah died in the midst of the great 
prophetical week, for the confirmation of His covenant with the many 
who believe on Him : by His one sacrifice all other sacrifices are done 
away with : and by the fact that the four hundred and ninety years have 
long since elapsed, the falsity of the Jews' expectation of Messiah, as if 
He had not yet come, is unanswerably proved."— .A. B. Fausset. 

Daniel went not back to his own country. He could give greater as- 
sistance to his kindred by remaining in Babylon. He witnessed the mov- 


ing forward of the first caravan, and heard of the laying of the founda- 
tions of the second temple. He delivered his last prophecy in the third 
year of Cyrus (Dan. x., xi., xii.). 

The eighth, eleventh and twelfth chapters of Daniel (the eleventh in 
the most minute detail) foretell " the successive histories of Xerxes of 
Persia; Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, and conqueror of Persia; 
the four-fold division of Alexander's kingdom at his death, and the con- 
sequent conflicts between the kings of the north and the kings of the 
south, the Seleucidse and the Ptolemies ; and, lastly, the proud violence 
of Antiochus Epiphanes (of the Seleucidse) against the covenant people 
of God, and his final doom. The history of Antiochus's furious persecution 
of the Jews will he given in its proper place. The details are given with 
such minuteness beforehand by the prophet, in order to strengthen and 
support the faithful ones among God's ancient people in the fiery ordeal 
through which they were about to pass during the long period when they 
were to be without any living prophets. If the world-powers were about 
to be permitted to trample under foot the people of the covenant, the lat- 
ter would take comfort in knowing that their God had told them of it 'in 
the Scripture of truth ' (Daniel x. 21) long before ; and had also engaged 
that the trial, though most severe, was yet to be of short duration. Like 
the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, Antichrist was to have two advents — a more 
immediate and a more distant future. As there is to be the last great 
Antichrist in the latter days of the New Testament, just before the second 
coming of Christ, so there was to be a typical and precursory Antichrist, 
in the latter days of the Old Testament, just before the first coming of 
Christ. Both alike deal with Israel in the way of perverting her by flat- 
teries, and then persecuting her. Hence arises the need that we should 
take heed to the signs of the times, and be on our guard ourselves, and 
put others, too, upon their guard, against the seductions, errors and dan- 
gers of these latter times, which are verging fast towards the times of 
Antichrist. Romanism and other forms of apostate Christianity, com- 
bined with rationalism and the godless wisdom of the world, have 
most of the elements of Antichristianity which are preparing the way for 
the man of sin (2 Thess. ii.). Let us then, with holy zeal, chastened with 
humility and love, ' earnestly contend for the faith which was once de- 
livered unto the saints' (Jude 3)." — Fcmsset. 

" Towards the close of the visions of Daniel there is a melting away, 
as it were, of the things of time, and a transition to the things of eternity. 
It is, therefore, impossible fully to explain these portions of the book of 
Daniel. They are left as a precious possession to the church of Christ, 
till the time shall come when their fulfillment shall reflect light upon the 
written word of God." — Rose. 

Daniel is thought to have lived to be over ninety years of age, and to 
have died in his office at court. With him died the prophetic office in the 
land of captivity. He had no successor. To the remnant of the twelve 
tribes who yet remained scattered abroad God gave no prophet. Their 


spiritual advantages thereafter to be obtained were by going up to Jeru- 
salem annually, which many of them did, even down to the second de- 
struction of Jerusalem.' The prophets in Jerusalem at the rebuilding of 
the temple were men who had come up with the people out of Babylon 
and her provinces. 

Of the captivity now brought to a close we may say that, it was fore- 
ordained, and predicted by Moses, Hosea, Amos, Micah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
Zephaniah and Habakkuk. It was to purge away the dross from the 
church, even the mass of formalists, apostates and idolaters, and purify 
and sanctify God's elect ones who adhered to Him, together with then- 
seed and those connected with them. It certainly cured the Jews of gross 
idolatry, such as the worshiping of images, the sun or moon or anything 
which God had made. This change was, probably, more natural than spir- 
itual, and mainly caused by their disgust at the idolatries of their con- 
querors, and a patriotic clinging to their own national monotheistic re- 
ligion. Mental idolatry, wherein a man loves something else better than 
his Maker, the Jews never got entirely rid of, neither have Christians to 
this very day. The captivity was of great advantage to the Jews, be- 
cause it humbled them — gave them a spirit of confession and supplication 
with deep humility, and prepared them with their whole heart to praise 
God for the fulfillment of this prophecy : " For thus saith the Lord, That 
after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and per- 
form my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place. 
For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, 
thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an expected end. Then ye 
shall Call upon me, and ye shall go and pray unto me, and I will hearken 
unto you. And ye shall seek me, and find me, when ye shall search for me 
with all your heart. And I will be found of you, saith the Lord : and I 
will turn away your captivity." "And I will bring you again into the 
place whence I caused you to be carried away captive" (Jer. xxix. 10-14). 

The captivity, with the light emanating from Judea for centuries 
previous, was of advantage to the heathen world, not indeed generally 
and permanently, but in particular instances and for a season. 

In the first year of his sole reign at Babylon (B. C. 536), Cyrus, 
acknowledging that the God of Israel is the Lord God of Heaven, pro- 
claims that the Jews may return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple of 
God.* The time arrived for the departure of the caravan, consisting of 
nearly 50,000 persons — say 43,360, besides their servants and maids, 7,337, 
and their singing men and singing women, 200. For the transportation 
of ilieoe, with their clothing, provisions and property, they required 736 
horses, 345 mules, 435 camels, and 6,730 asses— a total of 8,136 beasts of 
burden (Ezra ii. 1-70). 

•God caused Cyrus, Darius and Artaxences to be favorable to His people. " The king's heart 
is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water : He turneth it whithersover He will " (Prov. xxi. 
1) : then of course the hearts of other men, inferior to kings in power and rank and wealth and 
honor, are in the absolute control of God. The personal motives of the Persian kings in favoring 
Israel may have been their worship of but one good Supreme Being (Ormazd) like Israel; Isaiah's 
prophecy of Cyrus by name as the servant of God, who should deliver Israel from Babylon; and 
the Persian policy to place a people friendly to Persia on the frontier of Egypt. 


The people were chiefly of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi— 
those last carried away ; and their ecclesiastical rulers and guides were 
their military leaders in this march. It was a sublime spectacle to behold 
this peaceful caravan marching through the great wilderness that inter- 
vened between Babylon and the Holy Land. 

Long was the march across the barren waste, and tedious was the 
journey. But with their splendid outfit they accomplished it in safety. 
On arriving in Judea each one or family selected Ms or their own loca- 
tion, and, after a partial settlement therein, came together, at the old site 
of Jerusalem, as one man, and upon its old foundation built the altar of 
the Lord, which had been overthrown at the destruction of the temple ; 
and, on the first day of the first month, set up the worship of God. From 
that day forth the priests lodged in the city and kept up the daily sacri- 
fice. The smoke as of old ascended heavenward from amid the solitary 
ruins of the once great Jerusalem, the people came from all quarters to 
this identical spot, to engage in the public worship of God, and nearly 
the whole month was consumed in the exercise of religious services, and 
finally closed by the celebration of the feast of tabernacles (Ezra iii. 1-16). 

The rebuilding of the temple was resolved on and the work hastened. 
The king of Babylon made a royal contribution, but not sufficient ; then 
all the people, from the highest to the lowest, donated what they could 
afford, and some of them gave abundantly. In the second month of the 
second year of their return they laid the foundation of the building. 
Zerubbabel the governor, the high priest Jeshua, and all the priests and 
Levites, were present. There was great rejoicing on the occasion, but 
some mourning. Some of the old men who had seen Solomon's temple 
standing, shed tears when they saw the great contrast between that and 

The Samaritans hindered the building of the temple, and caused an 
order for its suspension to be issued by the king of Babylon, and the work 
remained dormant fourteen years. It was no disadvantage to the Jews, 
because they had the more time to attend to and improve their own pri- 
vate affairs. At length, being urged by the prophets Haggai and Zecha- 
riah, the people renewed the building of the temple (Ezra v. 1 ; Haggai 
i. 1-11). Although inferior in one respect (the lack of gold and silver) to 
the former, the prophet assured the people that it should excel it in an- 
other (spiritual) respect ; for the " Desire of all nations " should come and 
fill it with His glorious presence, and this would be superior to the pre- 
cious metals and the Shekinah of old. So, to the poor believer, Christ is 
of infinitely more value than all the treasures of earth. This prophecy, 
in Haggai ii. 6-9, is the fourth Old Testament prediction of the time of 
Christ's coming. A part of the language of Haggai has reference to Ja- 
cob's dying prophecy of the coming of Shiloh, or the Peace- Giver, unto 
whom should the gathering of the people or nations be (Gen. xlix. 10). 
Divine Providence shook all nations by allowing the wars of the Gkbco 
Macedonian and the Roman Empires, making the Greek language and the 


Eoman dominion universal, for the early rapid propagation of Christianity, 
And God shook the Heaven, in Christ's time, when He spake from it ; the 
earth, when it quaked ; and the sea, when He commanded the winds and 
waves. He who alone can satisfy the true desires of all nations came, and 
by His holy and peace-giving presence filled the second temple with 
greater glory than the first. See Isa. lix. 20, 21 ; lx ; Mai. iii. 1 ; Matt. xii. 
6 ; xxi. 12-14 ; xxvi. 55 ; John i. 14 ; xiv. 27 ; Colossians i. 20 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6. 
Herod thoroughly repaired, enlarged and adorned Zerubbabel's temple, 
but the Jews still considered and called it the second temple (Josephus, 
Ant., xv. 11 ; War, vi. 14). They expected their Messiah to come before 
its destruction (Josephus, War, vi. 5). The temple this time was twenty 
years in building, from B. C. 535 to B. C. 515. Its completion was joyfully 
celebrated by the offering of seven hundred sacrifices of bullocks, rams 
and lambs'; and a special offering for all Israel of twelve he goats, ac- 
cording to the number of the twelve tribes of Israel. The priests were 
set in their divisions and the Levites in their courses, and the whole rou- 
tine of temple worship fully reinstated once more. Of course the ark, 
with the tables of stone, the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod 
that budded, and the mercy-seat, and the cherubim, and the mysterious 
Urim and Thummim, were all wanting. The dedication being over, all 
the people observed the Passover for seven days ; and then the temple 
remained open for the worship of God, and so continued until He who 
was greater than the temple entered it amid the shouts of the surrounding 
multitude, crying, " Hosanna to the son of David : blessed is he that com- 
eth in the name of the Lord ; Hosanna in the highest" (Matt. xxi. 9). 

Xerxes the Great, who was king of Babylon, was equally favorable to 
the Jews as his predecessors. So was his son Artaxerxes, called Longi- 
manus, B. C. 464 ; and he is the Artaxerxes alluded to by Ezra, vii. 1. He 
is also the king Ahazuerus, who divorced his wife Vashti in the third year 
of his reign, and married Esther, one of the Jewish captives (Esther i. 
1-22; ii. 1-15). After reigning six years he appointed Ezra, the priest, 
governor over Judea, and authorized him to go up to Judea with all those 
who wished to accompany him. Ezra accordingly gathered a company at 
the river Ahava, there proclaimed a fast, and humbly asked the Lord for 
wisdom and direction in the great undertaking, so that they and their 
little ones might be protected. Artaxerxes and his counsellors were liberal 
in contributions to support this second exodus from Babylon to Canaan, 
and poured out their silver and gold freely. The king-authorized him to 
draw on his treasury at Babylon for what he needed, and also gave him 
an order on the treasurers beyond the river for silver, wheat, wine, salt 
and oil. He also relieved the ministers of the sanctuary from toll, custom 
and tribute. He authorized Ezra to appoint judges, and have justice 
executed in the land, and directed him to have the people taught the laws 
of God and the king. 

Ezra left the river Ahava with his caravan on the twentieth day of 
the first month, and reached Jerusalem in the fifth month (Ezra vii. and 


•viii.). The whole number of persons who accompanied him appears to 
have been 7,104, made up of 1,776 males, and 5,328 females and children. 

There were seventy-eight years between the appointments of Zerub- 
babel and Ezra ; and we infer that Zerubbabel was dead when Ezra was 
appointed. Ezra corrected the vice of intermarrying with strangers, so 
that many put away their wives. The prophet Zechariah encouraged the 
church about this time by saying, " Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion ; 
shout, daughter of Jerusalem : behold, thy King cometh unto thee : He 
is just, and having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a 
colt the foal of an ass " (Zech. ix. 9). 

Mordecai* was a man of wisdom and integrity, and, although a cap- 
tive, was faithful to his king. During the first year of queen Esther he 
discovered a plot made by two of the king's chamberlains to murder their 
royal master, and, upon his making it known to the queen, the conspira- 
tors were hanged. The king commanded his prime minister Haman to 
dress up Mordecai in the royal apparel, place him on the king's horse, 
lead the horse through the streets of the city, and proclaim to the multi- 
tude the honor thus conferred on Mordecai. This was done at the very 
time that Haman was about to obtain the king of Persia's permission to 
hang Mordecai on a gallows fifty cubits high, that he had made for that 
purpose, because Mordecai rose not up when Haman approached him, nor 
did him reverence. But the king, on learning that Haman was the author 
of the decree to have all the Jews in his empire destroyed, for the offense 
of Haman, ordered Haman to be hanged on the gallows which he had 
made for Mordecai. He also virtually reversed the decree which had 
been made against the Jews, and authorized them to slay their enemies 
on the very day that they were to have been slain by them, and made 
Mordecai prime minister in the place of Haman. Thus we see that in the 
days of Ahasuerus there were a queen and a prime minister at court of 
the Jewish race, and, of course, friends of the Jews (Esther ii. 21-23 ; iii.-x.). 

King Artaxerxes (Ahasuerus) appointed Nehemiah, his cup bearer, 
who was full of wisdom and courage, governor over Judea in place of 
Ezra, who had been governor there twelve years (from B. C. 458 to B. C. 
446). Nehemiah went up with a full military escort, authorized to rebuild 
the city and the walls around it. All engaged in building the walls, 
priests, princes, smiths, merchants, etc., and even females. It had to be 
done in troublous times (Dan. ix. 25). For, by reason of the deadly oppo- 
sition of the Samaritans, the workmen on the walls had to work with one 
hand and hold a weapon with the other. But the work progressed and 
was completed in fifty -two days. 

* "The book of Esther supplies the gap between Ezra vi. and vii. Xerxes, the Ahasuerus of 
Esther, intervenes between Darius and Artaxerxes. Ahasuerus was a common title of many 
Medo-Persian kings. Though the name of God does not occur in Esther, His presence pervades 
the book. Although invisible, He is none the less active. God works no less by His providence in 
the world where he is veiled, than by His grace in the church wherein He is revealed. He exercises 
•a special providence for the preservation of all His chosen people, wherever they may be."— 

' ' No scene of Scripture history is more often applied to a spiritual use than Esther's bold ven- 
ture into the presence of the ' king of kings ' (as the Persian monarch* called themselves), and his 
reaching out to her the golden sceptre as the sign of grace."— Wm. Smith. 


Strange wives had to be put away again, and the people under Nehe- 
miah and with Nehemiah confessed their sins and the sins of their fathers, 
and entered into a solemn covenant, under a curse and an oath, to walk 
in the law of the Lord— to observe the Sabbath and the Sabbatical years 
—to consecrate their sons— to pay tithes— to worship God, and never for- 
sake His house. They wrote the covenant and sealed it (Neh. viii.-x.). 
The Jews were now cured of gross idolatry. At last that vile passion, 
which had prevailed so fearfully for so many centuries, seemed to have 

Nehemiah's government of Judea was long and prosperous, though he 
met with much opposition at times, in carrying out his noble reforms, 
from sinful and rebellious Jews. Nehemiah was alive after Joiada 
became high priest (Neh. xiii. 28) ; but the termination of his govern- 
ment over Judea and "the end of his noble and useful life are hidden in 

Malachi, the last prophet of the Old Testament, is believed to have 
lived at the same time with or just after Nehemiah ; and his prophecy 
was probably composed about 430 B. C. Its canonicity is established by 
several New Testament quotations (Matt. xi. 10 ; xvii. 12 ; Mark i. 2 ; ix. 
11, 12; Luke i. 17; Romans ix. 13). Like Nehemiah, Malachi censured 
the profane and mercenary spirit of the priests, the people's marriages 
with foreigners, the non-payment of the tithes, and the rich men's want 
of sympathy towards the poor. He predicts the coming of John the Bap- 
tist, the forerunner of Christ, under the name of Elijah the prophet, and 
also the coming of Christ, as the Lord coming suddenly to His temple. 
He points to the great separating time between the righteous who serve 
God and the wicked who serve him not ; and he represents God as the 
merciful and unchangeable Father of all that fear Him and think upon 
His name, arising upon them as the Sun of Righteousness with healing in 
His wings, keeping their name in His book of remembrance, and finally 
gathering them as His jewels to Himself ; while he represents God as the 
righteous and terrible Judge of the proud and wicked, whom He will smite 
with a curse, and forever destroy with burning. 

Prom the close of Nehemiah's rule over Judea and the end of 
Malachi's prophecy to the birth of our Savior, was about four hundred 
years ; and the account of God's chosen people during this long period 
must be gained from profane history, and a few items from the apocry- 
phal* writings of the Jews. These latter writings are, to a great extent, 
inconsistent and unreliable ; and the history of the Jews by Josephus is, 

'Apocrypha means hidden or spurious. The books called the Apocrypha, in the Old Testa- 
ment, are not contained m the Hebrew Bible at all, but are found in the Greek Sentuagint. They 
w „ e F? w £ ltte 5, b ? unknown authors from 300 to 30 B. C. They are not quoted at all by ^he writers, 
of the New Testament, and they abound in fictitious stories and doctrinal errors. The Catholic 
council of Trent in 1646 endorsed as canonical or inspired aU the Apocrypha except 1st and 2d 
Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh. The Hebrew church ' • to whom were committed the oracles 
of God (Bom. m. 2), and all the Protestant or non-Catholic denominations, relect the Apocrypha 
as uninspired. These ■writings are : interesting as showina- the workings of tne Jewish mind in the 
interval between the Old and the New Testaments. It is from the Apocrypha that the Roman 
Catholics derive the tejts.for the proof of their unscriptural doctrines of purgatory, prayers for 
the dead, and the men tonousness of good works. In the Apocrypha, as derived from the Persian 
Zend-Avesta, two-seedism, or dualism, can find its strongest arguments 


to some extent, unreliable during this and former periods. Events that 
came under the notice of Josephus during his life, including the last war 
with Rome, the destruction of the temple, and city of Jerusalem, etc., are 
regarded as quite authentic. 

Although the four great monarchies overran and subdued Jerusalem 
and Judea, yet they were not permitted by an all-wise and covenant-keep- 
ing God to destroy utterly the people of that land, or even break down 
their nationality until Christ came to set up His spiritual kingdom on 
earth. The prophet Ezekiel is to the point here. He was a captive in 
the Babylonish empire, and predicted the succession of the three great 
natural kingdoms to come (the Persian, Greek and Roman), and then the 
coming of Christ to overcome them all by His spiritual reign. Said he : 
" Thus saith the Lord God, Remove the diadem, and take off the crown ; 
this shall not be the same : exalt him that is low, and abase him that is 
high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it : and it shall be no more, 
until he come whose right it is ; and I will give it him" (Ezek. xxi. 26, 27). 

These three great overturnings were to take place after Ezekiel's 
prophecy, and then Christ should come, whose right it was to reign over 
His people, spiritually, among all nations, and have no need whatever for 
any further temporal nationality. To Him as the Shiloh should be the 
gathering of His people, irrespective of locality. As saith He to the 
woman of Samaria : "The hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this 
mountain, nor at Jerusalem, worship the Father." " The hour cometh, and 
now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and in 
truth ; for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. God is a Spirit : and 
they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth " (John 
iv. 21, 23,- 24). 



The affairs of the Jews continued about the same under the Grecian 
as under the Medo-Persian reign. While Jaddua was high priest in 
Jerusalem Alexander visited the Holy Land in person, was well received, 
and promised to befriend the inhabitants. It is said that he was met, 
before his entrance into Jerusalem, by the priestly tribe in their white 
robes, accompanied by a vast number of citizens dressed in white, and 
the high priest (chief ruler) at their head, accompanied with a band of 
priestly musicians, clashing their cymbals. The sight was very impos- 
ing, and obtained favor in the sight of the world's conqueror. His name 
was well received in Palestine during his short reign of about thirteen 
years, and both Jews and Samaritans embraced every opportunity to en- 
, treat his favor on themselves and urge his punishment on their opponents. 
For about a century and a half subsequent to the death of Alexander, 
Palestine was considered a province of the Grseco-Egyptian kingdom. It 
was the principal stage across which " the kings of the south," the Alex- 
andrian Ptolemies, and the " kings of the north," the Seleucidse from 
Antioch, passed to and fro with their court intrigues and incessant 
armies, their Indian elephants, their Grecian cavalry, and their Oriental 
pomp. Immediately succeeding the "death of Alexander, Judea came 
into the possession of Laomedon, one of his generals. On his defeat, 
Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, attempted to seize the whole of Syria. He 
advanced against Jerusalem, assaulted it on the Sabbath, and met with 
no resistance, the superstitious Jews scrupling to violate the holy day, 
even in self-defense. The conqueror carried away 100,000 captives, whom 
he settled chiefly in Alexandria and Cyrene. In a short time, following a 
more humane policy, he endeavored to attach the Jewish people to his 
cause, enrolled an army of 30,000 men, and entrusted the chief garrisons 
of the country to their care. Syria and Judea did not escape the dread- 
ful anarchy which ensued during the destructive warfare waged by the 
generals and successors of Alexander. Twice these provinces fell into 
the hands of Antigonus, and twice were regained by Ptolemy, to whose 
share they were finally adjudged after the decisive defeat of Antigonus 
at Ipsus. The maritime towns, Tyre, Joppa and Gaza, were the chief 
points of contention : Jerusalem itself seems to have escaped the horrors of 
war. During this dangerous period Onias, the high priest, administered 


the public affairs for twenty-one years. He was succeeded, the year after 
the battle of Ipsus, by Simon the Just, a pontiff on whom Jewish tradi- 
tion dwells with peculiar attachment. His death was the commencement 
of peril and disaster, announced, say the Rabbies, by the most alarming 
prodigies. The sacrifices, which were always favorably accepted during 
his life, at his death became uncertain or unfavorable. The scape goat, 
which used to be thrown from a rock, and to be dashed immediately to 
pieces, escaped (a fearful omen) into the desert. The great west light of 
the golden chandelier no longer burnt with a steady flame ; sometimes it 
was extinguished. The sacrificial fire languished ; the sacrificial bread 
failed, so as not to suffice, as formerly, for the whole priesthood." — 

' ' Palestin e was subj ect to the first five Ptolemies of Egypt about a cen- 
tury, B. C. 301-198. Simon the Just was succeeded by his brother Eleazar, 
his son, Onias being under age (B. C. 292-251). His long rule seems to have 
been profoundly tranquil, under the mild governments of Ptolemy I., 
Soter (the son of Lagus), and Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, who succeeded 
his father in B. C. 285 and reigned till B. C. 247."— W. Smith. 

About this time the translation of the Pentateuch (the five books of 
Moses) was undertaken, under the auspices of Ptolemy Philadelphus, at 
Alexandria. Whether it was to gratify the king by enriching his library, 
and thereby adding to his fame and the gratification of learned men in 
that age of the world ; or whether it was brought about by the combined 
efforts of the Jews in Alexandria and throughout the kingdom of Ptolemy, 
history does not authentically inform us. There are many unreasonable 
and fabulous statements made in regard to the matter. We may reason 
ably suppose, however, that the vast number of Jews scattered among 
the nations even at that period, who spoke the Greek language, so preva- 
lent in the world, wanted a translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into the 
Greek tongue. At any rate, it is said that seventy men, noted for learn- 
ing, were selected to perform this work, and did so, since which time it 
has been called the translation of the lxx., or Septuagint, the Greek Old 
Testament, and remains the Old Testament of the Greek " church" to this 
very day. There was a revival of learning about this period, and Alex- 
andria was noted for her learned men. In that fostering atmosphere 
there sprang up those influences which she exercised over the Jewish 
church, and the Jewish over the Christian church and professed Christian 
church for two thousand years. 

Learned men have pronounced this translation very inaccurate, and 
yet perhaps no translation was ever more popular with the people. It 
was in use among the Jews at the time of our Savior's appearance on 
earth, and was quoted by Him and His Apostles, evangelists, and early 
followers, and no scholastic criticism has been able to gain foothold 
against such a Divine sanction as that. The New Testament writers cor- 
rect the Septuagint by the Hebrew' when needful. 

Most of the books called Apocryphal were written between the return 


from the Babylonish captivity and the Christian era, and form a sort of 
appendix to the Jewish Scriptures, and aid to some extent in filling 
that blank which would otherwise exist for 400 years of the Mosaic dis- 

Antiochus IV., Epiphanes,* king of Syria, B. C. 175, became one of the 
most cruel oppressors the Jews had ever met with. He wished to Greeianize 
everything— names, places, fashions, religion and all. He acted like a 
madman. He attempted to exterminate the religion of the Jews and sub- 
stitute that of the Greeks. At one time he approached " Jerusalem, took 
it without much resistance, put to death in three days' time 40,000 of the 
inhabitants, and seized as many more to be sold as slaves. He entered 
every part of the temple, pillaged the treasury, seized all the sacred 
utensils, the golden candlestick, the table of show-bread, the altar of in- 
cense, and thus collected a booty to the amount of 1,800 talents (about 
three million dollars). He then commanded a great sow to be sacrificed 
on the altar of burnt offerings, part of the flesh to be boiled, and the liquor 
from the unclean animal to be sprinkled over every part of the temple ; 
and thus desecrated with the most odious defilement the sacred place, 
which the Jews had considered for centuries the one holy spot in all the 
universe. Menelaus retained the dignity of High Priest ; but two foreign 
officers, Philip, a Phrygian, and Andronicus, were made Governors of Jeru- 
salem and Samaria." He designed the entire destruction of the Jewish 
race, when, in two years after this unhallowed course, he authorized one 
Apollonius to carry into execution his design with cruel despatch. "Apol- 
lonius waited until the Sabbath, when the whole people were occupied 
in their religious duties. He then let loose his soldiers against the unre- 
sisting multitude, slew all the men, till the streets ran with blood, and 
seized all the women as captives. He proceeded to pillage, and then to 
dismantle the city, which he set on fire in many places ; he threw down 
the walls, and built a strong fortress on the highest part of Mount Zion, 
which commanded the temple and all the rest of the city. From this 
garrison he harassed all the people of the country, who stole in with fond 
attachment to visit the ruins, or offer a hasty and interrupted worship in 
the place of the sanctuary ; for all the public services had ceased, and no 
voice of adoration was heard in the holy city, unless of the profane hea- 
then calling on their idols. The persecution did not end here. Antiochus 
issued an edict for uniformity of worship throughout his dominions, and 
despatched officers into all parts to enforce rigid compliance with the 
decree. This office in the district of Judea and Samaria was assigned to 
Athenseus, an aged man, who was well versed in the ceremonies and 
usages of the Grecian religion. The Samaritans, according to the Jewish 
account, by whom they are represented as always asserting their Jewish 
lineage when it seemed to their advantage, and their Median descent 
when they hoped thereby to escape any immediate danger, yielded at 

* Epiphaties means illustrious ; he was, by way of parody, surnamed by others Epimanes, the 


once ; and the temple on Gerizim was formally consecrated to Jupiter 
Xenius. Athenreus, having been so far successful, proceeded to Jerusa- 
lem, where with the assistance of the garrison he prohibited and suppressed 
every observance of the Jewish religion, forced the people to profane the 
Sabbath, to eat swine's flesh and other unclean food, and expressly forbade 
the national rite of circumcision. The temple was dedicated to Jupiter 
Olympius ; the statue of that deity erected on part of the altar of burnt 
offerings, and sacrifice duly performed. Two women, who had circum- 
cised their children, were led round the city with the babes hanging at 
their breasts, and then cast headlong from the wall ; and many more of 
those barbarities committed, which, as it were, escape the reprobation of 
posterity from their excessive atrocity. Cruelties too horrible to be re- 
lated, sometimes, for that very reason, do not meet with the detestation 
they deserve. Among other martyrdoms, Jewish tradition dwells with 
honest pride upon that of Eleazar, an aged scribe, ninety years old, who 
determined to leave a notable example to such as be young to die willmgly and 
courageously for the honorable and holy laws; and that of the seven breth- 
ren who, encouraged by their mother, rejected the most splendid offers,, 
and confronted the most excruciating torments rather than infringe the* 
law. Prom Jerusalem the persecution spread throughout the country : in 
every city the same barbarities were executed, the same profanations in- 
troduced ; and, as a last insult, the feast of the Bacchanalia, the license 
of which, as these feasts were celebrated in the later ages of Gr eece 
shocked the severe virtue of the older Romans, was substituted for the> 
national festival of tabernacles. The reluctant Jews were forced to join 
in these riotous orgies, and carry the ivy, the insignia of the god. Se- 
near was the Jewish nation, and the worship of Jehovah, to total exter- 
mination." — Milman. 

Many have been the scenes described in ancient and modern history, 
where the people of the Most High God have suffered persecution purely 
for conscience' sake, but we believe very few have surpassed in enormity 
that which they suffered under Antiochus Epiphanes about 167 years be- 
fore the Christian era. There was no insubordination, no revolt, no 
political pretext, for this cruelty toward his own peaceable subjects, but 
simply a determination to destroy the visible signs of God's worshipers 
or destroy the people themselves ! Antiochus Epiphanes died at Tabae, 
in Persia, B. C. 164, of a most horrible and loathsome disease of the 
bowels, it is said, eaten alive with worms, emitting an intolerable odor, 
acknowledging that his illness was sent upon him by the God of Israel 
for his cruelty and sacrilege, and becoming raving mad before he breathed 
his last. 

It seems to be a matter worthy of note that while the successors of 
Alexander who ruled in Egypt were generally mild in their dealings 
with the Jews in Palestine ; those who ruled in Antioch were almost in- 
variably cruel and oppressive toward them. 

Before the final extinction of the Jews and their worship God raised 


up their deliverers in their very midst, who by natural means resisted 
this " abomination of desolation," took up arms against the mighty power 
of the Syrian monarch, and finally gained their independence so far as to 
be permitted to worship the God of their fathers as in days of old. Jeho- 
vah did not in a miraculous way destroy their enemies and give them re- 
lief, but He did it by raising up a certain individual and his five sons, 
who, by holy zeal, bravery, stratagem, and true wisdom, discomfited 
large armies, crippled the resources of their great adversary, and secured 

In the town of Modin, in Palestine, fifteen miles west of Jerusalem, 
there lived a man by the name of Mattathias, who had five sons by the 
names of Johanan, Simon, Judas, Eleazar and Jonathan. When Apelles, 
the officer of king Antiochus, came to Modin to enforce idolatry on the 
citizens, he manifested great regard for Mattathias, and made him 
splendid offers to propitiate his favor, and secure his influence in carrying 
the edict of Antiochus into execution. Mattathias refused his offers, and 
declared his determination to live and die in the faith of his fathers. 

While viewing, with holy indignation, the sacrifices offered to the 
heathen deity, he espied an apostate Jew officiating at the altar ; this was 
more than he could bear to behold. Like Phineas of old, in a transport 
of zeal for the cause of God, he struck the offender dead upon the altar, 
and then turned upon Apelles, the king's commissioner, and slew him. 
Here was a conflict raised single-handed with the mighty potentate at 
Antioch, and Mattathias prepared himself for the struggle. He called 
together his five sons and as many as had sufficient zeal to do so to follow 
him, and he retired at once to the mountains. His forces rapidly in- 
creased, but a thousand of them were surprised and destroyed by the 
Syrian troops on a Sabbath day — because the Jews would not fight on 
that day. Mattathias, therefore, resolved henceforward not to regard the 
Sabbath day in war, but to defend himself on that day as well as on any 
other. " The insurgents conducted their revolt with equal enterprise and 
discretion. For a time they lay hid in the mountain fastnesses ; and, as 
opportunity occurred, poured down upon the towns, destroyed the heathen 
altars, enforced circumcision, punished all apostates who fell into their 
hands, recovered many copies of the law, which their enemies had wan- 
tonly defaced, and re-established the synagogues for public worship, the 
temple being defiled and in possession of the enemy. Their ranks were 
swelled with the zealots for the law, who were then called the Chassidhn. 
For, immediately after the return from Babylonia, two sects had divided 
the people ; the Zadikim, the righteous, who observed the written law of 
Moses, and the more austere and abstemious Chassidim, or the holy, who 
added to the law the traditions and observances of the fathers, and pro- 
fessed a holiness beyond the letter of the covenant. Prom the former 
sprung the Caraites and Sadducees of later times ; from the latter, the 
Pharisees. But the age of Mattathias was ill suited to this laborious and 
enterprising warfare ; having bequeathed the command to Judas, the 


most valiant of his sons, he sank under the weight of years and toil. So 
great already was the terror of his name that he was buried, without dis- 
turbance on the part of the enemy, in his native city of Modin." — Milman. 

The youthful general added vigor and enterprise to the cause, with- 
out lessening the prudence and skill which had hitherto attended it. 

Judas unfurled the banner of the " Maccabees," the reason of which 
name is involved in obscurity, but under which he and his brothers 
fought, and their names became famous on earth. One succeeded an- 
other until the whole of them disappeared, without reproach, from the 
scenes of earth. They governed Judea for about sixty years, and then 
their descendants for seventy years longer (until 37 B. C.). 

The rulers in Judea were much troubled, about 100 years B. C, with 
dissensions, of a religious character, in their midst. The controversy 
between Pharisees and Sadducees increased, and the more rapidly as 
peace prevailed between Judea and other nations. Their views were 
quite opposite. "The Pharisees were moderate predestinarians ; the 
Sadducees asserted free will. The Pharisees believed in the immortality 
of the soul and the existence of angels, though their creed on both these 
subjects was strongly tinged with Orientalism. The Sadducees denied 
both. The Pharisees received not merely the prophets, but the tradi- 
tional law, likewise, as of equal authority with the books of Moses. The 
Sadducees, if they did not reject, considered the prophets greatly inferior 
to the law. The Sadducees are said to have derived their doctrine from 
Sadoc, the successor of Antigonus Socho in the presidency of the great 
Sanhedrim. Antigonus taught the lofty doctrine of pure and disinter- 
ested love and obedience to God, without regard to punishment or re- 
ward. Sadoc is said to have denied the latter, without maintaining the 
higher doctrine on which it was founded. Still, the Sadducees are far 
from what they are sometimes represented, the teachers of a loose and in- 
dulgent Epicureanism ; they inculcated the belief in Divine Providence, and 
the just and certain administration of temporal rewards and punishments. 

" The Pharisees had the multitude, ever led away by extravagant re- 
ligious pretensions, entirely at their disposal : Sadduceeism spread chiefly 
among the higher orders. It would be unjust to the Sadducees to con- 
found them with that unpatriotic and Hellenized party, which, during the 
whole of the noble struggles of the Maccabees, sided with the Syrian op- 
pressors, for these are denounced as avowed apostates from Judaism ; yet 
probably, after the establishment of the independent government, the 
latter might make common cause and become gradually mingled up with 
the Sadduceean party, as exposed alike to the severities of Pharisaic ad- 
ministration. During the rest of the Jewish history we shall find these 
parties as violently opposed to each other, and sometimes causing as 
fierce and dangerous dissensions as those which rent the commonwealths 
of Greece and Eome or the republican states of modern Europe. It was 
at the close of his reign that Hyrcanus broke with the Pharisaic party, 
and openly joined the opposite faction ; a measure of which the disastrous 


consequences were not entirely felt till the reign of his son, Alexander." 
— Milman. Hyrcanus reigned twenty-nine years, and was an able, faith- 
ful and successful ruler. 

Judas, whose Greek name was Aristobulus (son of Hyrcanus), suc- 
ceeded his father in the year 106 B. C, gained the character of the " Lover 
of the Greeks," and won the admiration of Gentile writers by his modera- 
tion towards them, and by the energy with which as his father had in- 
corporated the Edomites on the south, so he conquered and absorbed the 
Ituraean borderers on the north. He lived but a year in office, and that 
was a year of crime and misery. He imprisoned his mother, and starved 
her to death ; and imprisoned three of his brothers, and had one of them 
slain. But that for which he was chiefly remembered was that he was 
the first of his family to assume the regal title and diadem, B. C. 106. 
Once more there was a "king in Israel," but bearing the name unknown 
before and to acquire before long a solemn significance, " King of the 
Jews." " It was still, however, as high priest that he reigned, and it was 
not till his brother, Jonathan, mounted the throne, under the name of 
Alexander, that the coins alternately bear the names of Jonathan, the 
high priest (or, more rarely, the king) in Hebrew, and Alexander, the 
king, in Greek. In common parlance he was known by the two names 
combined, Alexander Jannaeus." 

Alexander, after an unquiet and eventful reign of twenty-seven 
ears, departed this life, and his widow, Alexandra, succeeded him, an d 
became first " Queen of the Jews," B. C. 78. Upon his recommendation 
before his decease, she threw herself upon the protection chiefly of the 
Pharisees, as the most powerful and influential, as well as the most tur- 
bulent, of the sects. Alexandra reigned prosperously for nine years, and 
then fell sick and died. The Pharisees, emboldened by the favors shown 
them in her time, began to persecute the opposing sects. Her first son, 
Hyrcanus II., had been made high priest during her reign, while her sec- 
ond son, Aristobulus, a man of daring and intrigue, succeeded in placing 
himself at the head of the weaker party, the Sadducees, and finally at 
the head of the army outside of Jerusalem, and upon his mother's death 
sought to make himself master of the place. He marched against it, but 
was opposed by the Pharisees within, and his brother, Hyrcanus II., as 
high priest, at their head. He, however, succeeded in obtaining pos- 
session of the city, and his brother, the high priest, yielded his claims and 
agreed to return to private life, B. C. 69. This blow, for a season, was 
fatal to the Pharisaic party. The time had now arrived when commotion 
' succeeded commotion, by the turbulence of the three sects into which the 
Jews were divided, viz.: Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes,* the latter 

* This name is aaid to mean silent or mysterious. The sect exiBted from about 110 B O to A. D- 
70. Josepbus estimates their number at about 4,000. Their chief settlement was a large agricul 
tural village in some highly cultivated oases amid the wilderness on the northwest shore of the 
Dead Sea. They had a few other scattered communities throughout Palestine. Their creed was 
mainly that of the Pharisees, but their practice was even more rigorous. With Pharisaism they 
combined stoicism, asceticism, monashcism, celibacy and Puritanism. They held all property in 
-common, and were said to be temperate, industrious, charitable, opposed to all oaths slaverv 
and war, and commerce. ■ ""■*»> 


being much more quiet and retired than the other two. But there was 
another enemy to arise which would he more dangerous to the Asmonean 
house than the Pharisees. Antipater, the father of Herod, an Idumen- 
ean of noble birth, was the son of Antipas, who had been governor of 
that province under Alexander Jannaeus. He had influence over Hyr- 
canus, and induced him to seek the protection and aid of Aretas, king of 
Arabia ; so that Aristobulus soon found himself assailed by 50,000 men— 
Aretas, Antipater and Hyrcanus at their head, B. C. 65. He was defeated 
and fled to Jerusalem, where he was unsupported by the people, and shut 
himself up in the temple and prepared for defense. A deliverer at length 
arose in the person of the Roman general, Pompey, who ordered the siege 
to be raised, and summoned both Aristobulus and Hyrcanus to appear 
before him at Damascus that he might decide the matter between them, 
B. C. 63. When the time of hearing the cause came on, representatives 
of Aristobulus, Hyrcanus and the Jewish people stood before Pompey, 
each complaining of the other. The people charged both the brothers as 
having usurped the prerogatives of high priests and tyrannized over them, 
and they therefore wished the kingly office entirely set aside. Pompey 
dismissed the parties courteously, without deciding in favor of either. 

Aristobulus returned home, and, suspecting the goodness of his cause 
at court, endeavored to put his country in a state of defense. Pompey, 
after a while, began to assume a higher tone. He marched into Judea, 
and, after a stern resistance, entered Jerusalem, B. C. 57, and went him- 
self into the Holy of Holies,* to the great horror of the Jews, and also, to 
their astonishment, carried off none of the treasures of the temple. He 
appointed Hyrcanus high priest without the regal authority — levied his 
tribute on the people, and departed with Aristobulus, his two sons and 
two daughters, designed to adorn his triumphal march into Borne. 

The Romans, having deprived the High Priest of all royal authority, 
established, in five different cities, five independent Senates or Sanhe- 
drims, according to the form of the great Sanhedrim of seventy one, 
which perhaps had existed from the captivity. The places where the 
Sanhedrims sat were Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara, Amathus and Sepphoris. 
This form of government lasted until Julius Csesar reinvested Hyrcanus 
with the supreme dignity, B. C. 44. 

During the great civil war in Rome the fate of Judea, like that of 
nearly all other nations, hung in trembling suspense. After the death of 
Pompey the prudent Antipater rendered Caesar essential service in his 
campaign in Egypt in favor of Cleopatra, and was rewarded with the full 
rites of Roman citizenship for himself, and (B. C. 47) the appointment of 
procurator or governor over the whole of Judea ; also the fall re-estab- 
lishment of Hyrcanus in the high priesthood. Antipater, still further 
presuming on the favor of Rome, proceeded to appoint his elder son 
Phasael to the government of Jerusalem, and the younger Herod to that 

•It is said that Pompey wondered that lie found no image of the Deity in the temple— the 
pagans were accustomed to having and worshiping images of their gods. 


of Galilee, B. C. 47. Herod soon began to develop his natural decision 
and severity of character. He arrested robbers and destroyed them with- 
out trial, and set at naught the authorities in Jerusalem. When brought 
before the Sanhedrim he appeared in arms, and by affrighting them es- 
caped punishment. Only one man, Sameas, dared even to rebuke him ; 
and, strange to say, when he afterward slew the other members of the 
Sanhedrim, he spared this man Sameas. He afterward obtained by a 
bribe the military command of Coele-Syria, and advanced against Jeru- 
salem ; but, by the intervention of his father, withdrew his forces. 

Upon the death of Caesar, Capias assumed the administration of Syria, 
B. C. 43. Judea was heavily oppressed every way, and the taxes were so 
exorbitant that the whole population of some towns were sold as slaves 
to raise tribute. 

Herod was ever dexterous and bold. After the great battle at Philippi 
Herod made his approaches to the rising sun, and obtained the favor of 
Mark Antony. Antipater had been poisoned by Malichus to prevent the 
rising and then powerful Idumenean influence in Judea. 

"An unexpected enemy arose, to trouble again the peace of Judea. 
At this juncture the Parthians under Pacorus, the king's son, entered 
Syria and Asia Minor, and overran the whole region. A part of their 
army, under Barzapharnes, took possession of Coele-Syria. Antigonus, 
the last remaining branch of the Asmonean race, determined to risk his 
fortune in the desperate hazard of Parthian protection ; he offered 1,000 
talents and 500 Jewish women — a strange compact — as the price of his 
restoration to the Jewish kingdom. Antigonus himself raised a consider- 
able native power and entered Judea, followed by Pacorus, the cup-bearer 
of the king, who had the same name with the king's son. Antigonus 
fought his way to Jerusalem, and, by means of his party, entered the city. 
Jerusalem was torn asunder by the contending factions ; and the multi- 
tudes who came up at the feast of Pentecost, adopting different parties, 
added to the fierce hostility and mutual slaughter. The Antigonians held 
the temple, the Hyrcanians the palace, and, daily contests taking place, 
the streets ran with blood. Antigonus at length invidiously proposed to 
submit their mutual differences to the arbitration of Pacorus, the Parthian 
general. Phasael weakly consented ; and Pacorus, admitted within the 
town, prevailed on the infatuated Phasael to undertake a journey with 
Hyrcanus, and submit the cause to Barzapharnes, the commander in chief. 
He set forth on this ill-fated expedition, and was at first received with 
courtesy ; the plan of the Parthians being to abstain from violence till 
they had seized Herod, who, having vainly remonstrated with his brother 
on his imprudence, remained in the city. But the crafty Herod, receiving 
warning from his brother, whose suspicions had been too late awakened, 
fled with the female part ot the family toward Masada. The journey was 
extremely dangerous, and at one time Herod, in despair, had almost at- 
tempted his own life. At Masada, a strong fortress on the west shore of 
the Dead Sea, he received succor brought by his brother Joseph from 


ldumea ; him he left in command at Masada, and retired himself into 
Arabia, from thence to Egypt, and at length to Rome. In the meantime 
Hyrcanus and Phasael had been made prisoners ; the former, Antigonus 
not wishing to put him to death, was incapacitated forever from the office 
of High Priest by the mutilation of his ears. Phasael anticipated the 
executioner by beating his brains out against the wall of his prison." — 

The Parthians plundered the city of Jerusalem and ravaged the 
country, notwithstanding their alliance with Antigonus. Herod, in the 
meantime, gained favor at Rome beyond his expectations, and Angustus 
and Antony united in conferring the crown upon him, 40 years B. C. 
He returned at once to Palestine, raised a force, rescued his brother and 
bride, who were shut up in the fortress of Masada, and reduced to great 
extremities by the besieging army of Antigonus, and, overruning Galilee, 
at length sat down before Jerusalem. Silo, a Roman general who was 
acting with Herod, proved treacherous and retired from before Jerusa- 
lem, and Herod was compelled to do the same. 

Herod fixed his headquarters at Samaria, and contented himself with 
destroying robbers, B. C. 39. The next year, with Roman auxiliaries, he 
made another attack on Jerusalem, and was defeated. He retired to 
make his complaints to Antony at Samosata, and, while absent, his 
brother risked a battle, against Herod's advice, with the forces of Anti- 
gonus, and was killed. Herod on his return avenged the death of his 
brother Joseph by the total discomfiture of Pappus, the general of Anti- 
gonus. In the spring of the next year, B. C. 37, he formed the regular 
siege of Jerusalem ; during the siege he returned to Samaria to consum- 
mate his marriage with Mariamne, the beautiful granddaughter both of 
Aristobulus and Hyrcanus. By this marriage he formed an intimate con- 
nection with the line of the Asmonean princes, and he hastened to secure 
his throne by the conquest of the capital. Jerusalem held out for above 
half a year, but was finally taken by the Roman army under Sosius. 
Great cruelties were inflicted on the people, and much injury done to the 
town by the exasperated Roman soldiery, even against the expostulations 
of Herod himself, who did not wish to be left king over a desert. Anti- 
gonus was sent to Antony at Antioch and slain . Herod was fairly installed, 
by the authority of Rome, king of Judea, B. C. 37. 

This was that Herod the Great who swayed the sceptre over Jerusa- 
lem and Palestine till after the birth of our Savior. 

He did more by far for the outward improvement of the cities, towns 
and fortresses of Palestine than any other king or ruler since the cap- 
tivity. He thoroughly repaired and greatly enlarged and adorned the 
temple of Zerubbabel at Jerusalem. He was upheld by the great power 
of Rome, and, while adding to his own fortune, he added to the wealth 
and ornament of his country. But he was one of the most jealous and 
vindictive of men in all his private relations, and cruel to the last degree 
toward all whom he suspected of designs on his crown or disobedience to 


his authority. He had ten wives and fourteen children. The particulars 
of his reign might he traced, year hy year, down to the period of his 
death, hut they are so revolting, so cruel, and bloodthirsty, that the 
reader might as well be spared the shocking perusal. Suffice it to say that 
in addition to the vast number of murders committed by him during a 
long, unbroken reign of over forty years, may be mentioned that of his 
beautiful and noble wife Mariamne, her grandfather, father, brother, 
uncle, and two of her sons, most noble youths, who were his own children, 
who were educated at Koine, and unsurpassed in promise by any in the 
land. All these were accused of treasonable designs toward him, without 
any foundation in truth. He himself arraigned before Caesar his two sons 
for trial, and took the lead in person to manage the case with all imagina- 
ble and unnatural hatred. No wonder then that such a monster in 
human shape should play off his hypocrisy with the wise men of the East, 
and, so soon as the birth of a " King of the Jews " was announced to him, 
send forth and slay all- the children in Bethlehem from two years old and 
under, in order to include that one who, he supposed, would aspire to his 
throne. Neither need we wonder that a king so steeped in human blood, 
and so fully convinced that the execrations of an outraged people were 
resting on him, should, in order to make the people mourn, instead of re- 
joicing, at his death, order some of the principal men in every family in 
the land shut up in prison, so that an executioner should be ready at the 
announcement of his own death to slay them also. The innocents were 
slain in the last year of his life, it is supposed. And the last public act of 
his life was to order the execution of his son Antipater, who was in prison, 
and who, it was said, had attempted to bribe the keeper to let him out. 
He was slain just rive days before his father's death. Herod for a long 
time was awfully afflicted both in body and mind ; he was haunted with 
dreadful forebodings and distressing dreams, and yet nothing appeared 
to soften his stony heart or cause him to relent or repent, for one hour. 
His conscience was seared, and failed to admonish or have any govern- 
ment over his mind. He lived to be seventy years of age, having been 
king of Jerusalem thirty-seven years, and died a few years before the 
Passover, B. C. 4, at Jericho, after suffering the most horrible agonies, 
mental and physical. Josephus states that he had fever, and an intolera- 
ble itching over all his body, and intestinal inflammation, and dropsy, and 
wrorms, and putrefaction. God thus gave the inhuman monster a fore- 
taste of the awful and eternal retribution awaiting him beyond the grave. 

Sadly, indeed, does the Old Dispensation close, with such a ruler over 
national Israel as was Herod the Great. The nation was, for the most 
part, demoralized, and but little better than their ruler ; yet in them were 
found the seed royal and a remnant according to the election of grace. 

Thus we have endeavored to notice some things connected with a cer- 
tain race of men from Adam to the coming of Christ, a period, according 
to the common chronology, of 4,004 years. The record shows what sin has 
done for our race, and also what grace has done. Where sin abounded, 


grace, when applied, has much more abounded, because it hath in every 
instance gained the victory. One of the most prominent features of Old 
Testament history is the numerous wars therein stated to have been 
waged since the Fall. The first man born slew his brother, and brother 
has been slaying brother from that day to this. The proneness to war 
and the worship of idols seem to predominate in the human mind, and 
such is the frequent occurrence of them in history that the heart almost 
sickens at their perusal. Yet it need not, for the same working is in the 
hearts of all men (even now) untouched by grace, and wo only read of 
ourselves when we read of others. " The human heart is deceitful above 
all things, and desperately wicked ; who can know it 1 " While darkness 
has covered the earth, and gross darkness the people, the Lord has arisen 
upon some few and His glory has been seen upon them. The spiritual 
family of God have been few in all ages as compared with fleshly profes- 
sors and open reprobates. God's people are always chosen in the fur- 
nace of affliction, and in this world must suffer tribulation. We have 
noticed the suffering and faith of the people of God in the Old Testament 
dispensation, and the same will compare favorably with the New. The 
Apostle, in the eleventh chapter to the Hebrews, enumerates many who 
lived and died in the faith under the Old Dispensation, and thereby from 
a cloud of witnesses encourages the hearts of many professing Chris- 
tianity to hold out faithful to the end of their earthly pilgrimage. 

Those specially mentioned by hiin are Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Joseph, Moses, Rahab, Gideon, Barak, Samson, 
Jepthah, David and Samuel, who, through faith, subdued kingdoms, 
wrought righteousness, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the vio- 
lence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made 
strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens, 
etc., etc. Surely, Faith overcomes the world. 

After the captivity there were added to the books of the Old Testa- 
ment the prophecies and lamentations of Jeremiah, the prophecies of 
Ezekiel, the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, and the prophecies of Daniel, 
Habakkuk, Zechariah and Malachi. These completed the sacred canon, 
which then consisted of thirty -nine books, now arranged in the following 
order, viz : 

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 
Ruth, First and Second Samuel, First and Second Kings, First and Sec- 
ond Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther; Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon ; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, 
Ezekiel, and Daniel ; Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, 
Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. 

These books were held sacred and considered authoritative and di- 
vinely inspifed, and handed down by the Jews from generation to gener- 
ation to the days of our Savior. He accepted this canon as the embodi- 
ment of the Scriptures and the authoritative word of God. He com- 
manded men to search them. He quoted them in His teachings ; and alL 


the writers in the New Testament quoted and referred to them as the 
Scriptures of Divine truth and the sacred oracles of God, from which there 
was no appeal. Paul says of them in his epistle to Timothy : " The holy 
Scriptures are able to make us wise unto salvation, through faith which 
is in Christ^Jesus. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is 
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished 
unto all good works." These are the Scriptures which the Apostles car- 
ried with them into all the world when they went forth preaching the 
gospel to every creature, and these are the Scriptures out of which they 
reasoned, in order to bring men to the obedience of faith. 

They were the only rule of faith and practice to the church from Mal- 
achi to the Christian era, a period of about 400 years, and — until the twenty- 
seven inspired books of the New Testament were added to them, which 
completed the whole volume of inspiration — God's authoritative and re- 
vealed word, contained in what is generally known as the Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments. 

As we have now arrived at the close of the Old Dispensation, it will be 
proper to make some remarks upon its gereral character, and its relation 
to the New or Christian Dispensation. 

There are in the New Testament, in addition to numberless allusions, 
about two hundred and sixty direct quotations from the Old Testament, 
or about one for every chapter of the former. It was a wise remark of 
Augustine, In Vetere Testamento Novum latet, et in Novo Vetus patet, — Jre 
the Old Testament the Neiu is concealed, and in the New the Old is revealed. 
The Old was the type, and the New the antitype. " There was a pre 
ordained connection between the two. The antitypical realities of the 
gospel were the ultimate objects contemplated by the mind of God in 
establishing the types of the old economy. ,To prepare the way for the 
introduction of these ultimate objects He placed the church under a course 
of instruction by types, or designed and fitting resemblances of what was 
to come in ' the ends of the world,' or ' fullness of the times,' or the gospel 
age. The church of the Old Testament was in a state of comparative 
childhood, supplied only with such means of instruction, and subjected 
to such methods of discipline, as were suited to so imperfect and provi- 
sional a period of her being. This instruction and discipline, however, 
should not be regarded as employed simply for the sake of those who 
lived during its continuance. While primarily and wisely adapted to 
them, it was also fitted, and indeed chiefly designed, to tell with beneficial 
effect en the spiritual life of the church in her more advanced state of 
existence. The man of mature age, when pursuing his way amid the per- 
plexing cares and busy avocations of life, finds himself continually in- 
debted to the lessons he was taught and the skill he acquired during the 
period of his early culture. And, in like manner, it was undoubtedly 
God's intention that His method of procedure toward the church in her 
state of minority not only should minister what was needed for her im- 


mediate instruction and improvement, but sliould also furnish materials 
•of edification and comfort for believers to the end of time. In both Test- 
aments there are the same great elements of truth ; in the Old these were 
exhibited in a form more level to the comprehension of immature minds. 
The Mosaic ritual had at once a shell and a kernel ; its shell, the outward 
Tights and observances it enjoined ; its kernel, the spiritual relations which 
these indicated, and the spiritual truths which they embodied and ex- 
pressed. The symbolical institutions of the Old Testament were shadows 
of the better things of the gospel (Col. ii. 17 ; Heb. viii. 5 ; x. 1) ; that is, 
they were obscure and imperfect resemblances of the same Divine truths. 
By means of an earthly tabernacle, with its appropriate services, God 
manifested toward His people the same principles of government, and 
Tequired from them substantially the same disposition and character that 
He does now under the higher dispensation of the gospel. For, look be* 
yond the more outward diversities, and what do you see 1 You see in 
both alike a pure and holy God, enshrined in the recesses of a glorious 
sanctuary, unapproachable by sinful flesh but through a medium of pow- 
•erful intercession and cleansing efficacy ; yet, when so approached, ever 
ready to receive and bless with the richest tokens of His favor and loving 
kindness as many as come in the exercise of genuine contrition for sin, 
and longing for restored fellowship with Him whom they have offended. 
The same description applies equally to the service of both dispensa- 
tions ; for in both the same impressions are conveyed of God's character 
respecting sin and holiness, and the same gracious feelings necessarily 
awakened by them in the bosom of sincere worshipers. But, then, as to 
the means of accomplishing this, there was only in the one case a shadowy 
■exhibition of spiritual things through earthly materials and temporary 
-expedients ; while, in the other, the naked realities appear in the one 
perfect sacrifice of Christ, the rich endowments of the Spirit of grace, and 
the glories of an everlasting kingdom. The religious institutions of 
«arlier times contained only the rudiments or elements of religious truth 
and life. The church, while under these ordinances, is said to have been 
'in bondage under the elements of the world' (Gal. iv. 3). The expres- 
sion in Galatians iii. 24, 'the law was our pedagogue to bring us to Christ,' 
conveys much the same idea ; since it was the special business of the 
ancient pedagogue to train the youth to proper habits, and, without him- 
self imparting more than the merest elements of learning, to conduct him 
to those who were qualified to give it. The law did this for such as were 
placed under it, by means of its symbolical institutions and ordinances, 
which at once conveyed to the understanding a measure of instruction, 
and trained and disciplined the will. It was from its very nature imper- 
fect, and pointed to something higher and better. Believers were kept 
by it in a hmd of bondage, but one which, by its formative and elevating 
character, was ever ripening its subjects for a state in which it should no 
more be needed. But the most of national Israel, being unspiritual, soon 
perverted these local, earthly, outward, imperfect ordinances into for- 


mality, carnality and corruption. God, therefore, destroyed the outward 
by the hand of the king of Babylon, and drove national Israel afar from, 
the scenes of her long idolatry. The times of Daniel and the captivity 
formed, in some degree, the turning-point from the Old to the New, and 
thenceforward the one was continually shading into the other. God thus 
spiritualized and elevated the ideas which the Israelites entertained of 
Divine things, and prepared a gracious remnant for the far more spiritual 
and elevating teachings of Christ and His Apostles. When the veil was 
rent in twain, abolishing the distinction at the centre, all others of an 
outward kind necessarily gave way. When the great High Priest had 
fulfilled His work, no work remained to be done by any other priest. 
The gospel of shadows was conclusively gone, and the gospel of realities 
come. And the compliances which the Apostles generally, and Paul him- 
self latterly, made (Acts xxi.) to humor the prejudices and silence the 
senseless clamors of the Jews, though necessary at first, were yet carried 
to an undue and dangerous length. They palpably failed, in Paul's case, 
to accomplish the end in view ; and, in the case of the Jewish Christians 
themselves, were attended with jealousies, self-righteous bigotry, grow- 
ing feebleness and ultimate decay. ' Before Messiah's coming, the cere- 
monies were as the swaddling bands in which He was wrapt ; but, after 
it, they resembled the linen clothes which He left in the grave. Christ 
was in the one, but not in the other.' The apostate Romish church, being 
unspiritual, like the majority of national Israel, at an early period mis- 
took the means for the end, embraced the shadow for the substance, con- 
verted what had been set up for the express purpose of leading men to 
Christ, into a mighty stumbling-block to obstruct the way of their 
approach to Him, fell back, by a retrograde movement, from the high^ 
mature, inward and spiritual, to the low, childish, outward and natural. 
By that great apostasy everything was gradually carried back from the 
apostolic ideal of a spiritual community, founded on the perfect atone- 
ment and priesthood of Christ, to the outwardness and ritualism of 
ancient times. The sacrifices of the laws, it was thought, must have 
their correspondence in the offering of the Eucharist ; and, as every sac- 
rificial offering must have a priest to present it, so the priesthood of the 
Old Covenant, determined by genealogical descent, must find its substi- 
tute in a priesthood determined by apostolical succession. It was but a 
step further, and one quite natural in the circumstances, to hold, that as 
the ancient hierarchy culminated in a High Priest at Jerusalem, the capi- 
tal of Palestine, so the Christian hierarchy must have a similar culmina- 
tion in the Bishop of Rome, the capital of the world. In these and many 
similar applications of Old Testament things to the ceremonial institu- 
tions and devices of Romanism, there is a substantial perpetuation of the 
Judaizing error of apostolic times— an adherence to the oldness and car- 
nality of the letter, after the spiritual life and more elevated standing of 
the New have come. According to it, everything in Christianity, as well 
as in Judaism, is made to turn upon formal distinctions and ritual 


observances ; and that not the less because of a certain introduction of 
the higher element, as in the substitution of apostolical succession and the 
impressed character of the new priesthood, for the genealogical descent 
and family relationship of the old. Such slight alterations only affect the 
mode of getting at the outward things established, but leave the out- 
wardness itself unaffected ; they are of no practical avail in lifting Chris- 
tianity above the old Judaistic level. The whole movement was a retro- 
gradation to the weak and beggarly elements which in earlier times had 
proved the constant source of imperfection and failure, and from which 
the church of the New Testament shoidd have counted it her distinctive 
privilege to be free (Gal. v. 1). Instead of the common priesthood of 
believing souls anointed by the Spirit of holiness, and dwelling in the 
secret place of the Most High, a select priesthood of artificial distinctions 
and formal service were constituted the chief depositaries of grace and 
virtue ; instead of the simple manifestation of the truth to the heart, 
there came the muffled drapery of symbolical rites and bodily ministra- 
tions ; and for the patient endurance of evil, or the earnest endeavor to 
overcome it with good, resort was had to the violence of the sword, and 
the coercive measures of arbitrary power. Strange delusion ! As if the 
mere form and shadow of the truth were mightier than the truth itself — 
or the circumstantial adjuncts of the faith were of more worth than its 
essential attributes — or the crouching dread and enforced subjection 
of bondmen were a sacrifice to God more acceptable than the childlike 
and ready obedience of loving hearts ! Such a depravation of the spirit 
of the gospel could not fail to carry its own curse and judgment along 
with it ; and history leaves no room to doubt that, as men's views went 
out in this false direction, the tide of carnality and corruption flowed in ; 
the professed Christian theocracy, as of old the Jewish, was carried cap- 
tive by the world ; the pretended spouse became an harlot. 

"This mournful defection was descried from the outset, and in vivid 
colors was portrayed on the page of prophetic revelation, as a warning to 
the church to beware of compromising the truth of God, or attempting to 
seek the living among the dead (Dan. vii. 25 ; 2 Thess. ii. ; 1 Tim. iv. 1-3 ; 
2 Tim. nil. 1-5 ; iv. 3, 4 ; 1 John ii. 18 ; Rev. xiii. 11-18 ; xvii.). What con- 
stitutes the peculiar glory of the gospel, and should ever have been re- 
garded as forming the main secret of its strength, is the extent to which 
its tidings furnish an insight into the mind of God, and the power it con- 
fers on those who receive it to look as with open face into the realities of 
the Divine kingdom. Doing this in a manner altogether its own, it 
reaches the depths of thought and feeling in the bosom, takes possession 
of the inner man, and implants there a spirit of life, which works with 
sovereign power on the things around it, and casts aside, as being no 
longer needed, the external props and appliances that were required by 
the demands of a feebler age. For the kingdom established by the gos- 
pel is essentially spiritual— it is a kingdom of righteousness, peace and 
joy in the Holy Ghost ; and when true to itself, and conducted in harmony 


with the mind of its Divine Head, it must ever give to the spiritual the as- 
cendancy over the carnal, and look for its gradual extension and final 
triumph to the power and influence of the truth itself. The Spirit-en- 
dowed church of Christ is the true theocracy in its new, its higher,-its 
perennial form ; since it is that in which God peculiarly dwells, and with 
which He identifies His character and glory. Every individual member 
of this church, according to the proper idea of his calling, is a king and a 
priest to God ; therefore, not in bondage to the world, nor dividing be- 
tween the world and God, but recognizing God in all, honoring and obey- 
ing God, and receiving power, as a prince with God, to prevail over the 
opposition and wickedness of the world. Every particular church, in 
like manner, is, according to the idea of its calling, an organized com- 
munity of such kings and priests ; " therefore, subject, in religious and 
spiritual matters, to no earthly potentate or aristocracy, but only to the 
King of kings, feeling to be redeemed from iniquity by His precious 
blood, desiring to be found holy and without blame before Him in love, 
and praying that His kingdom should come, and His will be done on 
earth as it is Heaven. 

Protestantism, which never cast off all the fatal errors of Romanism, 
and which has been gravitating back towards Romanism ever since its 
secession in the sixteenth century, in predicating the salvation of the 
sinner upon himself instead of upon God, makes the same fundamental 
mistake in its typology as that made by the Romanists, and noticed 
above. " Its carnality is continually betraying itself in a tendency to de- 
press and lower the spiritual truths of the gospel to a conformity with the 
simple letter of Old Testament Scripture. The gospel is read not only 
through a Jewish medium, but also in a Jewish sense, and nothing but 
externals admitted in the New, wherever there is descried, in the form 
of the representation, any reference to such in the Old." The natural 
offspring of Abraham are said to represent the natural offspring of be- 
lievers; circumcision is converted into infant baptism; the authority of 
the priesthood into the authority of " Mother Church ; " the Hebrew the- 
ocracy into an alliance of church and state ; the stoning of blasphemers 
into death of heretics by torture, fire and sword ; the " fathers " and " re- 
formers " are substituted for the Rabbins ; and the lie is given to Christ, 
and inefflcacy to His finished work, by robbing the church of its sim- 
plicity and spirituality, and loading it with dead materialism, formalism, 
traditionalism, sacramentalism and hierarchism. 

One of the most fashionable Judaizing errors of the present day is 
the modern method of explaining away the New Testament doctrine of 
personal and eternal election. " The advocates of a modified Arminian- 
ism maintain that this doctrine is improperly understood of an appoint- 
ment to personal salvation and eternal life, on the special ground that 
the election of the Jewish people was only their calling as a nation to 
outward privileges and a temporal inheritance. Rightly understood, 
however, this is rather a reason why election in the Christian sense 


should be made to embrace something higher and better, like all the 
other Old Testament types. For the proper counterpart under the gos- 
pel to those external relations of Judaism is the gift of grace and the 
heirship of glory — the lower in the one case shadowing the higher in the 
other — the outward and temporal representing the spiritual and eternal. 
Even Macknight, who cannot certainly be charged with any excess of the 
spiritual element in his interpretations, perceived the necessity of making, 
as he expresses it, ' the natural seed the type of the spiritual, and the 
temporal blessings the emblems of the eternal.' Hence he justly regards 
the outward professing church in one case, with its unconditional 
■election to the earthly Canaan, as answering, in the other, to the invisi- 
ble spiritual church, consisting of believers of all nations, with its un- 
conditional election to the heavenly Canaan (Gen. xv. 18 ; Acts xiii. 48 ; 
Rom. viii. 29, 30; Eph. i. 3, 4; 1 Peter i. 1-5)."— P. Fairbairu, in Typology 
of Scripture. 

All the Old Testament is one great type and prophecy, which finds 
and will find its full accomplishment in Jesus Christ. As He told His dis- 
ciples both before and after His resurrection, "All things which were 
written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalms, con- 
cerning me, must be fulfilled" (Luke xxiv. 44). " Think not," said He, in 
His sermon on the mount, " that I am come to destroy the law or the pro- 
phets; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill" (Matt. v. 17). Said the 
angel to John, " The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Rev. 
xix. 10). " Pure gold is not found in large masses ; the value of the mass 
lies mostly in the small particles of the rich metal scattered through it." 
The golden vein of Messianic prophecy runs through the Old Testament 
Scriptures, and gives them a Divine unity ; and the New Testament, with 
the same unity, describes the fulfillment of these predictions in Jesus of 
Nazareth, The Messiah (Dan. ix. 25, 26) was to be the seed of the woman 
(Gen. iii. 15), of the family of Shem (Gen. ix. 26), Abraham (Gen. xii. 2, 3), 
Isaac (Gen. xxi. 12), Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 14), Judah (Gen. xlix. 10), Jesse 
(Isaiah xi. 1-10) and David (Jer. xxxiii. 15). He was to be preceded by a 
messenger like Elijah (Mai. iii. 1 ; iv. 5), crying in the wilderness, Prepare 
ye the way of the Lord (Isaiah xl. 3-5). He was to be born of a virgin 
(Isaiah vii. 14), in Bethlehem of Judea (Micah v. 2), just before the sceptre 
departed from Judah (Gen. xlix. 10), in the days of the fourth universal 
(Roman) empire (Daniel ii. 44), about 460 years after the issuing of the 
Persian king's decree for the restoration of Jerusalem (Daniel ix. 24-27 ; 
Numbers iv. 3; Luke iii. 23), and before the destruction of the second 
temple (Hag. ii. 6-9). (His earthly ministry must therefore have occurred 
more than 1,800 years ago ; and, if it did not occur then, the Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures must be false.) Rachel, who was buried near Bethlehem 
(Gen. xxxv. 19), was poetically represented as weeping for her slaughtered 
children (Jer. xxxi. 15), and God was to call back His Son out of Egypt 
(Hosea xi. 1). That Son was to grow up before His Father as a tender 
plant, and as a root out of a dry ground (Isaiah liii. 2). He was to be pre- 


eminently the Anointed One (Psalm ii. 2), a Prophet like Moses (Deut. 
xviii. 18), a Priest like Melehizedek (Psalm ex. 4), a King like David (Isa. 
ix. 7). He was to be the King of Zion (Psalm ii. 6; Zech. ix. 9), higher 
than the kings of the earth (Psalm lxxxix. 27), altogether lovely (Cant. v. 
16) ; the Ruler of Israel, whose going., forth have been from of old, from 
everlasting (Micah v. 2) ; the Maker, Redeemer, and Shepherd of Israel 
(Isa. liv. 5; Ezek. xxxiv. 23-31) ; the Shiloh, or Peace-Giver (Gen. xlix. 
10) ; He was to open the eyes of the blind, unstop the ears of the deaf, 
make the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing (Isa. 
xxxv. 4-6) ; He was to have the law of His God in His heart, and delight 
to do His will, and He was to preach righteousness (Psalm xl. 6-10); He was 
to be the glory of Israel, and a light to the Gentiles (Isa. xlix. 6 ; lx. 1-3) ; 
the Star of Jacob and Sceptre of Israel, who should smite His foes, and 
have dominion (Num. xxix. 17, 19) ; the Sun of Righteousness, arising, 
with healing in His wings, unto all that fear the Lord (Mai. iv. 2) ; He 
was to be the Lord of the temple, the Messenger of the covenant (Mai. 
iii. 1) ; not only the son but the Lord of David (Psalm ex. 1) ; the Son of 
man (Dan. vii. 13), and yet the Son of God (Psalm ii. 2, 7, 12) ; a man and 
yet the fellow or equal of God (Zech. xiii. 7) ; identified with God (Zech. 
xii. 10) ; Immanuel, or God with us (Isa. vii. 14) ; the Lord our Righteous- 
ness (Jer. xxiii. 6) ; the Divine Redeemer who should stand at the latter 
day upon the earth (Job xix. 25-27) ; who was to come with dyed garments, 
glorious in His apparel, traveling in the greatness of His strength, 
speaking in righteousness, mighty to save, treading the wine-press alone, 
perfectly able, without any help, to bring salvation to His redeemed, and 
to destroy all their enemies (Isa. lxiii. 1-9) ; the spiritual Zerubbabel who 
would make the great mountain a plain, lay the foundation of the Lord's 
house, and also finish it, bringing forth the headstone with shoutings of 
Grace, grace unto it (Zech. iv. 6-10) ; though a child born, a son given to 
us, yet Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, 
and the Prince of Peace, of the increase of whose government and peace 
there should be no end (Isa. ix. 6, 7) ; His name to continue as long as the 
sun, and men to be blessed in Him (Psalm lxxii. 17) ; His dominion to he 
universal and eternal (Dan. vii. 14) ; His throne to be the throne of God, 
and endure forever and ever (Psalm xlv. 6, 7) ; and yetn-wonderful, in- 
deed, according to His name— He was to be a servant of God, with visage 
more marred than any man (Isa. Iii 13, 14) ; despised and rejected of men, 
a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief (Isa. liii. 3) ; He was to come 
to Jerusalem, as a lowly king of righteousness and salvation, riding upon 
the foal of an ass (Zech. ix. 9) ; He was to be conspired against by the 
kings and rulers of the earth (Psalm ii. 2) ; though never guilty of fraud 
or violence (Isa. liii. 9), He was to be betrayed by His own familiar friend 
(Psalm xli. 9) for thirty pieces of silver, which should be given to the 
potter for a field to bury strangers in (Zech. xi. 12, 13; Jer. vii. 32, 33; 
xix.; Matt, xxvii. 3-10) ; He was to be derided by His ungodly enemies 
(Psalm xxii. 6-8) ; and, having been made a little lower than the angels 


for the suffering of death (Psalm viii. 5 ; Heb. ii. 9), and being doomed to 
have His heel bruised while He bruised the head of the serpent (Gen. iii. 
15), He was to be numbered with the transgressors (Isa. liii. 13), and 
pierced by the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, but be 
bitterly and privately mourned for by them, and open to them a fountain 
for sin and for uncleanness (Zech. xii. 10-14 ; xiii. 1) ; He was to have 
His hands and feet pierced, and His garments parted, and lots cast for 
His vesture (Psalm xxii. 16, 18) ; be given gall and vinegar to drink (Psalm 
lxix. 21) ; He was to be smitten by the sword of Divine Justice (Zech. xiii. 
7), the sun being turned into darkness (Joel ii. 31 ; Amos viii. 9 ; Acts ii. 
20) ; stricken for the transgression of His people (Isa. liii. 8) ; bruised, by 
God's appointment, for their iniquities (Isa. liii. 5) ; cut off, but not for 
Himself (Dan. ix. 26) ; make an end of sins, make reconciliation for in- 
iquity, and bring in an everlasting righteousness (Dan. ix. 24) ; make in- 
tercession for the transgressors (liii. 12) ; take from His people their fllthy 
garments and clothe them with a change of rainment, and remove their 
iniqiuty in one day (Zech. iii. 1-10) ; by the blood of His covenant send 
forth His prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water (Zech. ix. 11) ; yield 
up His" soul as an offering for sin (Isa. liii. 10) : be forsaken of His God 
(Psalm xxii. 1) ; be with the rich in His death (Isa. liii. 9) ; not to see cor- 
ruption (Psalm xvi. 10), but rise again the third day (Hos. vi. 2 ; Jonah i. 
17), prolong His days, see His seed, and the pleasure of the Lord prosper 
in His hand (Isa. liii. 10) ; see the travail of His soul, and be satisfied, and 
by His knowledge justify many, because He shall have borne their in- 
iquities (Isa. liii. 11) ; He should be as a hiding place from the wind, and 
a covert from the tempest, as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow 
of a great rock in a weary land (Isa. xxxii. 1, 2) ; He should come down 
like rain upon the mown grass, and as showers that water the earth 
(Psalm lxxii. 6) ; not cry or lift up or cause His voice to be heard in the 
street, not break a bruised reed, nor quench the smoking flax (Isa. xiii. 
1-4) ; He should purify His peopie like gold and silver, that they might 
offer to the Lord an offering in righteousness (Mai. iii. 3) ; He should be 
anointed immeasurably with the Spirit of God (as His very name, Mes- 
siah, or Christ, indicates) to preach good tidings to the meek, to bind up 
the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening 
of the prison to them that are bound, to proclaim the acceptable year of 
the Lord, and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all that 
mourn, to appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them 
beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for 
the spirit of heaviness, that they might be called trees of righteousness, 
the planting of the Lord, that He might be glorified (Isa. lxi. 1-3). 

Now reflect that these prophecies, as given by God to His people, 
were scattered through a period of about thirty-six hundred years, so 
that, if there had been any deception, it would have required the collu- 
sion of about seventy generations, and that, too, to bring about a belief 
of the human race in the most elevating spiritual blessings— a circum- 


stance utterly incredible ; remember that the Jews who persecuted Jesus 
Christ to death, and who still reject His claims, have handed down these 
prophetic writings to us as infallibly inspired of God, and are, many of 
them, to-day willing to lay down their lives, if necessary, in defense of 
such inspiration ; and then carefully read the New Testament, which was 
written more than four hundred years after the last Old Testament 
prophet ; and see how these vastly complicated and seemingly incon- 
sistent details were precisely fulfilled in the history of Jesus of Nazareth ; 
and if you have not a darkened understanding, a seared conscience, and a 
stony heart, you will prostrate your soul before the once incarnate and 
crucified but now risen and enthroned Redeemer, with the impassioned 
exclamation of Thomas— My Lord and my God ! 

As has well been said, Jesus Christ is the only key in all the universe 
that fits the infinitely complicated lock of Messianic prophecy. 

The Jewish rabbins thought some of the Messianic prophecies so in- 
consistent with others that they supposed there would be two Messiahs— 
a Messiah ben (or son of) Joseph who should suffer, and a Messiah ben 
David who should reign. But the Messianic prophecies of suffering and 
reigning are indissolubly blended. The principles of bleeding sorrow and 
holy triumph are eternally blended in Him who is at once and forever the 
Lamb and the Son of God — the vicarious sufferer and the Divine bride- 
groom of His redeemed church. (Cant. v. 10 ; Isa. liii.; liv. 5; Eph. v. 23- 
32 ; John i. 18, 29 ; Psalm ii. 7 ; Matt. xvi. 16 ; Mark xiv. 61, 62 ; Acts hi. 
13 ; Rora. i. 3, 4 ; Heb. i. 2, 3 ; 1 Peter i. 3 ; Rev. i. 5 ; xix. 7, 9, 13 ; xxii. 1). 




The shades of night recede before the approach of morning light; 
moon and stars fade away when the bright luminary of day gilds the 
eastern horizon ; and thus, when the Sun of Righteousness arose upon the 
world, the shadows, types, symbols and metaphors of the Mosaic dispen- 
sation were fulfilled and had to pass away. 

" In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All 
things were made by Him ; and without Him was not anything made that 
was made." "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us (and we 
beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of 
grace and truth." " The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth 
came by Jesus Christ" (John i. 1-3, 14, 17). 

In the days of Herod the Great, king of Judea, the angel Gabriel was 
sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin* 
espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David ; " and 
the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, 
Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with,thee : blessed art thou 
among women. And when she saw him she was troubled at his saying, 
and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the 
angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary ; for thou hast found favor with God. 
And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and 
shalt call his name Jesus. f He shall be great, and shall be called the Son 
of the Highest : and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his 

* Matthew gives, in his first chapter, the descent of Christ from David and Abraham, accord- 
ing to prophecies made about 1000 and 2000 years before, and he abridges his genealogies, as the 
Jews frequently did, giving three lists, each containing fourteen names, probably to aid the 
memory. Luke, in his third chapter, gives the descent of Christ from Adam, or "the seed of the 
woman," according to the promise made to the first pair in the garden of Eden, 4000 years before. 
Joseph, as Luke tells us (lii. 23), was not the real, but only the supposed or reputed father of 
Jesus. According to Numbers xxxvi. 8, Joseph and Mary must have been of the same tribe and 
family. It is thought that Jacob, the father of Joseph, as mentioned by Matthew, was the brother 
of Heli or Eli, mentioned, as the father of Joseph, by Xuke, and that Mary was the daughter of 
Eli : so that Joseph and Mary were first cousins, and Joseph was the son-in-law of Eli— son-in-law 
being called son by the Jews. Thus, while Matthew gives the royal or legal descent of Joseph, it 
is likely that Luke gives the natural or private descent of Mary. The Jews, in their genealogical 
tables, reckoned descent wholly by males. The bitterest early enemies of Christ did not deny His 
descent from David. Many able scholars believe that both Matthew and Luke give the genealogy 
of Joseph— Mary's descent from David being implied 

t Jews means Jehovah Savior; the reason of the name being given by the angel to Joseph in a 
dream—* ' for He shall save His people from their sins " (Matt. l. 21). 


father David : And he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever ; and 
of his kingdom there shall be no end" (Luke i. 36-33). 

And, in the fulfillment of this prediction made to Mary by the angel, 
as well as of all those made by the prophets, under the legal dispensa- 
tion, touching that event, it is written that, in obedience to a decree made 
by Csesar Augustus, taxing the Roman world, Joseph and his espoused 
wife " went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto 
the city of David, which is called Bethlehem (because he was of the house 
and lineage of David), to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being 
great with child. And so it was that, while they were there, the days 
were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth 
her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in 
a manger ; because there was no room for them in the inn. And there 
were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch 
over their flock by night. And lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, 
and the glory of the Lord shone round about them ; and they were sore 
afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not ; for, behold, I bring you 
good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is 
born this day, in the city of David, a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. 
And this shall be a sign unto you : Ye shall find the babe wrapped in 
swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the 
angel a multitude of the heavenly host, praising God, and saying, Glory 
to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men " (Luke 
ii. 1-13). The shepherds went in search of the child and found him in a 
manger, and his mother and Joseph, and then returned "glorifying and 
praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was 
told unto them." At the expiration of eight days, the child was circum- 
cised, and " his name was called Jesus, which was so named of the angel 
before he was conceived in the womb. And when the days of her purifi- 
cation, according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they brought 
him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord " (Luke ii. 16-22). 

The precise time of our Savior's birth, for some wise purpose, seems 
to have been lost sight of by chronologists. But it may be set down as 
having most probably occurred a few months before the death of Herod 
the Great, four years before the common Christian era, in the year of 
Borne 750, and in the year of the world 4000. Learned men have investi- 
gated this point, but, with all their researches, have not been able to fix 
precisely either the year or the day of His birth. The early Christians 
were divided on this subject, and of course it must be a matter of uncer- 
tainty to all succeeding generations. In view of this uncertainty, not 
■even the exact year, much less the exact month being known, how 
groundless and puerile appears the custom of the Romish and English, 
as well as other communions, in holding sacred the twenty-fifth day of 
December (new style) as the day of Christ's nativity, and adorning their 
houses of worship with flowers and evergreens as a part of their religious 
devotion on that day ! 


But the precise year, month or day in which the Sun of Righteous- 
ness arose is immaterial to the church of God. She knows that He has 
arisen — has shone upon the world, has warmed and animated the hearts 
•of His people, who have enjoyed the direction and influence of His vital 
and salutary beams. He came at the precise time and moment predeter- 
mined by the Most High God, without variation or disappointment. 
" When the fullness of the time was came, God sent forth His Son, made of 
a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, 
that we might receive the adoption of sons" (Gal. iv. 4, 5). 

The words and deeds of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ have been 
recorded by four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, holy men 
■of old, who wrote as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, and to their 
testimony we must refer for all genuine information as to the advent and 
mission of the Son of God while tenementing in clay. They inform us 
that He was taken early by His reputed father into Egypt to escape 
Herod's cruelty, and that at the age of twelve years He was found con- 
versing in the temple with the learned doctors of the law concerning the 
sublime truths of religion. 

Profane history, and not that of the evangelists, notifies us that, at 
the period of the birth of the Prince of Peace, there was peace through- 
out the Roman empire, which continued for about twelve years, and, as a 
sign of universal peace, the temple of Janus at Rome was closed, which, 
before the reign of Augustus Caesar, had not been the case since 241 B. C. 
" The external condition and surroundings of the youth of Jesus are 
in sharp contrast with the amazing result of His public life. He grew up 
quietly and unnoticed in a retired Galilean mountain village of proverbial 
insignificance, and in a lowly, carpenter-shop, far away from the city of 
Jerusalem, from schools and libraries, with no means of instruction save 
those which seemed open to the humblest Jew— the care of godly parents, 
the beauties of nature, the services of the synagogue, the secret com- 
munion of the soul with God, and the Scriptures of the Old Testament, 
which recorded in type and prophecy His own character and mission. All 
attempts to derive His doctrine from any of the existing schools and sects 
have utterly failed. He never referred to the traditions of the elders ex- 
cept to oppose them. From the Pharisees and Sadducees He differed 
alike, and provoked their deadly hostility. With the Essenes He never 
came in contact. He was independent of human learning and literature, 
of schools and parties. He taught the world as one who owed nothing to 
the world. He came down from Heaven and spoke out of the fullness of 
His personal intercourse with the great Jehovah. Wiser than all sages, 
He spake as never man spake, and made an impression on His age and 
on all ages after Him such as no man ever made or can make."— P. Schaff, 
in History of Christian Church. His matchless teaching forms the clear, 
brief, powerful text of all Christian doctrine. ' ' His short ministry of three 
years," says Mr. Leckey, the infidel historian of European Morals, " has 
produced a more deep and lasting impression on the human race tlian all the 


disquisitions of all the philosophers, and all the exhortations of all the mor- 
alists that ever lived.' 1 '' 

" Hillel and Shammai and other eminent rabbins of this period," says 
Mr. W. G. Blaikie, in his Manual of Bible History, " were probably alive 
when Christ came into the world; some of them may have been among 
those with whom the child Jesus conversed in the temple ; and they, 
or their successors, must have exercised influence in His rejection and 
death. There could not have been a greater contrast than that between 
their worship of traditions and Christ's reverence for the Word ; between 
their theory of changing men by an influence from without, and Christ's 
by a power from within; between the vain, trifling inquiries on which 
their teachings bore, and the grand realities of life and death which 
Christ's constantly contemplated; between their pride, formality and 
contemptuous spirit, and Christ's humility, simplicity and love." 

From His twelfth to His thirtieth year nothing is said of His his- 
tory by the evangelists. But when about thirty years of age, the period 
when the Jewish priests entered the sacred office, they inform us that He 
came unto John the Baptist to be baptized by him. John at first refused 
to administer the rite to Him, urging his great inferiority, but the Savior 
insisted, and John at length yielded and baptized Him in the river Jor- 
dan. After being baptized He "went up straightway out of the water: 
and, lo, the Heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of 
God descending like a dove, and lighting upon Him : and, lo, a voice from 
Heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased " 
(Matt. iii. 13-17). 

God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, was present on that occasion to 
honor the sacred rite of baptism and set apart the Messiah for the work of 
the gospel ministry. This office He then took upon Himself, and hence- 
forward proclaimed the principles of the gospel kingdom till the time of 
His crucifixion. John was the forerunner of Jesus ; he was filled with 
the Holy Ghost from his mother's womb — his name came from Heaven, 
and his authority to baptize came from there also. The evangelists call 
Mm " John the Baptist." The Savior, having been baptized by him, was 
surely a "Baptist," and as He went forth preaching His own gospel He 
was necessarily a " Baptist preacher," thereby affording an example for 
all His ministerial followers to the end of the world. And here is where 
the Baptists came from. An unbaptized person has no Bible right to 
preach the gospel. 

The birth of John was announced to his father by an angel from 
Heaven, and it was miraculous, because his mother was barren and his 
father, Zacharias, a Jewish priest, was well stricken in years. To further 
strengthen his faith in the heavenly promise, he was made dumb until his 
child was born and named. 

It was a custom of eastern princes, in their visits to distant nations, 
to send heralds or messengers before them to notify the people in advance 
of their coming. Our Savior, the Prince of Peace, King of kings, and 


Lord of lords, sent His messenger before His face, both in His birth and 
ministerial character, six months in advance. 

" The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God ; As it 
is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, 
which shall prepare thy way before thee. The voice of one crying in the 
wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make His paths straight. 
John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance 
for the remission of sins " (Mark i. 1-4). He taught the coming of Christ 
and the setting up of His gospel kingdom on earth. He pointed to Christ, 
saying, "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the 
world" (John i. 29). " Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius 
Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch 
of Galilee, and his brother Philip being tetrarch of Iturea and of the 
region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and 
Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John, the 
son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. And he came into all the country 
about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of 
sins ; as it is written in the book of the words of Esaias* the prophet, 
saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of 
the Lord, make His paths straight. Every valley shall be filled, and every 
mountain and hill shall be brought low, and the crooked shall be made 
straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth ; and all flesh shall 
see the salvation of God" (Luke iii. 1-6). 

Filled with the Holy Ghost from before his birth, what a blessed, un- 
worldly, unselfish and faithful servant of Christ was John the Baptist! 
He disdained the luxuries and smiles of men ; he fearlessly rebuked, not 
only the Scribes and Pharisees and soldiers, but even king Herod, for 
their sins ; and he pointed men away from himself to Christ as the sin- 
atoning Lamb of God. The embodiment and culmination of the Old Test- 
ament, he labored for a short season, and then " in unrivalled humility 
he disappeared as the red dawn in the splendor of the rising Sun of the 
new covenant." 

While Christ was to increase, John was to decrease. He was be- 
headed in prison by the cruel monster Herod, in order to please a dancing 
damsel and her blood-thirsty mother ; and his followers for the most part 
attached themselves afterwards to Christ and His Apostles. 

The followers of the Savior were few in number during His life to 
what they were soon after His resurrection and ascension to glory. He 
sent out his twelve Apostles first to preach, and then seventy disciples, 
afterwards, but their success appeared to be very limited as to the acqui- 
sition of numbers. The number twelve appears to refer to the twelve 
patriarchs, and the number seventy to the seventy elders under the Jew- 
ish dispensation ; and teach that the former were to be superseded by the 

Jesus called to Him whomsoever He would, and thus set up His gos- 

* JEmias is the Greek form of the Hebrew namt Isaiab. 


pel kingdom in the world. From among the number of His adherents, 
He ordained twelve to attend His ministry in person, to become witnesses 
of His miracles, of His doctrine and sufferings, and, by occupying twelve 
thrones as judges of the twelve tribes of Israel, spiritually, to hand down 
to the latest period of time, to all succeeding generations, the principles 
of the gospel kingdom that He came to set up. 

As Apostles they have had no successors, and therefore all matters of 
faith and practice must be referred to them ; that is, to their inspired 
writings. They received their instructions from the Savior. He com- 
manded them to teach and baptize the people who believed in Him, and 
then to teach them to observe all things whatsoever he had commanded 
them (Matt, xxviii. 19, 20). As also saith the prophet, "Behold, a king 
shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment" (Isaiah 
xxxii. 1). The names of the twelve Apostles were " Simon, who is called 
Peter, and Andrew his brother ; James the son of Zebedee, and John his 
brother; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publi- 
can ; James the son of Alpheus ; Lebbeus, whose surname was Thaddeus; 
Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him" 
<Matt. x. 2-4). 

"During His ministry He had no home, no earthly possessions, no 
friends among the mighty and the rich. A few pious women from time 
to time filled his purse ; and this purse was in the hands of a thief and a 
traitor. He associated with publicans and sinners, to raise them up to a 
higher and nobler life, and began His work among the lower classes 
which were despised and neglected by the proud hierarchy of the day. 
He never courted the favor of the great, but incurred their hatred and 
persecution. He never nattered the prejudices of the age, but rebuked 
sin and vice among the high and the low, aiming His severest words at 
the blind leaders of the blind, the self-righteous hypocrites who sat in 
Moses' seat. He never encouraged the carnal Messianic hopes of the peo- 
ple, but withdrew when they wished to make Him a king, and declared 
before the representative of the Roman empire that His kingdom was 
not of this world. He announced to His disciples His own martyrdom, 
and promised to them in this life only the same baptism of blood. He 
went about in Palestine, often weary of travel, but never weary of His 
work of love, doing good to the souls and bodies of men, speaking words 
of spirit and life, and working miracles of power and mercy. He chose 
for Himself the humblest of the Messianic titles, ' the Son of Man,' which 
implies His consciousness that He was originally more than man and is 
now more than man, having come as man among men in a condition of 
temporary humiliation, while at the same time the title imples His unique 
position as the ideal, the perfect, the representative, the archetypal Man. 
He calls Himself habitually, but no one else, ' the Son of Man,' who ' hath 
not where to lay His head,' who ' came not to be ministered unto but to 
minister, and to give His life a ransom for many,' who ' hath power to for- 
give sins,' who ' came to seek and to save that which was lost.' When 


Peter made the great confession at Csesarea Philippi, Christ accepted it, 
but immediately warned Mm of His approacing suffering and death, from 
which the disciple shrunk in dismay. And with the certain expectation 
of His crucifixion, but also of His triumphant resurrection on the third 
day, He entered in calm and sublime fortitude on His last journey to 
Jerusalem which ' killeth the prophets,' and nailed Him to the cross as a 
false Messiah and blasphemer. But in the infinite wisdom and mercy of 
God the greatest crime in history was turned into the greatest blessing 
to mankind." — P. Schaff. 

As says the learned John L. Mosheim : " It is not necessary to enter 
into a detail of the life and actions of Jesus Christ. All Christians must 
be perfectly acquainted with them. They must know that, during the 
space of three years, and amidst the deepest trials of affliction and dis- 
tress, He instructed the Jewish nation in the will and counsels of the Most 
High, and omitted nothing in the course of His ministry that could 
(righteously) contribute to gain the multitude or to charm the wise. 
Every one knows that His life was a continued scene of perfect sanctity, 
of the purest and most active virtue, not only without spot, but also be- 
yond the reach of suspicion — the only perfectly wise, perfectly sinless, 
and perfectly benevolent being that ever walked this earth, according to 
the unanimous acknowledgment of the human race ; and it is also well 
known that, by miracles of the most stupendous kind, and not more stu- 
pendous than salutary and beneficent, He displayed to the universe the 
truth of that religion which He brought with Him from above, and 
demonstrated in the most illustrious manner the reality of His Divine 

" As this system of religion was to be propagated to the extremities 
of the earth, it was necessary that Christ should choose a certain number 
of persons to accompany Him constantly through the whole course of His 
ministry ; that thus they might be faithful and respectable witnesses of 
the sanctity of His life, and the grandeur of His miracles, to the remotest 
nations, and also transmit to the latest posterity a genuine account of His 
sublime doctrines, and of the nature and end of the gospel dispensation. 
Therefore Jesus chose, out of the multitude that attended His discourses, 
twelve persons whom He separated from the rest by the name of Apostles. 
These men were illiterate, poor, and of mean extraction ; and such alone 
were truly proper to answer His views. He avoided making use of the 
ministry of persons endowed with the advantages of fortune and birth, 
or enriched with the treasures of eloquence and learning, lest the fruits of 
this embassy and the progress of the gospel should be attributed to • 
human and natural causes (1 Cor. i. 21). These Apostles were sent but 
once to preach to the Jews during the life of Christ (Matt. x. 7) . He chose 
to keep them about His own person, that they might be thoroughly in- 
structed in the affairs of His kingdom. That the multitude, however, 
anight not be destitute of teachers to enlighten them with the knowledge 


of the truth, Christ appointed seventy disciples to preach the glad tidings 
of eternal life throughout the whole province of Judea (Luke x. 1). 

"The ministry of Jesus was (principally) confined to the Jews, nor 
while He remained upon earth did He permit His Apostles or disciples to 
extend their labors beyond this distinguished nation (Matt. x. 5, 6 ; xv. 
24). At the same time, if we consider the illustrious acts of mercy and 
omnipotence that were performed by Christ, it will be natural to conclude 
that His fame must have been very soon spread abroad in other countries. 

" A great number of the Jews, influenced by those illustrious marks 
of Divine authority and power which shone forth in the ministry and 
actions of Christ, regarded Him as the Son of God, the true Messiah. 
The rulers of the people, and more especially the chief priests and Phari- 
sees, whose licentiousness and hypocrisy He censured with a noble and 
generous freedom, labored with success by the help of their passions to 
extinguish in their breasts the conviction of His celestial mission, or at 
least to suppress the effects it was adapted to produce upon their conduct. 
Fearing also that His ministry might tend to diminish their credit, and to 
deprive them of the advantages they derived from the impious abuse of 
their authority in religious matters, they laid snares for His life, which 
for a considerable time were without effect. They succeeded at last by 
the infernal treason of an apostate disciple, by the treachery of Judafc, 
who, discovering the retreat which his Divine Master had chosen for the 
purposes of meditation and repose, delivered Him into the merciless 
hands of a brutal soldiery. 

" In consequence of this, Jesus was produced as a criminal before the 
Jewish high priest and Sanhedrim, being accused of having violated the 
law and blasphemed the majesty of God. Dragged thence to the tribunal 
of Pilate, the Konian praetor, he was charged with seditious enterprises 
and with treason against Csesar. Both these accusations were so evi- 
dently false, and destitute even of every appearance of truth, that they 
must have been rejected by any judge who acted upon the principles of 
common equity. But the clamor of an enraged populace, influenced by 
the impious instigations of their priests and rulers, intimidated Pilate, 
and engaged him, though with the utmost reluctance, and in opposition 
to the dictates of his conscience, to pronounce a capital sentence against 
Christ. The Redeemer of mankind behaved with inexpressible dignity 
under this heavy trial. As the end of His mission was to make expiation 
for the sins of men, so when all things were ready, and when He had fin- 
ished the work of His glorious ministry, He placidly submitted to the 
death of the cross, and, with a serene and voluntary resignation, com- 
mitted His spirit into the hands of the Father. — 

" After Jesus had remained three days in the sepulchre he resumed 
that life which He had voluntarily laid down ; and, rising from the dead, 
declared to the universe, by that triumphant act, that the Divine justice 
■was satisfied, and the paths of salvation and immortality were rendered 
accessible to the human race. He conversed with His disciples during 


forty days after His resurrection, and employed that time in instructing 
them more fully with regard to the nature of His kingdom. Many wise 
and important reasons prevented His showing Himself publicly at Jeru- 
salem to confound the malignity and unbelief of His enemies. He con- 
tented Himself by manifesting the certainty of His glorious resurrection 
to a sufficient number of faithful and credible witnesses, being aware 
that, if He should appear in public, those malicious unbelievers, who had 
formerly attributed His miracles to the power of magic, would represent 
His resurrection as a phantom, or vision, produced by the influence of in- 
fernal powers. After having remained upon earth during the space of 
time above mentioned, and given to His disciples a Divine commission 
to preach the glad tidings of salvation and immortality to the human 
race, He ascended into Heaven in their presence, and resumed the en- 
joyment of that glory which He had possessed before the worlds were 

The crucifixion of our Lord and Savior was a matter of as much cer- 
tainty and necessity as His birth. Both were included in the great de- 
sign to save poor fallen man, and the former as well as the latter, being 
known and determined by the Almighty from everlasting, was spread 
upon the pages of Divine revelation thousands of years before its actual 
fulfillment ; as proved by the animal sacrifices offered up by spiritual 
worshipers for forty centuries before His coming, and by the numerous 
Messianic prophecies that we have cited at the close of Chapter VI., and 
by Acts iv. 26-28. 

It was of necessity therefore that this man had somewhat also to offer 
as the great High Priest of spiritual Israel, made after the order of Mel- 
chizedek, and not after the order of Aaron. 

Jesus was taken by the Eoman soldiers from the judgment-hall of 
Pontius Pilate and carried to Calvary, or Golgotha, a low, rounded, bare 
hill outside the north gate of Jerusalem. There was He nailed to the 
cross and elevated above the earth, as a spectacle to angels and men. The 
crucifixion took place on Friday, most probably April 6th, A. D. 30. Christ 
hung upon the cross from 9 A. m. to 3 p. m., at which hour He died. Prom 
the sixth to the ninth hour (which corresponds with our time from 12 noon 
to 3 p. m.) there was darkness over all the land. About the ninth hour (3 
p. m.) He cried with a loud voice, " Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani 9 that is to 
say, My &od, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me ?" And when He had 
cried with a loud voice, " It is finished !" " Father, into Thy hands I com- 
mend my Spirit," He yielded up the ghost. "And, behold, the veil of the 
temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom ; and the earth did 
quake, and the rocks rent ; and the graves were opened ; and many bodies 
of the saints which slept arose, and came out of the graves after His resur- 
rection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many " (Matthew 
xxvii. 46-53 ; John xix. 30 ; Luke xxiii. 46). 

The crucifixion of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ was the most 
memorable and wonderful event in the history of the world. The re- 


demption of countless millions of the human race depended on it, and 
without it there was salvation for none. Yet the dark deed of judicial 
murder, instigated by the malignity of the Jews, was rebuked by the ab- 
sent rays of the bright luminary of Heaven, when darkness covered the 
earth for three dreary, doleful hours on that memorable day.* He laid 
down His life as a propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of His people, and 
remained a captive to death from Friday, the Jews' preparation day, till 
Sunday, the first day of the week, being the day succeeding their Sabbath. 
On Sunday morning He burst the bonds of death, and arose a mighty 
conqueror over death, hell and the grave, and in about forty days as- 
cended to His Father's right hand, leading captivity captive and receiving 
gifts for men. The same body that was crucified was buried ; the same 
body that was buried arose from the grave ; and the same body that arose 
from the grave was glorified, and is now seated on the mediatorial throne 
at the right hand of God, in Divine composure until His enemies be made 
His footstool, and until the consummation of all things, when He shall 
again come to gather His ransomed people home, and take vengeance on 
them that know not God. 

The object of His mission to earth was to save sinners by the sacri- 
fice of Himself, and to inculcate upon the minds of men the great method 
of redemption. 

If Jesus was, as even infidelity admits, the Sun of Righteousness, then 
He was what He professed to be, the Son of God. Upon this all-important 
point infinite reason could not be deceived, and infinite holiness could 
not deceive others. All hypotheses representing Jesus as a mere man 
have refuted and destroyed each other. "He learned nothing from 
human teachers. His wisdom was not of this world. He needed no vi- 
sions and revelations like the prophets and Apostles. He came directly 
from His great Father in Heaven, and when He spoke of Heaven, He spoke 
of His familiar home. He spoke from the fullness of God dwelling in 
Him. And His words were perfectly verified by His unapproachable 
deeds." — P. Schaff, in "History of Christian Church.' 1 '' 

His doctrine comprehended the nature and perfections of God, the 
Father, and that He and the Father were one — the misery of fallen man — 
a declaration of His own character as the Son of God and the promised 
Messiah — the design of His mission into this world, which was to save His 
people from their sins, who were the gift of the Father to Him — the im- 
possibility of their perishing or being plucked out of His hand — His 
eternal union with them as their covenant or chosen Head — His giving 

* This darkness could not have been an ordinary eclipse of the sun, which is caused by the 
coming of the moon between the sun and earth, and never lasts, in its totality, more than eight 
minutes; because Christ was crucified at the Jewish Passover, which was alwavs when the moon 
was full, and therefore on -the opposite side of the earth from the sun, and the darkness lasted 
three hours. The darkness at Christ's death was nature's sympathy with her suffering Lord. As 
the glory of the Lord shone around the scene, of His birth (Luke li. 9), so a pall of darkness was 
fitly spread over His dying scene. Amos (viii. 9) predicted that the sun would go down at noon, 
and the earth be darkened m the clear day. The darkness might precede and accompany the earth- 
quake that took place on the same occasion ; for darkness almost nocUirnal, arising from sulphure- 
ous vapors, often precedes an earthquake. Both the darkness and the earthquake at Christ's cru- 
cifixion were no doubt supernatural. 


them repentance and remission of sins— the divinely-given immortality 
of the soul— the resurrection from the dead— the certainty of a future 
state of rewards and punishments— the necessity of a preached gospel to 
all nations— His appointment by God Almighty to judge the world in 
righteousness at the last day, and the certain assurance that the Holy 
Ghost, the Comforter, shall abide with His church forever. 

" Christ's ethical teaching shines most brightly in those points where 
other systems fail, namely, the truthfulness of inward cleansing, the 
majesty of lowliness, and the glory of love."— T. D. Bernard. 

" In His doctrine He rescued the moral law from the false glosses im- 
posed upon it by the Scribes and Pharisees ; unfolded its spirituality and 
extent, as requiring perfect love to God and man; and enforced its indis- 
pensable obligation upon all men as the rule of their correspondence with 
God ; declaring that He Himself came not to abrogate or annul one tittle, 
but to fulfill its utmost requirements by His own obedience and con- 
formity thereunto, and adopting it as the unalterable law of His king- 
dom, which is to regulate the conduct of His disciples to the end of time." 
— W. Jones. 

The judicial, civil, or political law was intended by God for the 
special government of the ancient Hebrew nation. The ceremonial or 
Levitical law was a preflguration of the gospel, in types and shadows, and 
was completely fulfilled and ended by Christ. The decalogue, or ten 
commandments, or moral law, was audibly spoken by the voice of God 
from Mount Sinai, was written by His finger on two tables of stone, and 
was perpetually preserved in the Ark of the Covenant, the innermost 
shrine of the tabernacle and temple. It was perfectly kept by Christ for 
His people both actively and passively, He doing all that the moral law 
required them to do, and suffering death, the penalty of their violation of 
the moral law ; so that there is no condemnation to them who are in Christ 
Jesus. Those who are in Christ Jesus have His Spirit of life and love in 
them ; and they have not only in their minds, but also written in their 
hearts, the same holy spiritual law that He fulfilled, so that they delight 
in that law after the inward man, and serve God in newness of spirit and 
not in the oldness of the letter, from a principle, not of bondage, but of 
love. As they have been made free by the Son of God, and are free in- 
deed—not to sin, but to love — and, as where the Spirit of the Lord is there 
is liberty, the perfect moral law of God is to them a perfect law of liberty ; 
and the blessed precepts of the gospel are but the Divine expansion and 
efflorescence of the same holy law, based upon the powerful new motive 
of the atoning love of Jesus. The oldest Baptist Articles of Faith declare 
that the moral law is a compendious " rule of life for the Christian ;" so 
did the ablest and soundest Baptist ministers before the nineteenth cen- 
tury. But in the present century some speakers and writers deny that 
the moral law is a rule of life, and affirm that the precepts of the gospel 
only are such a rule ; and these people have been stigmatized by others as 
Antinomians, or opposed to the law. The question as to whether the 


moral law or the preceptive part of the New Testament is the Christian's 
rule of life is what Paul calls a " vain and unprofitable strife about words, 
whereof come envy, railings, and evil surmisings, and which we are to 
avoid" (Titus iii. 9 ; 1 Tim. vi. 4). The law within the heart of Christ 
(Psalm, xl. 6-8 ; Heb. x. 5-7) is not inferior to, but is the same as, the law 
written in the hearts of His covenant people (Jer. xxxi. 31-34 ; Heb. x. 16, 
17). A holy, perfect and unchangeable God makes at all times the same 
moral requirements of His creatures. According to the Scriptures, love- 
supreme love of God and love of our neighbor as ourselves — was the 
essence of the Sinaitic moral law, and is the essence of Christianity, so that 
there is no difference between the Old and New Testament Divine Moral 
Standards. This fact is absolutely demonstrated by the following Scrip- 
tures : Exodus xx. 6 ; Lev. xix. 18 ; Deut. vi. 5 ; Psalms i. 1-3 ; xxxvii. 31 ; 
xl. 6-8 ; cii. 27 ; cxix. 29, 32, 45, 165, 174 ; Jer. xxxi. 33, 34 ; Matt. v. 17, 19 ; 
xxii. 36-40 ; John xv. 12 ; Rom. iii. 31 ; vii. 12, 14, 16, 22 ; xiii. 10 ; 1 Cor. ix. 
21 ; xiii. 1-13 ; James i. 17; ii. 8; 1 John iv. 21. Christ was the only man 
that ever perfectly fulfilled the holy law of God, loving God supremely and 
Mis neighbor as Himself ; and the entire eternal salvation of His church is 
based upon His perfect obedience of the Divine law (Rom. v. 19-21 ; Gal. iii. 
13). Yet all the children of God are led by the same Holy Spirit of obedi- 
ence (Rom. viii. 14 ; Gal. iv. 6 ; Psalm xxiii. 3) ; not able, while in the 
flesh, to obey the moral law or the gospel precepts perfectly (Rom. iii. 20; 
1 John i. 8), and reposing all their hope of Heaven upon the perfect 
obedience of Christ (Rom. v. 2 ; 1 Cor. i. 30; Col. i. 5, 27). 

In the teaching and mediation of Christ was laid the foundation of 
Christianity, the principles of which were to be elucidated and made 
abundantly manifest by the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pen- 
tecost, who was to enlighten the understanding of His disciples and bring 
to their remembrance all things whatsoever that He had said unto them 
(John xiv. 26). 

Before the crucifixion of Christ He directed His Apostles to tarry in 
Jerusalem until they were endued with power from on high (Luke xxiv. 
49). Accordingly, they did so, and were found together in one place in 
Jerusalem, at the end of seven times seven days after His resurrection, 
and ten days after His ascension, viz., the Apostles and one hundred and 
twenty disciples, when " suddenly there came a sound from Heaven, as 
of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sit- 
ting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues, like as of fire, sit- 
ting upon each of them, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and 
began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance " 
(Acts ii. 2-4). Instantaneously light broke in upon their understandings. 
Their old apprehension of a natural kingdom being set up in the world 
by their Lord vanished away ; its true spiritual character was immedi- 
ately revealed to them, and, although ignorant and unlearned, as touch- 
ing all human sciences, they rose and addressed the vast multitudes that 
assembled on the occasion from various parts of the world, declaring the 


-wonderful works of God, with great precision, in many different lan- 
guages of earth. ! 

Such a miraculous display of Divine power brought many thousands 
together to toehold it, and three thousand of them, toeing quickened into 
Divine life toy the Spirit of God (John xvi. 7-11) believed the preaching 
of the Apostles and were added to the number in one day. Thus the 
mother church was fairly set up in Jerusalem, from which all others 
sprang. It was a Baptist church, composed of baptized believers ; be- 
cause all who believed, and made a profession of their faith, were bap- 
tized straightway. None others were received into fellowship and com- 
munion. And here is where the Baptists came from. 

The Apostles and primitive saints were endowed with a holy bold- 
ness, and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit went in all directions, 
preaching the gospel of the kingdom. They stood in no fear of man, but 
feared God, and, at the risk of their lives, determined to serve Him. 
They planted churches after the pattern of the one at Jerusalem, and they 
were independent bodies, distinct from each other, though all of the same 
faith and order. -Each was a little "republic"* within itself, governed 
by the rudiments of Christ and not of the world. After the Apostles came 
pastors and deacons as officers in the churches. Such was the evidence of 
Divine authority attending the doctrine and labors of the Apostles and 
early ministers of the gospel that large numbers were added to the 
churches, and the interest was so great that some concluded they had 
turned the world upside down (Acts xvii. 6). In this respect it might be 
inferred that they did greater things than their Master (John xiv. 13). 

The success which attended the first publication of the gospel is 
very beautifully described in the book of Kevelation (vi. 1, 2) by a 
vision which the Apostle had of the Lamb opening the first seal. "And 
I saw," says he, " and behold a white horse ; and he that sat on him had 
a bow ; and a crown was given unto him ; and he went forth conquering, 
and to conquer." The history of the Apostles and first preachers affords 
a striking comment on these words, at the same time that it illustrates to 
us an ancient prediction concerning the Messiah (Psalm ex. 2, etc.) ; for 
now we see the standard of Christ first erected as an ensign to the 
nations ; from hence went forth the rod of His strength, by which he 
ruled in the midst of His enemies, and (from that time, or) in that day of 
His power the willing nations submitted to Him cheerfully, and " numer- 
ous as drops of morning dew." Here indeed was the kingdom set up, 
which was to stand forever ; as saith the prophet ; " In the days of these 
kings shall the God of Heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be 
destroyed : and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall 
break in pieces and consume all other kingdoms, and it shall stand for- 
ever" (Daniel ii. 44). And here is where the Baptists came from. On 

* This is the term used by Edward Gibbon, in the famous fifteenth chapter of his ' ' History of 
the Decline and FaU of the Roman Empire," to designate each one of the primitive churches. So 
uninspired historian has ever surpassed Gibbon in accuracy of statement. 


the day of Pentecost three thousand were added to the number of the 
disciples ; and, on the day the cripple who lay at the gate of the temple 
was healed, five thousand were numbered among the believers. And all 
this conquest made by grace was made in direct opposition to earthly 
powers, both Jew and Gentile. 

If the religion of Christ prevailed in its infancy against the wishes 
and persecutions of the combined powers of earth, why should it not do so 
now, when it has spread its roots with the growth of eighteen centuries 1 
Is God Almighty more dependent on men now than He was then to carry 
on the work of evangelization ? Some would have us believe so, who go 
about begging the unconverted world (which belongs to Satan's kingdom) 
to give them funds sufficient to break down their master's kingdom and 
convert the world to God ! This is setting up Satan to cast out Satan, 
thereby dividing his own kingdom, and exalting him above the Almighty. 
How preposterous ! 

The Apostles for some considerable time executed the different offices 
of Apostle, Elder and Deacon ; the former, or highest office in the Chris- 
tian church, being evidently considered as including fivery inferior one. 
But when a murmuring among the Grecians against the Hebrews was 
heard, because some of their widows were neglected in the daily minis- 
trations, then the Apostles decided to call the church together, and have 
men chosen whose chief duty it should be to serve tables, and see that 
none were neglected in the daily ministrations. By donations made to 
the Apostles for that purpose, a fund had been raised to purchase food 
for the poor of the church, and there were two classes who received the 
benefit of it, viz. : first, those Jews, called Hebrews, who lived in Judea 
and worshiped in the synagogues at Jerusalem and its vicinity, in the use 
of the Hebrew and Chaldee languages; and secondly, those Jews who 
lived outside Judea, and who had been accustomed chiefly to the use of 
the Greek language, into which the Old Testament Scriptures had been 
translated (the version which we now call the Septuagint), and which had 
been for some time in common use, previous to the coming of Christ, in 
all the Jewish synagogues dispersed throughout the cities beyond the 
limits of Judea. These last were called Hellenists or Grecians ; and of 
them it would appear that many were at that time, in Jerusalem, members 
of the church. The church came together and chose seven men, full of wis- 
dom and the Holy Ghost, to attend to this matter, and thereby allow the 
Apostles liberty to devote their time wholly to prayer and the ministry of 
the word. They chose Stephen and Philip and Prochorus and Nicanor, 
Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch (Acts vi.). Some 
of them (probably all) were occasionally engaged in preaching the gospel, 
but this was no part of their office of Deacons (if this was the Deaconship), 
the latter being restricted to the serving of tables or ministering to the 
wants of the poor. 

Stephen was soon stoned to death. When the worshipers of Moses 
could not cope with him in argument, they could outdo him with stones, 


and resorted to the ancient and modern custom of killing those whom 
they could not convince. Stephen was a heretic of course in the estimation 
of these Solomons, and therefore he must not be rejected, as Paul afterward 
advised in the case of heretics, hut must be slain by virtue of a decree of 
the Jewish Sanhedrim. This servant of God died as did his Master, pray- 
ing for his murderers, and yielding up his spirit unto God who gave it. 
Saul of Tarsus was there aiding and abetting in this fanatical fury. He 
held the clothes of the young men who stoned Stephen ; and this so whet- 
ted his appetite for blood that he persecuted the faithful followers of 
Jesus in all directions, dragging them to prison and to death, both men 
and women. The field of his cruelty seemed to expand as his business, 
prospered, and he persecuted them in cities remote from Jerusalem. In 
the meanwhile the disciples, in obedience to the command of their Lord 
and Master, yielded to the storm, and dispersed themselves among the 
cities of Jndea and Samaria. Philip went down to the city of Samaria, 
and preached Christ among the inhabitants with great success. The sec- 
ond church was formed there. He also preached to an Ethiopian eunuch 
on his way home from Jerusalem, and baptized him upon a profession of 
his faith in Christ. The Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, while the 
eunuch went on his way rejoicing ; thereby fulfilling the prediction of the- 
Psalmist, " Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands unto God " (Psalm lxviii. 
31). Saul of Tarsus was of Jewish parents, both father and mother. His 
father was of the tribe of Benjamin, and a freeman of Rome. He was- 
liberally educated. The rudiments he received in his native city, which 
was a rival of Athens and Alexandria in learning ; and he then completed 
his studies in Jerusalem at the feet of Gamaliel, a noted doctor of the law 
of Moses and the traditions of the Elders. 

The three highest elements of human nobility met in Saul— Roman 
citizenship, Grecian culture, and Hebrew religion. He had, even by 
nature, a mind of the highest order, and a spirit of extraordinary mold. 
As Moses was learned in the wisdom of the Egyptians, so Paul was- 
learned in the wisdom of the Greeks ; being one of the "not many wise 
men called" to the service of Christ (1 Cor. i. 26). And a wonderful en- 
ergy, resolution, zeal, fearlessness, sincerity, morality and devotion to 
the Mosaic law characterized him. Next to the fall of man and the cru- 
cifixion of Christ, no incident occupies so much space in the Scriptures- 
as the conversion of Saul of Tarsus. Besides being referred to several 
times in Paul's epistles, it is related three times in the Acts of the Apos- 
tles (chapters ix., xxii. and xxvi.) ; first by Luke, the historian, then by 
Paul to the Jews, and then by Paul to the Gentiles ; and, next to the sin 
of Adam and the death of Christ, no other event in human history is so 
full of spiritual instruction. If no other conversion had been described in 
the Bible, and if no explicit statement of doctrine had been made, the 
simple record of the Divine and instantaneous and total transformation 
of the bitterest enemy to the most devoted servant of Christ on earth 
would have perfectly demonstrated, and written, as it were, upon the? 


Heavens, in letters of living light, the sovereignty, the almightiness and 
irresistibility of the grace of God in the conviction and conversion of 
the sinner. By the operation of this efficacious grace, the persecuting 
Pharisee, who xoas all the while a chosen vessel unto God, became the life- 
long martyr of Jesus of Nazareth ; and, next to incarnate Deity, Paul be- 
came—far more truly than Julius Cassar— " the foremost man of all this 
-world "—the most richly endowed with the Spirit of God to proclaim the 
- unsearchable riches of Christ to all the coming generations of the human 
race, the great Apostle of the Gentile world, the humblest as well as the 
most learned of the Apostles, the unselfish moral hero of humanity, the 
dauntless champion of Divine sovereignty and spiritual religion, the 
greatest laborer and sufferer and witness for Christ that ever appeared 
in the annals of time, not only preaching but living Christ " as the source 
and end of his whole being," and surpassing all other men (excepting 
John) in the heights of spirituality and holiness to which he attained. 
About two-thirds of the Acts of the Apostles are devoted to his career ; 
and he himself wrote nearly one-third of the New Testament. All the 
greatness of Paul was due to the efficacious grace of God (1 Cor. xv. 10) ; 
and one of the most striking effects of that grace was to make him feel 
to be " the least of the Apostles " (1 Cor. xv. 9) ; and, later in life, instead 
of feeling that he was getting better, he uses a still stronger expression 
of humility, and calls himself " less than the least of all saints " (Eph. iii. 
8) ; and, still later in life, he felt constrained to confess himself " the 
chief of sinners''' 1 (1 Tim. i. 15). Like John the Baptist, he could say of 
Christ, " He must increase, but I must decrease " (John iii. 30). Abandon- 
ing the name Saul (meaning in Hebrew ashed, and in Greek conceited), 
the proudest name in the tribe of Benjamin, he wears the Roman or Gen- 
tile name Paul (meaning little); and he continued, all his life long, to 
grow less in his own esteem, while Christ, the hope of glory, grew greater 
•within him. The humblest in the kingdom of Heaven is the greatest, said 
our Lord (Matt, xviii. 4) ; and we know that no one was ever more meek 
and lowly, or ever more great than He (Matt. xi. 39; Philip, ii. 6-11). 
Poverty of spirit is the first beatitude (Matt. v. 3) ; and there is no richer 
or lovelier sign of grace (Num. xii. 3 ; Job xlii. 6 ; Psalms viii. 2 ; xxxiv. 18 ; 
li. 17 ; Isa. lvii. 15 ; lxi. 1 ; lxvi. 2 ; Jer. xxxi. 9, 18-20 ; Dan. v. 21, 22 ; Micah 
vi. 8; Matt. xi. 25; Luke iv. 18; xviii. 9-14; James i. 10; ii. 5; iv. 9, 10). 

The reality of the life and conversion of Paul, and the genuineness of 
lis leading epistles, are unavoidably and frankly acknowledged by the 
most destructive and infidel historical critics of Germany. While those 
rationalists futilely attempt to prove that our canonical Gospels were all 
written in the second century of the Christian era, and are only corrupted 
copies of the originals, they admit that Paul's epistles, especially those to 
the Romans, the Corinthians and Galatians (containing all the most im- 
portant truths of Christianity), were certainly written by Paul in the first 
century ; and that Paul himself was suddenly converted from a perse- 
cutor to a preacher of the Christian religion. Nothing but the feeblest 


credulity can believe that this great change in such a mind as Paul's was 
produced by a flash of lightning and his imagination. 

We will now notice the circumstances of the conversion of Saul of 
Tarsus, and of Cornelius the Roman centurion, the first described in the 
ninth and the second in the tenth chapter of Acts, as these are good ex- 
amples of what are called the two classes of Christian conversion. 

Saul was making havoc of the church (elumaineto, a term used no- 
where else in the New Testament, and employed in the Septuagint and in 
classical Greek to describe the ravages of wild beasts), endeavoring, with 
all his might, to exterminate the last vestige of the Christian religion 
from the earth, not even sparing the helplessness and tenderness of the 
female sex (Acts viii. 3), and doing all this in the name of religion, than 
which a more heinous crime cannot be imagined; and yet filled with 
Satanic malignity against God and His people, and breathing out threat- 
enings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, he voluntarily ap- 
plied to the high priesb for letters addressed to the synagogues of Da- 
mascus (where were many Jews and some Christians), authorizing him to- 
arrest and bring bound to Jerusalem every Christian man and woman, 
for the purpose of trial and execution. It was a journey of nearly 140 
miles, and usually occupied six days. Saul was accompanied by several 
attendants. As they neared Damascus, one of the most beautiful and 
ancient cities in the world, the sun attained high noon; and suddenly 
there shone from heaven a brighter light than even the meridian splen- 
dor of a Syrian sun — the Shekinah, or excellent glory of the Divine pres- 
ence. The whole company saw the light, and were prostrated to the 
ground ; and all heard an awful sound, but Saul alone understood the 
words, because they were specially intended for him. Saul also saw in 
the Heavens the ascended and glorified Redeemer (Acts ix. 17, 27 ; xxii. 
14; xxvi. 16; 1 Cor. ix. 1; xx. 8), who said to him in the Hebrew tongue, 
" Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ? it is hard for thee to kick against 
the goads." The name of Saul was repeated to denote special solemnity, 
as in the case of Abraham (Gen. xxii. 11), Moses (Ex. iii. 4), Martha (Luke 
x. 41), Simon (Luke xxii. 31), and Jerusalem (Matt, xxiii. 37). In Paul's 
first spiritual lesson, Christ identifies Himself with His poor persecuted 
people (Matt. xxv. 40, 45 ; 1 Cor. xii. 27 ; Eph. i. 22, 23 ; v. 30 ; Col. ii. 19) ; 
and Christ reminds him that, while all his measures for crushing the 
church of God are vain, still, like a stupid ox, he is, by his stubborn fury, 
continually injuring himself. The moment Saul heard the voice of the 
Son of God he lived (John v. 25) ; from his death in trespasses and sins 
he was quickened by the Holy Spirit into spiritual life (Eph. ii. 1 ; John 
vi. 63) ; he was a new creature (2 Cor. v. 17) ; his stony heart was re- 
placed by a fleshly heart (Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27), his carnal mindedness by 
spiritual mindedness (Rom. viii. 6) ; and every thought was brought into 
captivity to the obedience of Christ (2 Cor. x. 5). In an instant and for- 
ever Saul was converted to God (John xvii. 3). " Out of the noonday 
God had struck him into darkness, only that He might kindle a noon in 


the midnight of his heart." "It pleased God, who separated him from 
his mother's womb, and called him by His grace, to reveal His Son in 
him" (Gal. i. 15, 16). "God, who commanded the light to shine out of 
■darkness," soon " shined in his heart, to give the light of the knowledge 
of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ " (2 Cor. iv. 6). " Trem- 
bling and astonished, Saul said, Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do ?" 
From that moment obedience to Christ became the ruling principle of 
Paul's life. His falling to the ground represented the fall of his pride 
and rebellion against God; his physical blindness denoted the utter 
spiritual blindness of his natural mind, notwithstanding his fine educa- 
tion, morality and legalism. Christ directed him to arise and go into the 
•city, and it should be told him what he must do. This he did, being led 
by the hand in astonishment by his companions, who were themselves 
witnesses of the marvelous light and sound, though they understood 
nothing of the meaning. It was all done at noonday, when there could 
be no deception, and to the utter amazement of all. And the strong- 
minded, educated, practical, truthful Apostle of the Gentiles knew, as 
well as he knew his own existence, that he had seen and conversed with 
the Lord Jesus Christ in glory. His whole future blameless, devoted, 
suffering, unworldly life is an unanswerable attestation of this fact. 
Though an angel from Heaven preached a different gospel — which was 
not a gospel— from his, it was false ; for he had his gospel directly from 
the Son of God (Gal. i. 8, 12). And Paul was never ashamed of the gos- 
pel of Christ, nor of his experience of its saving power (Rom. i. 18), re- 
lating that experience even before governors and kings (Acts xxvi.). 

For three days Saul neither saw nor ate nor drank. Then to a certain 
disciple in Damascus named Ananias, a devout man according to the law, 
and of good report among the Jews, the Lord appeared in a vision, and 
said, "Arise, and go into the street which is called Straight, and inquire 
in the house of Judas for one called Saul, of Tarsus : for, behold, he pray - 
•eth, and hath seen in a vision a man named Ananias coming in, and put- 
ting his hand on him, that he might receive his sight." And to Ananias's 
objection the Lord answered that Saul was a chosen vessel unto Him, to 
bear His name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel ; 
for "I will shew him," said He, "how great things he must suffer for my 
name's sake. And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house ; 
and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, 
that appeared unto thee in the way as thou earnest, hath sent me, that 
f thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And 
' immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales : and he received 
sight forthwith, and arose, and was baptized" (Acts ix.). Thus the Lord 
revealed His will to each of His servants in a vision (Acts ii. 17, 18) ; there 
was a perfect agreement in the two revelations ; Saul was at once point- 
edly directed to the church, and commanded to enter it by baptism, which 
he did. In regard to Ananias's putting his hands on Saul, by the com- 
mand of God, we observe the highly important fact that, not only was it 


done before Saul's baptism, but it was done by a man who was not an 
Apostle, nor a successor of an Apostle (if such a thing as succession to the 
Apostleship were at all scriptural or possible), for the Apostles were all 
then living ; and thus the case of the great Apostle of the Gentiles totally 
undermines the Episcopal doctrine of the necessity of the confirmation of 
every believer, after baptism, either by an Apostle or the successor of an 
Apostle. Upon Cornelius and his company, it is distinctly asserted, in 
the tenth chapter of Acts, that the Holy Ghost, both in His converting 
and miracle-working power, was poured out, before they were baptised; 
and no mention is made of Peter's putting his hands on the company at all. 
The apostolic imposition of hands after baptism (except for ordination) 
is mentioned in only two instances in the New Testament (Acts viii. 17 ; 
xix. 6) ; and in both cases it was certainly used, as we know from the con- 
text (Acts viii. 7, 18; xix. 6), to represent the bestowal of the miracle- 
working power of the Holy Ghost. Christ put His hands upon unbap- 
tized infants and blessed them (Matt. xix. 13-15 ; Luke xviii. 15, 16). As 
for Hebrews vi. 1, 2, in which these six principles of the doctrine of Christ 
are mentioned — repentance, faith, baptism, laying on of hands, resurrec- 
tion and judgment, we observe that nothing is said of an Apostle or a 
successor of an Apostle ; it is not said upon whom or for what purpose 
hands are to be laid ; but, if we are to infer from the order, that laying 
on of hands should follow every baptism, so we are compelled to infer 
that every baptism must follow repentance from dead works, and faith toward 
God; and this inevitable corollary of " confirmation," as deduced from 
this passage, utterly sweeps away the foundation of infant baptism, a chief 
corner-stone of ' hierarchism. The ordination to the Deaconship or Elder- 
ship by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery is scriptural (Acts vi. 
6 ; xiii. 3 ; 1 Tim. iv. 14 ; 2 Tim. i. 6 ; 1 Peter v. 1 ; 2 John 1). So Moses 
ordained Joshua by laying his hands upon him (Num. xxvii. 18 ; Deut. 
xxxiv. 9). 

Saul, before his converson, " verily thought that he ought to do many 
things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth" (Acts xxvi. 9). His 
sincerity by no means proved that he was right or acceptable with God ; 
because it was the sincerity of a carnal and darkened mind. The Hindoo 
is sincere in immolating himself under the car of Juggernaut ; but such 
immolation is suicide. 

While a Pharisee, Saul had no doubt uttered long and numerous forms 
of prayer, but he never truly prayed until quickened into spiritual life by 
the voice of the Son of God and the power of the Holy Ghost (Acts ix. 11 ; 
John v. 25 ; Eph. ii. 1 ; John vi. 63). 

Paul, after his conversion, immediately preached in the synagogues 
at Damascus, confounding the Jews, and proving that Jesus is the Messiah 
and the Son of God. Then, as we learn from Galatians i. 17, 18, he retired 
for about three years into Arabia, most probably the Sinaitic peninsula 
(Gal. iv. 25 ; Heb. xii. 18-21), for the purpose, it would seem, of searching 
the Holy Scriptures, and, afar from the haunts of men, like Moses, in the 


backside of the desert (Exodus iii. 1, etc.), to commune alone with God on 
that holy ground where the bush " had glowed in unconsuming fire, and 
the granite crags had trembled at the voice which uttered the fiery law." 
The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God who had communed there 
with Moses 1,500 years before, met His chosen and honored servant, and 
taught him the momentous lesson that he was to bear in Ms earthen vessel 
to the unborn generations of the people of God — the spirituality of the 
Mosaic law and his own carnality, that thus, through the law, he might he 
dead to the law, and so might live unto God (Acts xxii. 14; Komans vii. 14; 
Gal. ii. 19; 2 Cor. iv. 7). While alive to the law, hoping for salvation by 
obeying it, and dreading condemnation by disobeying it, he teas dead unto 
God ; and it was only when he learned from God (Isaiah liv. 13 ; John vi. 
45) how spiritual the law was, demanding perfect sinlessness of thought 
as well as of word and deed, and how carnal he was, sold under sin, and 
having no good thing dwelling in him, did he become dead to the law and 
all legal dependence, divorced from the legal covenant, delivered from 
the curse of the law, and truly alive unto God, united to Christ, crucified 
with Jesus to the sinful and perishing vanities of the world, and yet liv- 
ing, or rather Christ living in him, and he living the life that he now lived 
in the flesh by the faith of the Son of God, who loved him and gave Him- 
self for him (Gal. ii. 19, 20). 

The outward miracle of the light and sound was a sign of the inward 
miracle wrought upon the heart of Saul by the Holy Spirit " delivering 
him from the power of darkness, and translating him into the kingdom 
of God's dear Son " (Col. i. 13) ; and he who denies that the conversion of 
the sinner is a miracle (that is, supernatural) point-blank denies the 
authority of inspiration (2 Cor. iv. 6 ; Gen. i. 3 ; 2 Cor. v. 17, 18 ; Eph. ii. 
1-10; John v. 25; Acts ix. 1-22). If creation and resurrection are not 
miraculous or supernatural, then surely nothing can be ; and such athe- 
istic philosophy would thrust God out of both His natural and His 
spiritual universe. 

In view of Saul's conversion, and the Scriptures just cited, it is no 
wonder that even Mr. John Wesley wrote : " It may be allowed, that God 
acts as sovereign in convincing some souls of sin, arresting them in their 
mad career by His resistless power. It seems, also, that at the moment 
of our conversion, He acts irresistibly " (Wesley's Works, vol. vi., p. 136, 
as quoted in Watson's Theological Institutes, vol. ii., p. 444). 

The conversion of Saul of Tarsus illustrates the saying of God quoted 
by Paul from Isaiah (Isaiah xlv. 1 ; Rom. x. 20 : "I am found of them that 
sought me not ; I am made manifest unto them that ashed not after me." 
The case of Cornelius, the Eoman centurion (Acts x.), illustrates what has 
been called the other class of conversions, which fulfill the promise : " Ye 
shall seek me and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart' 1 ' 1 
( Jer. xxix. 13) . This language of the Lord by Jeremiah was addressed to 
the chosen people of God then in Babylonian captivity, and it was a most 
comforting prediction to them : " For thus saith the Lord, that after 


seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform 
my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place. For I 
know the thuoghts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts of 
peace, and not evil, to give you an expected end. Then shall ye call 
upon me, and ye shall go and pray unto me, and I will hearken unto you. 
And ye shall seek me, and find me, when ye shall search for me with 
all your heart.- And I will be found of you, saith the Lord : and I will 
turn away your captivity, and I will gather you from all the nations, and 
from all the places whither I have driven you, saith the Lord : and I will 
bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away 
captive" (Jer. xxix. 10-14). These were the chosen people of God all the 
time, and it was certain, from this Divine prediction, that in the fullness of 
time they would call upon and seek the Lord with their whole heart, and be 
found of Him, and be delivered from their captivity. 

The conversion of Cornelius, like that of Saul, occupies a large space 
in the Acts (chapters ten and eleven), far more space than that devoted 
to the conversion of thousands in Jerusalem. It was the opening of the 
door of faith to the uncircumcised Gentiles, without their passing through 
the intermediate state of Judaism. The disciples scattered abroad by the 
persecution after Stephen's death went everywhere preaching the word, 
and Philip had preached and baptized believers in Samaria, as well as the 
Ethiopian eunuch. But there was to be a Gentile Pentecost at Csesarea, 
as there had been a Jewish Pentecost at Jerusalem, and the Apostle of 
the circumcision was, by the plainest indication of the Divine will, to 
admit Gentile converts into the church. By visions, or Divine communi- 
cations, Cornelius and Peter were both prepared for the solemn scene 
(Acts ii. 17 ; x. 3, 10-17), Cornelius being assured of God's merciful pur- 
pose towards him, and being directed to send for Peter ; and Peter being 
informed of the breaking down of the old partition between Jews and 
Gentiles, and directed to go With the men sent to him by Cornelius. As 
Peter was entering the house of Cornelius, where the latter had assembled 
his kinsmen and near friends, Cornelius met him, and, with a deep.feel- 
ing of reverence for the personage whom God had sent him, such as John 
felt for the Angel (Rev. xix. 10; xxii. 8, 9), he prostrated himself at 
Peter's feet ; .but Peter at once raised him up and said to him, " I myself 
also am a man." Those who falsely claim to be the successors of Peter 
totally differ from him in allowing and requiring such homage (contrast 
1 Peter v. 1-6, with 2 Thess. ii. 6). After Peter and Cornelius had told 
each other their visions, Peter said, in the beginning of his discourse : 
" Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons ; but in every 
nation he that feareth Him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with 
Him." By saying that God is no respecter of persons, Peter means, as is 
proved by the original Greek, and by the thirty-fifth verse, and by 2 
Chronicles xix. 7, Eph. vi. 9 and James ii. 1-9, that God does not regard 
external distinctions ; or, as Samuel says, " Man looketh on the outward 
appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart" (1 Sam. xxi. 7). Other 


Scriptures inform us that God does have especial respect for His lowly, 
spiritual, covenant people (Gen. iv. 4 ; Exodus ii. 25 ; Lev. xxvi. 9 ; 2 
Kings xiii. 23; Psalm cxxxviii. 6). "Fearing God" and "working 
righteousness " are the most usual Old Testament descriptions of the true 
spiritual worshipers of God ; and these are not the meritorious conditions 
or prerequisites of Divine grace, but the fruits and evidences of that 
grace already in the heart, proving that these characters are God's cove- 
nant people ( Jer. xxxii. 38-41 ; Heb. xii. 28 ; Psalms xxv. 14 ; xxxiii. 18 ; 
ciii. 13-17 ; cxlvii. 11 ; Isaiah xlv. 24 ; liv. 17 ; lxi. 3, 10, 11 ; Jer. xxiii. 6; 
xxxiii. 16 ; Psalms xxiii. 3 ; xxiv. 5 ; Kom. v. 19 ; Gal. ii. 21 ; 1 John ii. 29; 
John iii. 3-8). According to the testimony of Luke, the historian, and of 
the Angel, and of Peter (Acts x. 2, 4, 34, 35), Cornelius was already, be- 
fore Peter came, a God-fearing, righteous, benevolent, praying man, 
accepted with God ; and Peter was only to instruct him more fully in the 
way of God. God had already 'cleansed him, as He had shown Peter in 
the vision (Acts x. 15). The very fact of his having the spirit of prayer, 
like Saul of Tarsus, after he was divinely arrested, proved that he was a 
child of grace (Jer. xxxi. 1-9 ; 1. 4-20 ; Zech. xii. 10 ; Rom. viii. 15, 16, 26, 
27; Eph. vi. 18; Jude 20). Even the Anglican "Speaker's Commen- 
tary," which will not be suspected of undue spirituality, admits that 
Cornelius not only "had the honest and good heart for the reception of 
the good seed," but also a genuine though " limited faith, which was the 
basis of prayer and alms-giving." While Peter was preaching Jesus to 
Cornelius and his company, the miracle-working power of the Holy 
Ghost, as well as His internal efficacy, fell upon the hearers, and they 
spoke with various tongues and magnified God, just as the Jewish dis- 
ciples had done on the day of Pentecost (Acts ii. 4; x. 44-46). They were 
thus partakers of God's eternal salvation (1 Peter i. 1-5 ; John i. 12, 13 ; 
1 John v. 4, 5) even before they were baptized in water ; and Peter then 
appropriately asked, " Can any man forbid water, that these should not 
be baptized, who have received the Holy Ghost as well as we ? " Only 
after they become spiritual believers in Christ does Peter think of bap- 
tizing them in water ; and such is the case with every baptism in the New 
Testament— spiritual belief in Christ first, and then the burial in water; first 
the thing signified, and afterwards the sign, which, under such circumstances 
only, is not a mockery and a delusion. Though the believer should be bap- 
tized, in obedience to Christ, and for the answer of a good conscience (1 
Peter iii. 21), yet Christ, and not water, is his only God and Savior (Isaiah 
xlv. 21, 22; Actsiv. 12). 

"The saving grace of God teaches men to worship Him with rever- 
ence and godly fear, to serve Him conscientiously, to unite justice and 
charity, and to pray with constancy and perseverance. It leads men to 
order their households in the fear of God ; and commonly they become 
instrumental to the good of those around them. The excellent and de- 
vout Roman soldier, no less than Saul the persecutor, the converted 
jailor, and the thief upon the cross, was saved only by the atonement of 


Christ; that no flesh should glory in the presence of God (1 Cor. i. 29)." 
" Should the Lord create an humble, teachable and inquiring disposition 
in the heart of an inhabitant of China, Japan or the unexplored parts of 
Africa, He would sooner send an angel from Heaven, or a minister from 
the uttermost part of the earth, to show him the way of salvation, than 
leave Mm destitute of that knowledge, for which he longs and prays 
without ceasing. The alms and supplications of such persons spring from 
Tight principles and motives, and go up as a memorial before God, not to 
merit His favor, but to plead with Him to fulfill His gracious promises." 
■" The sublime subjects which pertain to redemption through the blood of 
-the Son of God seem more proper for the tongues of angels to proclaim 
than for us poor worms of the earth. Doubtless, in many respects, they 
could preach them unspeakably better ; yet our humiliating and thank- 
ful experience may balance something on the other side. In that case, 
however, it would not be so evident that the excellency of the power, 
■which makes the word successful, is wholly of God; nor would their 
presence and language be so suited to man's weakness, or so conducive to 
his comfort."— T. Scott. 

" The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," say both David 
and Solomon (Psalm cxi. 10; Prov. ix. 10) ; "the fear of the Lord is clean, 
■enduring forever," says David (Psalm xix. 9) ; "unto you that fear my 
name shall the Sun of Eighteousness arise with healing in His wings," 
says the Lord by Malachi (iv. 2). These precious declarations are pre- 
cisely equivalent to the comforting assurance of the Apostle Paul, " that 
He who hath begun a good work in you will perform (epiteleo, bring to an 
end, accomplish, perfect) it until the day of Jesus Christ" (Philip, i. 6) — not 
only the day when He is manifested as the Sun of Righteousness and the 
Divine Savior of the trembling sinner, but, as shown by the fourth verse 
below (Philip, i. 10), and by 1 Thess. v. 2, and 2 Peter iii. 10, the day at the 
elose of this dispensation,' when Christ shall come in final judgment. This 
one verse (Philip i. 6), like Heb. xii. 2, in which Jesus is called both " the 
Author and Finisher of our faith," and like Isaiah xxxv. 10, in which it is 
declared that " the ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion 
with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads," and like many other 
verses of Scripture, cuts up the system of conditional salvation by the 
Toots, and incontestably and eternally establishes the system of salvation 
by sovereign grace, beginning and consummating the good work in the 
sinner's heart, so that all the glory, without the slightest reservation, 
shall be given by the saved sinner to God (Psalms cvii. 1-32 ; cxx. 1 ; Ex. 
xv. 1-19; Rev. v. 9, 10 ; xv. 3; Romans iii. 27, 28). Every system of con- 
ditionalism represents the sinner as doing that which insures his salva- 
tion; and which should, therefore, entitle him to the chief glory. As for 
good works, they are, as we have shown by abundant scriptural quota- 
tions, but the fruit of Divine grace implanted in the heart. 

I now condense, mainly from the writings of T. D. Bernard and 


P. Schaff, some excellent remarks upon the hooks of the New Testament, 
especially the epistles. 

" In the Gospels Christ is manifested as man and as God ; in the Acts 
He is preached to the world ; in the epistles he is received by His in- 
dwelling Spirit in the hearts of believers ; and in Revelation He is, in His 
mystical body, the church, after great tribulation, translated to glory. 
In the Gospels we see the Divine temple building ; in the Acts we see the 
doors thrown open and Jews and Gentiles fleeing into it as a refuge ; in 
the epistles we become inmates of the temple ourselves, and behold its 
internal, spiritual and assimilating glory ; in the Revelation the temple, 
with all its inmates, after passing through manifold fiery trials, is per- 
fected and elevated into the immediate, beatific and eternal presence of 

Some general and comparative remarks in reference to the Four Gos- 
pels have been given in the Introduction to this work. 

The book entitled the Acts of the Apostles " forms the bridge be- 
tween the Gospels and the epistles. It is a direct continuation of the 
third Gospel, by the same author, Luke, and is addressed to the same 
Theophilus ('friend of God'), probably a Christian convert of distin- 
guished social position. In the Gospel Luke repeats what he heard and 
read ; in the Acts what he heard and saw. The Gospel records the life 
and work of Christ ; the Acts the work of the Holy Spirit, who is recog- 
nized at every step. The word Spirit, or Holy Spirit, occurs more fre- 
quently in the Acts than in any other book of the New Testament. It 
might properly be called ' the Gospel of the Holy Spirit.' The Acts is a 
cheerful and encouraging book, like the third Gospel. It represents the 
progress of Christianity from Jerusalem, the capital of Judaism, to Rome, 
the capital of heathenism. It is a history of the planting of the church 
among the Jews by Peter, and among the Gentiles by Paul. More than 
three-fifths of it are devoted to Paul, and especially to his later labors 
and journeys, in which the author could speak from personal knowledge. 
Luke was in the company of Paul, including some interruptions, at least 
twelve years. He was again with Paul in his last captivity, shortly be- 
fore Paul's martyrdom, his most faithful and devoted companion (2 Tim. 
iv. 11). He probably began the book of Acts or a preliminary diary while 
with Paul at Philippi, continuing it at Csesarea during Paul's two years' 
imprisonment there, and finishing it soon after Paul's first imprisonment 
in Rome, before the terrible persecution in the summer of A. D. 64, 
which he could hardly left unnoticed. The Acts and epistles supplement 
and confirm each other by a series of coincidences in all essential points. 
Paley's examination of these numerous and undesigned coincidences in 
his Korcc Paulinos, and James Smith's Voyage and SMjnoreek of St. Paul, 
furnish to readers of sound common sense and unbiased judgment unan- 
swerable arguments for the credibility of the Acts. No ancient work af- 
fords so many tests of veracity as the Acts, because no other has such 
numerous points of contact in all directions with contemporary history, 


■politics and topography, whether Jewish, or Greek, or Roman. No other 
history of thirty years has ever been written so truthful and impartial, so 
important and interesting, so healthy in tone and hopeful in spirit, so 
aggressive and yet so genial, so cheering and inspiring, so replete with 
lessons of wisdom and encouragement for work in spreading the glad 
tidings of salvation, and yet withal so simple and modest, as the Acts of 
the Apostles. 

" The epistles are addressed to baptized believers, and aim to 
strengthen them in their faith, and, by brotherly instruction, exhorta- 
tion, rebuke and consolation, to build up the church in all Christian 
graces on the historical foundation of the teaching and example of 
Christ. The prophets of the Old Testament delivered Divine oracles to 
the people with a ' Thus saith the Lord ; ' the Apostles of the New Testa- 
ment wrote letters to the brethren, who shared with them the same faith 
and hope as members of Christ — a more open, equal and hearty mode of 
communication, suited to the gospel day, showing rather companionship 
than dictation, reasoning out of the Old Testament Scriptures and teach- 
ing the brethren how so to reason, giving the individual experience of the 
writer, yet bearing lofty, authoritative, unwavering, sure testimony to 
the truth, and sometimes making definite additions to former revela- 
tions. The epistles are the voice of the Spirit within the church to those 
who are within the church. The essential thought is ' Of Him are ye in 
Christ Jesus.' God is represented as the immediate and the still contin- 
uous author of our existence in Christ. In the epistles, we know, as 
Christ promised (John xiv. 20), that He is in His Father, as well as His 
Father is in Him, and that we are in Him and He in us. Believers are in 
CJhrist, and so are partakers in all that He does and has and is — they died 
in Him, rose with Him, and live with Him ; when the eye of God looks on 
them, they are found in Christ, and there is no condemnation to them ; 
they are righteous in His righteousness, and loved with the love that 
Tests on Him, and are sons of God in His Sonship, and heirs with Him in 
His inheritance, and are soon to be glorified with Him in His glory ; and 
this relationship was contemplated in eternal counsels, and predestined 
before the foundation of the world. So Christ is in those who believe by 
His indwelling Spirit, leading them to God and giving them the earnest 
of their eternal inheritance. Thus, by intertwined relations, the life of 
the believer is constituted a life in Christ and a life in God. This idea 
■underlies all the epistles, both their doctrine and their exhortation. It 
is a new world of thought— a new element. All their relations and actions 
are in Christ. And, finally, this character of existence is not changed by 
that which changes all besides — they die in the Lord, and sleep in Jesus, 
and, when He shall appear, they will appear ; when He comes God shall 
bring them with Him, and they shall reign in life by Him. Men bid us 
live in truth and duty, in purity and love— they do well ; but the gospel 
does better, calling and enabling us to live in Christ, and find in Him the 


enjoyment of all that we would possess, and the realization of all that we 
would become. 

" The epistles of the New Testament are without a parallel in ancient 
literature, and yield in importance only to the Gospels, which stand 
higher, as Christ Himself rises above the Apostles. They presuppose 
throughout the Gospel history, and often allude to the death and resur- 
rection of Christ as the foundation of the church and the Christian hope. 
They compress more ideas in fewer words than any other writings, human 
or Divine, excepting the Gospels. They discuss the highest possible 
themes— God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin and redemption, incarnation, 
regeneration, repentance, faith and good works, holy living and dying, 
the conversion of the world, the general judgment, eternal glory. They 
are of more real value to the church than all the systems of theology and 
all the confessions of faith. 

" The appointed epistolary teachers of the church were Peter and 
John, the two chief of the original twelve Apostles ; James and Jude, the 
brethren of the Lord ; and Paul, the great Apostle of the Gentiles, who 
wrote Ave times as much as all the other four together. 

" The seven epistles of James, First and Second Peter, First, Second 
and Third John, and Jude, usually follow, in the old manuscripts, the 
Acts of the Apostles, and precede the Pauline epistles, perhaps as being 
the works of the older Apostles ; they are now placed last, probably be- 
cause they are supplementary and confirmatory to the more elaborate 
writings of Paul. The epistle of James was probably written before A. 
D. 50 (some think as early as A. D. 44), and is thought to be the oldest 
book in the New Testament ; First Peter (probably also Second Peter and 
Jude) is believed to have been written before A. D. 67 ; and the epistles 
of John between A. D. 90 and 100. Of the epistles of Paul, those to the 
Thessalonians were written first, A. D. 52 or 53 ; then Galatians, Corinth- 
ians, and Romans between 56 and 58 ; then the four epistles of the cap- 
tivity, Colossians, Ephesians, Philemon and Philippians, between 61 and 
63 ; last, the pastoral epistles, but their date is uncertain, except that the 
second epistle to Timothy is his farewell letter on the eve of his martyr- 
dom. The epistle to the Hebrews was probably written about A. D. 63. 
Its author is unknown ; but it has been generally thought that Paul was 
its author ; on account of its uncertified authorship, it was placed after 
Paul's other epistles. From the fourth to the eighteenth century the 
Pauline authorship was the prevailing opinion ; this was based upon the 
unanimous tradition of the Eastern church — the mention of Timothy and 
the reference to a release from captivity (xiii. 23) — and the agreement of 
the epistle with Paul's system of doctrine, the tone of apostolic authority, 
and the depth and unction of the epistle. The non-Pauline authorship is 
argued on the following grounds : the decided opposition to the Pauline 
authorship by Western tradition, both Roman and North African, down 
to the time of Augustine (about 350 A. D.) ; the absence of the customary 
name and salutation; the phraseology in Heb. ii. 3, seeming to distin- 


guish the author from the Apostles, and very different from the language 
of Paul in the first chapter of Galatians ; the difference from Paul's writ- 
ings, not in substance, but in the form and method of teaching and argu- 
ing ; the superior purity, correctness and rhetorical finish of style ; the 
difference in the quotations from the Old Testament, the author always 
following the Septuagint, while Paul often quotes the Hebrew. As to the 
real author, five of Paul's fellow-laborers have been proposed, either as 
sole or as joint authors with Paul — Barnabas, Luke, Clement, Apollos and 
Silas. The arguments for and the objections against them are equally 
strong, and we have no data to decide between them. Whoever may 
have been the writer, the inspiration and leading ideas are those of Paul. 

" The following suggestive doctrinal arrangement of Paul's un- 
doubted epistles has been made : 1. Anthropological and Soteriological — 
Galatians and Romans. 2. Ethical and Ecclesiastical — 1st and 2d Corin- 
thians. 3. Christological — Colossians and Philippians. 4. Ecclesiological 
— Ephesians (in part also Corinthians) . 5. Eschatological — Thessalonians. 
6. Pastoral— Timothy and Titus. 7. Social and Personal— Philemon. 

" As Matthew is the fit beginning of the Gospels, linking the New with 
the Old Testament, so the epistle to the Romans is the fit beginning to 
the epistles, giving the genealogy of the doctrine of Christ through the 
Old Testament. The Apostle Paul, in this epistle, firmly holds his ground 
in the prophetic and historic line of the Old Covenant, and from that 
standing point opens the dispensation of the Spirit. The Acts left him in 
Rome ; the succeeding epistle is addressed to the Romans. It stands 
justly at the head of the Pauline epistles. It is the most comprehensive 
and systematic statement of Paul's theology, both theoretical and practi- 
cal, for which he lived and died. It gives the clearest and fullest exposi- 
tion of a vital and fundamental subject, salvation by free grace, the need, 
nature and effects of gospel justification for individual souls, vindicated 
by the witness of the Law and the Prophets. Luther calls Romans ' the 
chief book of the New Testament, and the purest gospel ; ' Coleridge 
styles it ' the profoundest book in existence ; ' Meyer, ' the greatest and 
richest of all the apostolic works ; ' and Godet denominates it ' the cathe- 
dral of the Christian faith.' 

" The epistles to the Corinthians are addressed to the Greeks who 
seek after wisdom ; and these epistles condemn a spirit of self-confident 
freedom both in thought and conduct — in other words, the essential spirit 
of the world, and they assert the Divine and indefeasible authority of the 
gospel, which claims the subjection of the mind and the regulation of the 
life of the church. These epistles abound in variety of topics, and show 
the extraordinary versatility of the mind of the writer, and his inspired 
practical wisdom in dealing with delicate and complicated questions and 
unscrupulous opponents. For every aberration he has a word of severe 
censure, for every danger a word of warning, for every weakness a word 
of cheer and sympathy, for every returning offender a word of pardon and 
encouragement. The first epistle contains the unrivaled description of 


the chief Christian grace, Charity or Love; the second epistle gives 
us almost an autobiography of the Apostle, and is a mine of pastoral 

" The epistle to the Galatians encounters, not the spirit of presumptu- 
ous freedom (as those to the Corinthians), but the spirit of a willful bond- 
age, which returns, after its own stubborn and insensate fashion, to the 
elements of the world and of the flesh ; and this epistle asserts the direct 
revelation from Christ of the apostolic doctrine which shines out more 
clearly as a dispensation of the Spirit and of liberty. It was directed 
against those Judaizing teachers who undermined Paul's apostolical 
authority, and misled the Galatian churches into an apostasy from the 
gospel of free grace to a false gospel of legal bondage. The epistle to the 
Galatians treats of the same subject as that to the Romans — the prepara- 
tiveness and subordination of the law to the gospel. It is a remarkable 
fact that the two races represented by the original readers of these epis- 
tles — the Celtic and the Latin — have far departed from the doctrines 
taught in them, and gone back from gospel freedom to legal bondage — 
thus repeating the apostasy of the fickle-minded Galatians. The Pauline 
gospel was for centuries ignored, misunderstood, and (in spite of Augus- 
tine) cast out at last by Rome, as Christianity itself was cast out by Jeru- 
salem of old. But these two epistles, more than any other books of the 
New Testament, inspired the Reformation of the sixteenth century, and 
are to this day the Gibraltar of evangelical Protestantism. 

" The succeeding epistles of Paul address those whose minds are now 
cleared, settled and secured. The Apostle ascends to a more calm and 
lofty stage of thought in his epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians, 
wherein, no longer in collision with human error, he expatiates in the 
view of the eternal purposes of God, and of the ideal perfections of the 
church in Christ ; if inspiration was asserted in the other epistles, here it 
is felt ; yet, in both epistles, this high strain passes by the most natural 
transition into the plainest counsels ; and, in the epistles to the Philip- 
pians and Philemon, the voice is that, not only of a prophet, but of an 
affectionate brother and friend. These four epistles were written in cap- 
tivity, probably during Paul's first imprisonment in Rome. He gloried in 
being a ' prisoner of Christ.' He experienced the blessedness of persecu- 
tion for righteousness' sake (Matt v. 10), and ' the peace of God which 
passeth all understanding ' (Philip, iv. 7). He was thus divinely enabled 
to turn the prison into a pulpit, to send comfort and joy to his distant 
churches, and render a greater service to future ages than he could have 
done by active labor. Chained day and night by his right arm to the left 
arm of a Roman soldier, he preached the gospel to his keepers, and many 
in the praetorian guard and in Caesar's household believed. The epistle 
to the Colossians is the most Christly of Paul's epistles, the Christology 
approaching very closely to that of John ; and the Epistle to the Eph- 
esians is the most churchly book of the New Testament— the very re- 
verse, however, of churchy, as nothing can be further removed from the 


genius of Paul than that narrow, mechanical and pedantic churchmess 
which sticks to the shell of outward forms and ceremonies, and mistakes 
them for the kernel within. The churchliness of the epistle to the Eph- 
esians is rooted and grounded in Christliness, and has no sense whatever 
if separated from this root. A ' church ' without Christ would be, at best, 
a prayer-saying corpse (and there are such so-called 'churches'). Paul 
emphasizes the person of Christ in Colossians, and the person and work 
of the Holy Spirit in Ephesians. Ephesians is, in some respects, the most 
profound and difficult, as it is certainly the most spiritual and devout of 
Paul's epistles. It is the Epistle of the Heavenlies, an ode to Christ and 
His spotless bride, the Song of Songs in the New Testament. Philippi 
was the first place in Europe where the gospel was preached. Here Paul 
was severely persecuted and marvelously delivered. Here were his most 
devoted brethren ; for them he felt the strongest personal attachment ; 
from them alone would he receive contributions for his support. The 
epistle to the Philippians is like Paul's midnight hymn of praise in the 
dungeon of Philippi. Its key-note is thankful joy. He had no doctrinal 
error or practical vice to rebuke, as in Galatians and Corinthians. The 
epistle to Philemon was written and transmitted at the same time as that 
to the Colossians, and may be regarded as a personal postscript to it. 
Onesimus, a slave of Philemon, had, on account of some offense, probably 
theft, run away from his master, who was a zealous Christian at Colosse, 
and had experienced a hope in Christ under Paul's preaching at Rome, 
and now desired to return, as a penitent, in company with Tychicus, the 
bearer of the epistle to the Colossians. Paul accordingly sent back Ones- 
imus to his master, yet under a new character, no more a contemptible 
thief and runaway, but a regenerate man and a beloved brother, with the 
touching request that Philemon might receive him as kindly as he would 
the Apostle himself. The epistle reveals Paul to us as an unsurpassed 
Christian gentleman ; it is a model of courtesy, delicacy, and tenderness 
of feeling. 

"The Thessalonian epistles complete Paul's addresses to seven 
churches, and, though first in composition, are properly the last in the 
canon as they are distinguished by the eschatological element, and sus- 
tain the conflict of faith by the preaching of that blessed hope and the 
glorious appearing and coming of the day of God. Paul wrote these two 
letters trom Corinth, during his first sojourn in that city ; and it seems to 
have been a chief object of the Apostle to correct a misapprehension into 
which the Thessalonians had fallen in regard to the speedy coming of 
Christ. He taught them that the Lord would not come so soon as they 
expected, but that first there must be a falling away, and the man of sin, 
the son of perdition, must be revealed; that they could not make a 
mathematical calculation of the time when Christ would come ; and that 
in no case should the expectation check industry and zeal, but rather 
stimulate them. 

" To this rich body of doctrine the pastoral epistles add their sugges- 


tive words on the principles and spirit of the ministerial office, which has 
the care of the church and the stewardship of the truth. There is a very- 
marked difference between the ecclesiastical constitution of the pastoral 
epistles and that of the second century. There is not a word said about 
the Divine origin of episcopacy; not a trace of a congregational epis- 
copate, such as we find in the Ignatian epistles, still less of a diocesan 
episcopate of the time of Irenseus and Tertullian. Bishops and presby- 
ters (or Elders) are still identical as they are in the Acts (xx. 17, 38), and 
in the epistle to the Philip pians (i. 1). Even Timothy and Titus appear 
simply as delegates of the Apostle for a specific mission. These epistles 
agree with Paul's doctrinal system in clearly tracing salvation to Divine 
grace alone ; they are illuminated with flashes of his genius ; they bear 
the marks of his intense personality ; they contain rare gems of inspired 
truth, and most wholesome admonition and advice, which makes them 
to-day far more valuable than any number of works on pastoral theology 
and church government. They contain several passages which, for doc- 
trine or practice, are equal to the best Paul ever wrote, and are deeply 
lodged in the experience and affection of Christians. Nothing could be a 
more fitting, a more sublime and beautiful, finale of such a hero of faith 
than the sixth, seventh and eighth verses of the last chapter of his last 
epistle (2 Tim.), written in the very face of martyrdom. 

"The epistle to the Hebrews presents to the perplexed Hebrew-Chris- 
tian mind the correct divinely-intended relation and subordination of the 
Old Covenant to the New. The internal evidence is that it was written 
from Italy between A. D. 60 and 70, before Paul's martyrdom. The 
author was a man full of faith and the Holy Spirit, and gifted with a 
tongue of fire. He had the grace of exhortation and consolation in the 
highest degree. The epistle is a profound argument for the superiority 
of Christ over the angels, over Moses, and over the Levitical priesthood, 
and for the finality of the second covenant. It unfolds far more fully 
than any other book the great idea of the eternal priesthood and sacrifice 
of Christ, offered once and forever for human redemption, as distinct 
from the national and transient character of the Mosaic priesthood and 
the ever-repeated sacrifices of the tabernacle and the temple. He shows 
from the Old Testament itself that God had designed the latter as but the 
temporary shadow, type and prophecy of Christianity, the abiding sub- 
stance. The epistle is, like Colossians and Philippians, eminently Christo- 
logical, and forms a stepping-stone to the Christology of John. The ob- 
ject of the author was to warn the conservative Christians in Jerusalem 
of the danger of apostatizing to Judaism. His arguments were providen- 
tially emphasized soon after by the destruction of the city and temple. 
The language of the epistle is the purest Greek of the New Testament. 
The opening sentence is a rich and elegant period of classic construction. 
The description of the heroes of faith in the eleventh chapter is one of the 
most eloquent and sublime in the entire range of religious literature. 

"The seven epistles following Hebrews in the canon are sometimes 


called Catholic or General ; but this designation properly applies to only 
five of them : James, First and Second Peter, First John, and Jude ; the 
second and third epistles of John are addressed to individuals. These 
writers do not enter into theological discussions like those of Paul, but 
give simpler statements of truth, supplementing and confirming Paul's 

"James was not an Apostle, but the brother of the Lord, and the first 
pastor of the church in Jerusalem, where he died a martyr. He was a 
man of the most exemplary piety, being called even by the Jews ' the 
Just,' and he enjoyed almost apostolic authority, especially in Judea and 
among Jewish Christians. He had high regard for the Mosaic law. His 
epistle is addressed to 'the twelve tribes scattered abroad,' and is directed 
against a one-sided, speculative, dead, Antinomian faith, and shows the 
practical ethical side of the doctrine of Christ. James exhorts his readers 
to good works of faith, warns them against a merely nominal orthodoxy, 
covetousness, pride and worldliness, and comforts them in view of pres- 
ent and future trials and persecutions. Though meagre in doctrine, it is. 
rich in comfort and lessons of holy living based on faith in Jesus Christ, 
' the Lord of glory.' It is a commentary upon Christ's sermon on the 
mount. James was unwilling to impose the yoke of circumcision upon 
the Gentiles (Acts xv. 19, 20), and he recognized Paul as the Apostle of 
the Gentiles, giving him the right hand of fellowship (Gal. ii. 9). There 
is no real contradiction between James and Paid on the subject of faith 
and works. James says : ' Faith is dead without works.' Paul says r 
' Works are dead without faith.' Both are right : James in opposition to 
dead orthodoxy, Paul in opposition to self-righteous legalism. James 
does not demand works without faith, but works prompted by faith ; 
while Paul, on the other hand, likewise declares a faith worthless which 
is without love, though it remove mountains. James looks mainly at the 
fruit, Paul at the root. Paul solves the difficulty in one phrase — ' faith 
working through love ' (Gal. v. 6). By 'faith' Paul never means dead 
faith, but James sometimes does. James maintains the absolute neces- 
sity of living faith (James i. 3, 6 ; ii. 1, 5, 18, 22, 23, 26 ; v. 15) ; and Paul 
emphasizes the value of good works as evidencing our faith, profiting- 
others, and glorifying God (Rom. ii. 13; xii.-xvi.; 1 Cor. xvi.; 2 Cor. ix.; 
Gal. v. 6 ; Eph. ii. 10 ; v., vi.; Col. i. 10 ; iii., iv.; Philip, iv.; 2 Thess. ii. 
17; 1 Tim. ii. 10; v. 10; vi. 18 ; 2 Tim. iii. 17; Titus ii. 7-14; iii. 8). 
Paul's life of self-sacrificing labors for Christ speaks more loudly on the 
importance of works of love than all his writings. 

" Peter, writing to the Pauline churches, confirms them in the Pauline 
faith. In the Gospels, the human nature of Simon appears most promi- 
nent ; the Acts unfold the Divine mission of Peter in the founding of the 
church, with a temporary relapse at Antioch (recorded in Gal. ii) ; in his 
epistles we see the complete triumph of Divine grace. Deeply humbled 
and softened, he gives the fruit of a rich spiritual experience. In no 
other epistles do the language and spirit come more directly home to the- 


personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life. In his 
first epistle he warns against hierarchical ambition in prophetic anticipa- 
tion of the abuse of his name among the Apostles (v. 1-4), calling himself 
simply ' an Elder,' and exhorting his fellow-Elders to ' feed the flock of 
God, not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind ; neither as being lords over 
God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.' God overruled Peter's 
very sins and inconsistencies for his humiliation and spiritual progress. 
■ ^Nowhere, except in Christ, do we find a spirit more humble, meek, gen- 
tle, tender, loving and lovely. Almost every word and incident in the 
gospel history connected with Peter left its impress upon his epistles in 
the way of humble or thankful reminiscence and allusion. Christ having 
prayed that his faith should not fail, and having looked upon him after 
his denial, Peter was enabled by Divine grace to weep bitterly and turn 
again to his Lord, and thus he is still strengthening his brethren. Not- 
withstanding Paul's sharp rebuke of him before the church at Antioch, 
Peter, in his second epistle, makes an affectionate allusion to his ' be- 
loved brother Paul ' and his profound writings, which he classes with the 
* other Scriptures.' Thus he proved how thoroughly the Spirit of Christ 
had, through experience, trained liim to humility, meekness and self- 

" The first epistle of John is a postscript to the fourth Gospel. It is a 
practical application of the lessons of the life of Christ to the wants of 
the church at the close of the first century. It is a circular letter of the 
venerable Apostle to his beloved children in Asia Minor, exhorting them 
to a holy life of faith and love in Christ, and earnestly warning them 
against the Gnostic ' antichrists,' already existing or to come, who deny 
the mystery of the incarnation, sunder religion from morality, and 
run into Antinomian practices. The second and third epistles of John 
are short private letters, the second to a Christian woman (some suppose 
to a Christian church), and the third to Gaius (whether in Macedonia, 
Acts xix. 29, or in Corinth, Romans xvi. 23, 1 Cor. i. 14, or Derbe, Acts xx. 
4, is unknown). The second epistle greatly resembles the first, and so 
does the style of the third. In both the Apostle calls himself ' the Elder.' 
as Peter had done. True grace produces modesty and meekness. 

"Jude was a brother of James, a half-brother of Christ, and not 
probably an Apostle. Some, however, suppose that both James and Jude, 
the authors of the epistles, were Apostles. The epistle of Jude strongly 
resembles the second chapter of the second epistle of Peter. It is a sol- 
emn warning against the licentious tendencies of Gnosticism. The allu- 
sion to the remarkable Apocryphal book of Enoch gives an inspired sanc- 
tion only to the truth of the passage quoted, not to the whole book. Jude 
fitly closes the epistle by exhorting his readers to ' contend earnestly for 
the holy heavenly faith once delivered to the saints by prophets and 
Apostles, looking unto Him who is able to keep them from falling, and to 
present them faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding 


" The epistles of the New Testament were divinely intended for the 
redeemed, regenerated and spiritual family of God, who inwardly feel 
their need of Divine mercy and guidance and comfort and preservation ; 
and these precious gifts of the Divine Spirit should be constantly, habit- 
ually, familiarly and reverently studied. 

" It is most remarkable and confirmatory to notice that the first inti- 
mation of every truth revealed to the Apostles by the Spirit, came from 
the lips of Christ (John xiv. 26 ; xvi. 13J. The whole great doctrine of 
justification by faith elaborated in Paul's epistle to the Romans is in- 
volved in Christ's declaration in John iii. 16 ; and the doctrine of Chris- 
tian liberty in Galatians is comprehended in Christ's language in John viii. 
36 ; and the sacrificial doctrine of the epistle to the Hebrews is fully im- 
plied in Christ's words in Matthew xxvi. 28." 

The various ecclesiastical traditions, handed down from the second 
and succeeding centuries, representing that the Apostles labored in dif- 
ferent countries outside of the Roman Empire, are strange, uncritical, 
contradictory and apocryphal. 

The system of salvation proclaimed by our Lord and Savior Jesus 
Christ to His Apostles, and by them orally manuscript to contempo- 
raneous and future generations, was all perfect and complete in the out- 
set. Unlike all other systems of religion, science or art, nothing can be 
added to it or taken from it, to increase its beauty, usefulness or per- 
fection : all attempts in this direction serve to mar rather than add lustre 
to its excellence. And for 1800 years the only way to obtain a perfect 
knowledge of Christian principles is to consult the original record and to 
gather a " Thus saith the Lord" for all that His people say and do. If 
men speak not according to this Word they speak at random, and give 
evidence that there is no light in them (Isa. viii. 20). 



The Roman Empire, previously under Divine restraint (2 Thess. ii. 6, 
7), protected Christianity; but " openly assumed the character of Anti- 
christ with tire and sword (Rev. xiii.-xviii.) in the tenth year of Nero's 
reign, A. D. 64, and hy the instigation of that very emperor to whom 
Paul, as a Roman citizen, had appealed from the Jewish tribunal. It was, 
however, not a strictly religious persecution, like those under the later 
emperors ; it originated in a public calamity which was wantonly charged 
upon the innocent Christians." Nero, the last of the family of Julius 
Ceesar, was an unsurpassed monster of iniquity. He murdered his 
brother (Britannicus), his mother (Agrippina), .his wives (Octavia and 
Poppaea), his teacher (Seneca), and many eminent Romans, and finally 
himself, in the thirty-second year of his age. On the night between the 
18th and 19th of July, A. D. 64, the most destructive fire that ever oc- 
curred in history broke out in Rome. It lasted nine days and nights, and 
destroyed one-third of the city, including multitudes of lives. The 
eighteenth chapter of Revelation seems to have a primary allusion to this 
dreadful catastrophe. The cause of the conflagration was unknown, but, 
as recorded by contemporary historians, the people attributed it to Nero, 
" who wished to enjoy the lurid spectacle of burning Troy, and to gratify 
his ambition to rebuild Rome on a more magnificent scale, and to call it 
Neropolis." Suetonius relates that several men of consular rank met 
Nero's domestic servants with torches and combustibles, but did not dare 
to appehend them ; and Tacitus states that the report was universally 
current that, while the city was burning, Nero went upon the stage of his 
private theatre and sang (from Homer) " The Destruction of Troy." "To 
divert from himself the general suspicion of incendiarism, and at the 
same time to furnish new entertainment for his diabolical cruelty, Nero 
wickedly cast the blame on the Christians, and inaugurated a carnival of 
blood such as heathen Rome never saw before or since. A ' vast multitude ' 
of Christians was put to death in the most shocking manner. Some were 
crucified, probably in mockery of the punishment of Christ ; some were 
sewed up in the skins of wild beasts and exposed to the voracity of mad 
dogs in the arena. The Satanic tragedy reached its climax at night in the 
imperial gardens, on the slope of the Vatican : Christian men and women, 


covered with pitch or oil or resin, and nailed to posts of pine, were 
lighted and hurned as torches for the amusement of the mob; while 
Nero, in fantastical dress, figured in a horse race, and displayed his art as 
a charioteer. Burning alive was the ordinary punishment of incendiaries ; 
but only the cruel ingenuity of this imperial monster, under the inspira- 
tion of the devil, could invent such a horrible system of illumination. It 
is probable that the Neronian persecution of Christians extended to the 
provinces ; and it is believed that the Apostles Paul and Peter suffered 
martyrdom about this time or soon after (the dates of their death varying 
from A. D. 64 to 69). It is generally held that Peter was crucified at 
Home, whither he had gone for the first time in the same year ; and Paul, 
being a Roman citizen, and not subject to crucifixion, was beheaded about 
three miles from Rome, on the Ostian road, on a green spot, formerly 
called Aquce Salvia, afterwards Tre Fontane. It is thought. that the 
Apostle John was banished by Nero to the lonely island of Patmos in 
the jEgean Sea (or Grecian Archipelago), where he saw the visions re- 
corded in the book of Revelation about the same time (A. D. 68) ; though 
it has heretofore been generally thought that this banishment was under 
the emperor Domitian, A. D. 95. 

" There is scarcely another period in history so full of vice, corrup- 
tion and disaster as the six years between the Neronian persecution and 
the destruction of Jerusalem. The prophetic description in the last days 
by our Lord began to be fulfilled before the generation to which He 
spoke had passed away, and the day of judgment seemed to be near at 
hand. So the Christians believed, and had good reason to believe. Even 
to earnest heathen minds (such as those of Seneca and Tacitus) that 
period looked as dark as midnight, according to their own descriptions. 
The most unfortunate country in that period was Palestine, where an 
ancient and venerable nation brought upon itself unspeakable suffering 
and destruction. The tragedy of Jerusalem prefigures in miniature the 
final judgment, and in this light it is represented in the eschatological 
discourses of Christ, who foresaw the end from the beginning." — P. 

Intimately connected with the early progress of Christianity was the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and the entire and final overthrow of the Jew- 
ish nation. The Jews crucified the Lord of life and glory, and persecuted 
His followers in the most cruel manner until their nationality was put an 
end to— a period of about 40 years from the Savior's death. The Jews 
asked that His blood should be on them and on their children (Matt, 
xxvii. 25), and their imprecation was answered. He had already foretold 
their overthrow and the certainty that God's vengeance would fall on 
them. Said He, " That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed 
upon the earth, from the blood, of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zach- 
arias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. 
Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. 
Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them 


which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children 
together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye 
would not ! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate " (Matt. xxiiL 
36-38). When the disciples showed Him the buildings of the temple that 
He might admire them, He " said unto them, See ye not all these things ? 
Verily I say unto you, There shall not he left here one stone upon another, 
that shall not be thrown down" (Matt. xxiv. 1, 2). And again said Her 
" The days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench 
about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, and 
shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee ; and 
they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another" (Luke xix. 43, 

As the accomplishment of these predictions ended in the utter aboli- 
tion of the Jewish church and state, a constitution which was originally 
founded in Divine appointment, and had existed during a period of fif- 
teen hundred years ; and as it was unquestionably the most awful revo- 
lution in all the religious dispensations of God, and which, moreover, in 
various ways, contributed greatly to the success of the gospel, it seems to 
merit especial attention at our hands. 

From Nero to Vespasian there were five different Roman emperors, if 
we include these two, in the short space of eighteen months ; and during 
this period the empire was a scene of confusion, desolation and misery, 
and not in a mood to persecute Christians, as it was subsequently. 

After the death of king Herod Agrippa,* the particulars of which the 
reader will find recorded in Acts xii., Judea again became a province of 
the Eoman Empire, and Cuspius Fadus was sent to be its governor. He 
found matters very much unsettled in Palestine. The country was in- 
fested with banditti, and an imposter named Theudas had drawn large 
numbers after him, promising them to divide the waters of Jordan, as 
Joshua had done, by his single word, and lead them to pleasures beyond, 
etc. Theudas was taken and beheaded, and his followers dispersed, the 
Jews were quelled, and the banditti partially suppressed. Cuspius was 
succeeded by Tiberius Alexander, an apostate Jew, who very shortly 
gave way to make room for Ventidius Cumanus, under whose rule the 
troubles began which ended in the downfall of Jerusalem. 

One of the Roman soldiers, at the time of the Jewish passover, in- 
sulted the Jews by exposing his nakedness, and this exasperated them to 
such a degree that they complained of it to Cumanus, and charged him 
with ordering the offense to be given. He endeavored to reason with 
I them, but could not succeed by words, so that he ordered his troops to 
the spot ; and this so terrified the Jews that they fled in every direction, 
and twenty thousand were stifled to death in their flight by running over 
one another in the confined avenues that led to and from the temple. 

• , * T'i? 8 ^ as H< i r ?? Agrippa I., the grandson of Herod the Great, who sought the life of the 
infant Savior, andthe nephew of Herod Antipas, who beheaded John the Baptist, and the father 
?£ S e ^? d A^riPpa II-,. before whom Paul made his defense recorded in Acts xxvi. Josephus says 
that the characteristics of Herod Agrippa I. were devotion to Judaism, R-entleness, beneficence, 
and love of popularity. The twelfth chapter of Acts illustrates his Judaism and love of popularity! 


Cumanus was succeeded by Claudius Felix as governor of Judea, and 
under his administration things went from bad to worse. The country 
swarmed with banditti ; Jerusalem became the prey of false prophets and 
pretended workers of miracles, who were continually inciting discontent 
and sedition ; and numbers of assassins, under the name of Sicarii, 
abounded in all the cities and towns of the country, committing the most 
horrible murders under the pretext of religious and patriotic zeal. These 
Sicarii could be hired by any one to assassinate an enemy or any person 
who seemed to stand in the way of another. The Jewish priests, and 
even the pontiffs, made no hesitation in hiring these assassins to rid them 
of all such persons as were obnoxious to them. In the meantime Felix 
went forth with his soldiers in every direction, punishing the innocent 
with the guilty, and thereby destroyed all confidence in the Roman gov- 
ernment as a power for the promotion of justice and equity in the land. 

Felix was succeeded in the government by Festus, who, when enter- 
ing upon the duties of his office, found the very priesthood engaged in war 
with each other. The high priests claimed their full share of tithes, and 
those who had been deposed claimed a full share also, while the inferior 
priests were loth to yield what belonged to them. Thus parties were 
formed, and, each party hiring a squad of the Sicarii to accompany them 
dreadful encounters often occurred, wherein many were murdered, both 
in Jerusalem and other towns ; and even the very temple itself was de- 
filed with the blood of these victims. Festus, therefore, had a threefold 
task upon his hands ; he had to suppress the violence of the priesthood 
against each other ; that of the seditious Jews against the Romans and 
such as contentedly submitted to their government ; and that of the ban- 
ditti abroad, who infested the whole country, and robbed, plundered and 
massacred everywhere without mercy. 

Festus dying soon after Paul was brought before him, Nero nomi- 
nated his successor Albinus, of whom it is related by historians that he was 
such a cruel and rapacious monster that Felix and Festus, with all their 
faults, were angels when compared with him. After a two years' tenure 
of office he was succeeded by Gessius Floras, the last and worst of all the 
Roman governors. His rapines, cruelties and acts of oppression, his com- 
promising with the banditti for large sums of money, and, in short, his 
whole behavior, were so openly flagitious that the Jews were disposed to 
regard him rather as a bloody executioner sent to torture than as a magis- 
trate to govern them. His great object seemed to be to goad the Jews to- 
open rebellion against the Roman government, and he succeeded well at 

In the days of Felix a dispute arose between the Jews and Syrians as 
to the ownership of Csesarea, each claiming it. It was referred to the 
emperor, who decided against the Jews, and the latter became indignant, 
and took up arms in defense of their claim. They assailed both Syrians 
and Romans in all places and on all occasions of their meeting together. 
Throughout all Judea little else was heard of but robberies, murders, and 


every species of cruelty— cities and villages filled with the dead of all ages 
and each sex, and of every quality, down to the tender infant. The 
Cesareans fell suddenly on the Jews in their city and massacred twenty 
thousand of them ; two thousand were murdered at Ptolemais, and fifty 
thousand at the city of Alexandria, in Egypt. At Jerusalem, Florus one 
day caused his troops to go and plunder the market, and to kill all they 
met ; and they accordingly murdered three thousand five hundred per- 
sons, men, women and children, and the streets of the city were day after 
day deluged with blood. Florus gloated over the carnage, and wrote to 
Cestius, the governor of Syria, casting the blame of all these horrible 
cruelties upon the Jews. 

This war of open rebellion against the Roman government was fairly 
inaugurated in the second year of the government of Florus, in the 
twelfth of Nero's reign, A. D. 66. 

The Jews next pushed their conquests beyond the river Jordan, took 
the fortress of Cyprus, razed it to the ground, and put all the Romans to 
the sword. The governor of Syria then bestirred himself, marched into 
Judea with a powerful army, burned the towns and villages in his way, 
massacred all the Jews he could come at, and then encamped before 
Gibeon about the feast of tabernacles. " The Jews at Jerusalem, hearing 
of his approach, forsook the solemnities of their religion, and, even 
though it was on the Sabbath day, flew to arms and proceeded to meet 
him with such fury, that had not the cavalry arrived at the moment to 
the support of his infantry, he had sustained a signal defeat. He lost five 
hundred men, while the Jews lost but twenty-two." Cestius proffered 
terms of peace. The Jews killed one of his messengers, and wounded 
another. Enraged at tins, he marched forward, and encamped in order 
of battle before Jerusalem on the 30th of October, A. D. <36. This put the 
Jews in great consternation, and they abandoned all their outworks, and 
retired to the inner cincture near the temple. Cestius fired the former, 
and laid siege to the latter, and took up his headquarters in the royal 
palace. He now hesitated ; his generals were bribed ; the Jews made a 
sortie and succeeded in repulsing him ; they drove him back to his camp 
at Gibeon, harassed his rear, secured the passes, and attacked his army 
in flank. " Hemmed in on all sides, the mountains re-echoed with the 
hideous cries of his soldiers, and having lost four thousand foot and two 
hundred horse, favored by the intervening night, they on the eighth of 
November happily found a pass through the narrow straits of Bethoron 
and escaped." 

Milman says that the Romans might easily have made themselves 
masters of the city of Jerusalem : and it was to the universal surprise that 
Cestius called off his troops. Though the war continued, Jerusalem was 
not besieged again till April, A. D. 70. During this interval of about two 
years and a half the Christians in Jerusalem, remembering Christ's words 
of warning (Matt. xxiv. 15; Mark xiii. 14; Luke xxi. 21), fled beyond the 
Jordan to Pella, in the north of Perea, in the mountains of Gilead, some 


sixty miles northeast of Jerusalem, where king Herod Agrippa II. opened 
to them a safe asylum ; and thus they escaped the horrors of the final 
siege of Jerusalem. 

The retreat of Cestius aroused Nero, who sent Vespasian and his son 
•Titus, in the ensuing spring, into Galilee with an army of sixty thousand 
men, well disciplined and equipped for service. They burnt Gadara, and 
marched towards Jotapata ; but Josephus, the celebrated historian, and 
at that time governor of the province, threw himself into that placje and 
defended it for a period of forty- seven days. It was finally taken about 
the beginning of July, with the loss of all its inhabitants— forty thousand 
slain, and only twelve hundred prisoners ; among the latter was Josephus 

Josephus predicted the elevation of Vespasian to the throne of the 
Caesars in three years. Vespasian did not believe it, but treated Josephus 
kindly as a prisoner, and when he was elected, the next year, emperor of 
Borne, left the army and Josephus in the care of his son Titus, who gave 
him much liberty, and sent him occasionally to the Jews to urge them to 
desist from further rebellion. 

Titus took Jaffa, two miles southwest of Nazareth, while his father 
was besieging Jotapata. All the men were put to the sword, and the 
women and children taken prisoners. Joppa, which had been repeopled 
by a great number of seditious Jews since it was taken by Cestius, was 
retaken by Vespasian, and about four thousand of its inhabitants de- 
stroyed. Tarichea and Tiberias were next taken. The other cities of 
Galilee then submitted to the Romans, except Gischala, Gamala and 
Mount Tabor. 

Gamala was taken, and four thousand of its citizens were put to the 
sword, while vast numbers took their own lives rather than surrender to 
the Romans. Mount Tabor was taken by stratagem, and, after John of 
Gischala left that city and fled with his soldiers towards Jerusalem, the 
remaining citizens surrendered. This completed the conquest of Galilee, 
after which the whole Roman army took a respite at Cresarea before they 
began the siege of Jerusalem. 

While Vespasian was resting his army in winter quarters at Csssarea, 
the Jews were exhausting themselves in Jerusalem by their factions, and 
warring against each other. They were at that time, no doubt, the worst 
population on the face of the globe, and eventually suffered more than 
any other. The dominant party, which was the war party, consisted of 
men of the vilest and most profligate characters that perhaps the pen of 
the historian ever described. They were proud, ambitious, cruel, rapa- 
cious, and addicted to the most horrid crimes. Josephus says they acted 
more like infernal beings than men. Yet there were men peaceably dis- 
posed within the city, and who would have sought terms with the Romans 
if they could. These were very few, however, and suffered for their vir- 
tues. John of Gischala, who fled from that place to Jerusalem to escape 
the clutches of Vespasian, had placed himself at the head of the domi- 

220 CHAPTER Till. 

nant party, and practiced the most imheard-of cruelties upon the inno- 
cent and inoffensive. At one time he and his party put to death twelve^ 
thousand persons of noble extraction, and in the flower of their age, 
butchering them in the most horrible manner. In short, the whole nation 
trembled at the mention of the names of these men, and did not dare to 
be seen or heard to weep for the murder of their nearest relatives nor 
even to give them burial. When the party of John had quelled, as they 
supposed, all opposition to them within the walls of the city, they began 
to turn their murderous weapons against each other, all of which was 
favorable to the Romans, and well known to them. Famine and pesti- 
lence also prevailed in the city and made its conquest the easier. Ves- 
pasian marched out of Ceesarea in the spring of A. D. 70, penetrated Idu- 
mea, and plundered and burnt every place through which he passed, 
except where it was necessary to leave a garrison to keep the country in 
awe. On receiving intelligence of his election as emperor, he left the 
army in charge of his son Titus, and repaired to Home. His advice to his 
son was to utterly destroy Jerusalem. 

Titus lost no time in complying with this command. He set his army 
in motion in April, marched at once to the walls of that devoted city, and 
commenced the siege immediately after the passover, when Jerusalem 
was filled with strangers. It seemed almost impregnable, being on an 
eminence and surrounded with three walls and many stately towers. 
The first or old wall, which by reason of its vast thickness was looked 
upon as impregnable, had no less than sixty of these towers, lofty, firm 
and strong. The second had fourteen, and the third eighty. The cir- 
cumference of the city was nearly four English miles. The siege fairly 
commenced on the 14th of April and ended on the 8th of September, when 
it was taken and entered by Titus — lasting five months wanting six days. 
The wonder to us is how a single city could withstand the power of Rome 
for such a length of time. Unheard of cruelties and sufferings occurred 
within that period. It was reported to Titus by a deserter that at one of 
the gates where he was stationed there were carried out to be buried one 
hundred and fifteen thousand eight hundred and eighty persons from the 
14th of April to the 1st of July. Another told him that they had carried 
out at all the gates six hundred thousand, and that then, being unable to 
carry them all out, they had filled whole houses with them and shut them 

One circumstance will suffice to show the deplorable famine that pre- 
vailed in the city. An unhappy and starving mother, in fulfillment of 
the prophecy of Moses (Deut. xxviii. 56, 57), was reduced to the necessity 
of feeding upon her own child. " This lady's name was Miriam, who had 
taken refuge, with many others, in this devoted city, from the breaking 
out of the war. As the famine increased, her house was repeatedly plun- 
dered of such provisions as she had been able to procure. She had vainly 
endeavored, by her entreaties, to prevail upon them to put an end to her 
miserable existence, but the mercy was too great to be granted her. 


Frantic at length with firry and despair, she snatched her infant from her 
bosom, cut its throat and broiled it ; and, having satiated her present 
hunger, concealed the rest. The smell of it soon drew the voracious 
human tigers to her house ; they threatened her with the most excruciat- 
ing tortures if she did not discover her provisions to them ; upon which 
fehe set forth before them the relics of her mangled infant, bidding them 
«at heartily and not be squeamish,' since she, its onee tender mother, had 
made no scruple to butcher, dress, and feed upon it. At the sight of this 
horrid dish, inhuman as they were, they stood aghast, petrified with 
horror, and departed, leaving the astonished mother in possession of her 
•dismal fare." 

" When the report of this spread through the city, the horror and con- 
sternation were as universal as they were inexpressible. They now for* 
the first time began to think themselves forsaken of the providence of 
God, and to expect the most awful effects of His anger. Nor were their 
iears either unreasonable or ill-founded ; for no sooner had Titus heard 
of this inhuman deed than he vowed the total extirpation of the city and 
•people;- 'Since,' said he, 'they have so often refused my proffers of 
pardon, >and have preferred war to peace, rebellion to obedience, and 
famine to plenty, I am determined to bury that cursed metropolis under 
' its ruins, that the sun may never more dart his beams upon a city where 
-the mothers feed on the flesh of their children, and the fathers, no less 
guilty than themselves, choose to drive them to Such extremities rather 
than lay down their arms.' " — W. Jones. 

And yet such was the humanity of Titus that he felt reluctant to de- 
stroy so many human beings, frequently tendering them forgiveness upon 
Tepentance : and such his regard for the magnificence and value of the 
-temple that it was set on fire, at last, and consumed, against his orders 
and in defiance of his commands, expostulations, and canings of his sol- 
diers who did the awful deed. 

Seeing that all was lost, and his endeavors to save the temple inef- 
fectual, " Titus entered into the sanctuary and Most Holy place, the re- 
maining grandeur and riches of which, even yet, surpassed all that had 
been told him of it. Out of the former he saved the golden candlestick, 
the table of the show-bread, the altar of incense, all of pure gold, and the 
book of the law, wrapped up in a rich golden tissue. Upon his quitting 
"that sacred place some soldiers set fire to it, obliging those who had staid 
behind to come out also, in consequence of which they all began to plun- 
der it, carrying off the costly utensils, robes, gold plating of the gates, 
«tc, insomuch that there was not one of them who did not enrich himself 
by it." 

" A horrid massacre succeeded to this, in which many thousands per- 
ished, some by the flames, others falling from the battlements, and a 
greater number still by the enemy's sword, which spared neither age, sex 
nor quality. Among them were upwards of six thousand persons who had 


been seduced thither by a false prophet, who promised them they should 
find a miraculous deliverance on that very day. 

" The Eomans carried their fury to the burning of all the treasure 
houses of the place, though they were full of the richest furniture, vest- 
ments, plate, and other valuable articles, there laid up for security ; nor 
did they cease the dreadful work of devastation till they had destroyed 
all except two of the temple gates, and that part of the court that was. 
destined for the women." 

The temple was burned on the tenth of August, the same day of the 
year it was said that the first temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. 
Josephus states that the hill on which the temple stood was seething hot, 
and seemed enveloped to its base in one sheet of flame ; that the blood 
•was larger in quantity than the fire, and all the ground was covered with 
corpses. The Romans planted their eagles or standards on the temple 
ruins, offered their sacrifices to them, and proclaimed Titus Imperator 
with the greatest acclamations of joy. Thus was fulfilled Christ's 
prophecy concerning the abomination of desolation standing in the holy 

" The city was now abandoned to the fury of the soldiers, who pro- 
ceeded forthwith to plunder it, setting it on fire in every direction, and 
murdering all that fell into their hands — whilst the factious party among 
the Jews, that had hitherto escaped, went and fortified themselves in the 
royal palace, where they killed eight thousand of their own countrymen 
who had taken refuge there. 

" Preparations were now making for a vigorous attack on the upper 
city, and particularly on the royal palace, and this occupied Titus from 
the 20th of August to the 7th of September, during which time great 
numbers came and made their submission to him, among whom were 
forty thousand citizens of the inferior classes, to whom he gave permis- 
sion to go and settle where they would. On the 8th of September the city 
was taken (as has been said) and entered by Titus. 

" Josephus estimates that one million and one hundred thousand Jews 
were slain during the siege ; eleven thousand died from starvation shortly 
afterwards ; and ninety-seven thousand were sold into slavery, or sent to 
the mines, or sacrificed in the gladiatorial shows in different cities. 

" It is not a little remarkable that Titus, though a heathen, was fre- 
quently obliged, during this war, to acknowledge an overruling provi- 
dence, not only in the extraordinary success with which he had been 
favored, but also in the invincible obstinacy, through which the Jews r 
to the last, preferred their total destruction to an acceptance of his re- 
peated overtures of mercy. 

" Again and again did he, in the most solemn manner, appeal to Heaven 
that he was innocent of the blood of this wretched people (Josephus' 
Wars, b. 5, ch. 12). In almost every chapter we find Josephus also ascrib- 
ing these dreadful calamities, and the final ruin of his nation, city and 
temple, to an overruling power ; to the offended Deity ; to the sins of th& 


people ; but nowhere more pathetically than in that chapter in which' he 
sums up a number of dreadful warnings, sent beforehand, not so much to 
reduce them to obedience as to make them discern the Almighty hand 
that was ever pouring out the awful vials of His wrath upon them ( Jose- 
phus' Wars, b. 6, ch. 5, and b. 5, ch. 13). 

" As soon as the Romans had completed their destructive work of 
Are and slaughter, Titus set them to demolish the city, with all its noble 
structures, fortifications, palaces, towers, walls and other ornaments, 
down to the level of the ground ; as though he had nothing in view but 
to fulfill the predictions of Christ concerning its destruction, as contained ' 
in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew's Gospel. He left nothing 
standing but a piece of the western wall and three towers, which he re- 
served merely as a monument to future ages of what had been the 
strength of the city, and the skill and valor of its conqueror. His orders 
were executed so punctually that, except what has been just mentioned, 
nothing remained that could serve as an index that that ground had been 
once inhabited ; insomuch that when Titus himself, some time afterwards, 
passed through it on his way from Ca?sarea to Alexandria, in order to em- 
bark for Rome, he wept profusely at the sight of a devastation so dread- 
ful, cursing the wretches that had compelled him to be the author of it 
(Josephus' Wars, b. 6, chs. 8 and 9). 

" Such was the dreadful issue of this war, terminating in the utter 
downfall of the Jewish state and nation, from which it has never re- 
covered to this day ; it involved in it the destruction of the temple, and 
the discontinuance of the services annexed to it. The desolation of the 
country itself went on increasing ; till, from being, for its size, one of the 
most fertile and populous countries in the world, having about five mil- 
lion inhabitants, it is now become the most barren and desolate, the lat- 
est computation of the number of its inhabitants scarcely exceeding 
three hundred thousand. 

" Not only the wisdom but the justice of God is also conspicuously 
displayed in this great event. A particular Providence had ever attended 
these people. They had always been favored with prosperity while obe- 
dient to God and His prophets ; and, on the other hand, calamity of some 
kind had been the never railing consequence of their disobedience. But 
the measure of their iniquities was now filled up, and the wrath of Heaven 
came upon them to the uttermost. Never had the nation in general 
shown a more perverse or obstinate disposition towards any of their 
prophets than was evinced towards Christ and His Apostles, though none 
of their prophets had ever been sent to them with such evident marks of 
a Divine mission. Their inveterate hostility to Christianity continues to 
this day, and so does their dispersion, though they are still a distinct 
people, and never mix, so as to be confounded, with any of the nations 
among whom they have settled." 

All other ancient peoples blended together in an indistinguishable 
mass ; but the Jews, having disobeyed God, and having, according to the 


prediction of Moses (Deut. xxviii. 49-68), been plucked up out of their 
own land by a distant, eagle-like nation, of strange tongue and fierce 
countenance, and having been scattered among all people from one end 
of the earth to the other, remain still distinct from all other people, for 
the purpose of being, to all men, living proofs of the truth of the Old 
Testament, and for the fulfillment of the prophecies that are still to be 

"The reader will perceive that the history of the Jewish war, as de- 
tailed by their own historian, Josephus, in many instances a witness of 
the facts he attests, forms a commentary on the prophecies of Christ. 
Amongst other things, he has given a distinct account of the * fearful 
sights and great signs from Heaven' which preceded the destruction of 
Jerusalem ; and Tacitus has confirmed the narration of Josephus (Tacit. 
Annal, b. 5). If Christ had not expressly foretold these things, some 
might have suspected that Josephus exaggerated, and Tacitus was misin- 
formed ; but as the testimonies of these historians confirm the predic- 
tions of Christ, so do the predictions of Christ confirm the wonders 
recorded by the historians." 

While Christ made the one essential thing the relation of man to 
Himself, He did not formally abolish the ceremonial law, but, on the 
other hand, He was born under the law and lived under it, and strictly 
and perfectly obeyed it for His people; He said nothing about doing 
away with circumcision and the temple worship (except in a general 
manner, as in John iv. 21) ; He left the separation of Christianity and 
Judaism to the Spirit and Providence of God. Even Paul, the great 
Apostle of Christian freedom, " more than once religiously visited the 
temple, and accommodated himself outwardly, in various ways, to Juda- 
ism. But now the time had come for the church to be delivered from its 
Jewish swaddling-bands, and God Himself came down in a terrific prov- 
idence, and destroyed the house in which He had been worshiped, and 
gave His cause and people the spiritual emancipation which He had de- 
signed for them." 

" By terrible events an end was at length put to the Mosaic economy ; 
for, with the destruction of their city and temple, the whole Jewish polity 
and church state were also subverted. From that time the remnant of 
that once highly favored nation have been dispersed throughout the 
world ; despised and hated by all ; subjected, from age to age, to a per- 
petual succession of persecutions and miseries, yet under all these disad- 
vantages, upheld by Divine Providence as a distinct people. They have 
ever since remained 'without a king, without a prince and without a sacri- 
fice ; without an altar, without an ephod, and without Divine manifesta- 
tions ; ' as monuments everywhere of the truth of Christianity— yet with 
this promise, that ' the children of Israel shall return and seek the Lord 
their God, and David their king, and shall fear the Lord and His good- 
ness in the latter days ' " (Hosea iii. 4, 5).— W. Jones. 

The Emperor Vespasian reigned ten years. His son Titus, who was 


superior to his father, reigned only two years, two months and twenty 
days, when to the great grief of his subjects he was suddenly snatched 
away, as was supposed by poison administered by the hands of his brother 
Domitian, who succeeded to the throne in the year 81. In his temper and 
disposition he seemed to inherit all the savage cruelty of the monster 
Nero. This was shown toward his subjects generally; for toward the 
Christians in special he appeared to have no particular hatred, until about 
-the fourteenth year of his reign, when his cruelty toward them showed 
itself. He had several put to death, and others banished, on account of 
their religion, both in Rome and in various parts of his empire. Among 
the number put to death was his own cousin and colleague in the consul- 
ship, Flavius Clemens, and among those who were banished were the 
wife and niece of the latter, both named Flavia Domitilla. The Apostle 
John is said to have survived the persecution under Domitian, though it 
is Uncertain how long, and to have died in the reign of Trajan, about 98 
A. D., at Ephesus, at which city he was buried. 

The crime alleged against the Christians at this period was that they 
were atheists, simply because they refused to acknowledge or worship the 
gods of the heathen, or even throw a grain of incense on one of their 
altars. And as Christians had neither temples, nor altars, nor sacrifices, 
it was taken for granted that they worshiped no god, were haters of the 
gods, and could be nothing better than atheists. 

Domitian, however, before his end, relaxed his persecution of Chris- 
tians, and recalled from banishment those who had been driven away. 
He was at length assassinated in the sixteenth year of his reign, and was 
succeeded in the empire by Nerva, an excellent prince, and whose reign 
made the Romans as happy as that of Domitian had made them misera- 
ble. " He pardoned all that had been imprisoned for treason, called 
home such as had been banished, restored the sequestrated estates, pun- 
ished informers, redressed grievances to the utmost of his power, and 
acted with universal beneficence towards all descriptions of his subjects. 
He forbade the persecution of any persons for their religious belief, 
whether Jews or Christians. After an excellent reign of sixteen months 
and eight days he was taken away by death, January 23, A. D. 98, and was 
succeeded by Trajan, whom he had previously nominated as his heir, a 
man well skilled in martial and cabinet affairs. In his deportment Tra- 
jan was courteous, affable, humane and just, and perhaps not undeserv- 
edly esteemed one of the best princes with whom Rome had ever been 
favored. And so the first century of the Christian era terminates with 
the mild and virtuous reign of Trajan." 

I shall now give some remarks, taken chiefly from "The Early Years 
of Christianity," by E. De Pressense, of Paris, on the Petrine, Pauline 
and Johannine Periods of the Apostolic Age. 

"It 'is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ 
Jesus came into the world to save sinners' (1 Tim. i. 15). He also ' came 
to seek and to save that which was lost,' and ' to call sinners to repentance.' 


And it is equally true, we think, that He came to restore the kingdom of 
God upon earth : to found and establish a holy community, from which, 
as from a new humanity reconstituted by Himself, filled with His Spirit 
and living by His life, the gospel should go forth into all the world. This 
community is the Christian Church. It differs from all other religious 
institutions that ever preceded it. It is not limited, like the Jewish 
theocracy, to one special nation, or bounded by the frontiers of any land. 
It is finally to conquer all the powers of earth and hell combined against 
it. Its character is essentially supernatural. Being born of a miracle, by 
a miracle it lives. Founded upon the great miracle of redemption, it 
grows and is perpetuated by the ever-repeated miracle of conversion. It 
is entered not by the natural way of birth, but by the supernatural way of 
the new birth. The church, resting on no national or theocratic basis, 
must gather its adherents simply by individual conviction, and such a 
basis alone corresponds with the breadth of Christianity, because it alone 
places the church beyond the narrow bounds of nationalities and of terri- 
torial circumscription. In truth, setting aside in man the contingent in 
race and the distinctions of birth, all that remains is the moral person- 
ality, the individual soul, to be brought into direct contact with God. In- 
dividuality is therefore the widest conceivable basis for a religious com- 
munity. When Jesus Christ sent forth, to the conquest of the world, the 
few disciples whom He had gathered around Him and who formed the 
nucleus of the church, He by that act abrogated the old theocratic dis- 
tinctions, and implicitly founded the new community, in which there is 
neither Jew nor Greek, circumcision nor uncircumcision." 

" The Christian church has a double vocation. It is called first (by 
the grace of God) to assimilate to itself more and more closely the teach- 
ing and the life of its Divine Pounder, to be joined to Him by tender and 
sacred bonds, to grow in knowledge, in charity, in holiness (Rom. viii. 
29). It is then, by the same grace, to carry everywhere the light and 
flame thus kindled and fed in the sanctuary of the soul, to the enlighten- 
ment of others, and the glorification of God (Matt. v. 16). 

" Of all the periods connected with church history, none is so important 
or interesting as that of the Apostolic Age. Two gifts are peculiar to this 
age, viz., that of the Apostolate and of Inspiration. The Apostolate con- 
stitutes the direct witness for Christ, and the judgment from which there 
is no appeal ; and the Inspiration, the Holy Ghost given in extraordinary 
measure, to lay a solid foundation npon which the church in all ages must 
be built up. These two great facts of the Apostolic Age claim our atten- 
tion. They are not at once developed, but are progressive in their nature. 
Such is the order in both the Old and New Testament revelations. Every 
one who admits that the ideal of the new covenant shines forth re- 
splendent in the person of the God-Man, must equally admit that the 
complete blending of the human with the Divine element is the great 
consummation of the gospel design. This, which is to be the aim in every 
age, finds its most nearly perfect realization in the age of the Apostles. 


Their era, therefore, may be regarded as having furnished, as it were, the 
theme of the history of the church ; for that history is but a free and vig- 
orous development of the great results gained in the first century. The 
first subject, then, for our consideration is this normal and ideal union of 
the human and the Divine element in the life of the primitive church." 

It may be divided into three parts, each designated by the name of 
the Apostle who exercised the greatest influence upon it. We have thus, 
the period of Saint Peter, that of Saint Paul, and that of Saint John. 


" In the first the Divine element predominates, almost to the exclu- 
sion of the human, which is in comparison reduced to passivity. This is- 
the period of the purely supernatural : it follows the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit, and precedes the great internal deliberations in the church. 
In the second and third the human element is more apparent, though al- 
ways controlled and purified by the Divine ; great questions are stated 
and debated, church organization begins, doctrine becomes more defined, 
and, if miracles are still many, they are less abundant than they were be- 
fore. The latter fact, so far from implying any inferiority in the closing 
periods of the Apostolic Age, seems to us to mark a real superiority, 
rather. For in truth when the supernatural element is so infused into 
human nature that it animates it, as the soul the body, it may be said that 
the union between God and man is fully realized, and the most glorious, 
results of redemption achieved."— E. DePressense. 

Connected with and belonging to the supernatural or first period, 
wherein the Apostle Peter seems to take the lead, may be mentioned the 
outpouring of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost, the preaching of Peter 
and the addition of three thousand to the church ; the healing of the crip- 
ple at the beautiful gate of the temple, the preaching of Peter and an- 
other gathering of believers amounting to five thousand. Multitudes on 
another occasion, professing faith in Christ, were added to the Lord, both 
men and women, consequent upon the numerous healings by the Apostles, 
of the diseased brought to them, or within range of even the shadow of 
Peter ; the release of the Apostles from prison by the angel of the Lord, 
and a command to go stand in the temple and preach to the people all the 
words of this life; the deliverance of the Apostle Peter from prison, 
wherein he was chained to two soldiers, the prison doors locked, and four 
quarternions of soldiers guarding the prison outside, without their know- 
ing anything about it; and, as the angel led him along, the great iron 
gate of the city opened of its own accord for them to pass through ; the 
healing of iEneas, a bedridden invalid for eight years in the town of 
Lydda, at which the inhabitants of Lydda and Saron turned to the Lord ; 
the vision of the vessel, like unto a great sheet knit at the four corners, 
let down from Heaven in the view of Peter, while in a trance on the 
house top, in which vessel were four-footed beasts of the earth, and 
wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air, and a voice com- 


mianding Peter to slay and eat, etc., which induced him to visit a Gentile 
who had sent for him, and preach to him and his kinsmen and near friends, 
upon whom the Holy Ghost descended, and for that reason were baptized 
at the command of the Apostle. Well then may this be called the super- 
natural period ; for, with but little labor, physically, on the part of the 
Apostles, no doubt fully ten thousand people professed faith in Christ, 
and were baptized in obedience to His command, and added to the 

Pentecost was spoken of by Josephus as the feast of the great assem- 
bly. According to Jewish tradition, it was the anniversary of the pro- 
mulgation of the Jewish law. Never were there such wonders performed 
at the celebration of this feast in Jerusalem as when the Holy Ghost 
«ame down and filled the hearts of the disciples with the fire of heavenly 
love, and enabled them to proclaim the gospel in the various languages 
of the world. " The miracle of Pentecost was an enacted prophecy of the 
happy time, when all the diversities created by evil (among the re- 
deemed) will be lost in the unity of love. Is not this prophecy receiving 
a constant fulfillment as Christianity masters, one after another, the lan- 
guages of mankind, and makes them the media for conveying its immor- 
tal truths? ' The church in her humility,' says the venerable Bede, 're- 
forms the unity of language broken before by pride.' " 

"The Apostles had received the Holy Ghost before the pentecostal 
tongues of fire were displayed, in a measure, but on that occasion they 
were completely filled with His presence. All the barriers between earth 
and Heaven seemed to be removed. 

" Until this time the young church might be compared to a ship, ready 
to depart, its sails spread for the winds. The breath from on high now 
blows npon it ; it is no longer an inert mass, it is an animated body ; it 
may set forth on its flight over all seas, and, be they stormy or calm, it 
shall be ever advancing towards its appointed haven." 

The rapid increase of numbers soon brought about an open rupture 
between the young church and Judaism. The Sadducean party took the 
lead in the early persecutions, because the point of doctrine mainly in- 
sisted on by the Apostles was the resurrection of the dead ; which was 
particularly odious to the Sadducees. " Annas and Caiaphas, who pre- 
sided over the council before which the Apostles were repeatedly cited, 
were the well-known leaders of the Roman or Sadducean party. The 
•only judge who showed himself impartial (on one of these occasions) was 
the Pharisee Gamaliel" (Acts v. 17). 

" During all this early time the influence of the Apostle Peter pre- 
dominates. The part thus taken by him has been urged as a proof of his 
primacy. But on closer examination it will be seen that he does but 
■exercise his native gifts, purified and ennobled by the Divine Spirit. 
Peter was the son of a fisherman named Jonas, of the village of Beth- 
saida, in Galilee (Matt. xvi. 17 ; John i. 44). He was among the disciples 
of John the Baptist, and was thus prepared to respond favorably to the 


call of Jesus Christ. He soon received his vocation as an Apostle. His 
disposition was quick and ardent, but his zeal was blended with presump- 
tion and pride. Living in constant contact with the Master as one of the 
three disciples who enjoyed his closest intimacy, he conceived for Him a 
strong affection. His impetuous nature was, however, far from being at 
once brought under control. He had noble impulses, like that which 
prompted Ms grand testimony to the Savior: 'Thou art the Christ of 
God' (Matt. xvi. 16). But he was also actuated by many an earthly 
motive, which drew down upon him the Master's sharp reproach* 
Once, under the influence of Jewish prejudice, he repelled with indigna- 
tion the idea of the humiliating death of Christ. At another time he was 
eager to appear more courageous than all the other disciples, and, again 
yielding to his natural impetuosity, he drew his sword to defend Him 
whose ' kingdom is not of this world.' It was needful that the yet inco- 
herent elements of his moral nature should be thrown into the crucible of 
trial. His shameful fall resulted in a decisive moral crisis, which com- 
menced in that moment when, pierced to the heart by the look of Christ, 
he went out of the court of the high priest and wept bitterly. He appears 
entirely changed in the last interview he has with the Savior on the 
shores of the Lake Tiberias. Jesus Christ restores him after his three- 
fold denial, by calling forth a threefold confession of his love (John 
xxi. 15). 

"Nothing but determined prejudice could construe the tender solici- 
tude of the Master for this disciple into an official declaration of his pri- 
macy. We are here in the region of feeling alone, not on the standing 
ground of right and legal institutions. Nor has the primacy of Peter any 
more legal foundation in the famous passage, ' Thou art Peter.' Jesus 
Christ admirably characterized by this image the ardent and generous 
nature of His disciple, and that courage of the pioneer which marked 
him out as the first laborer in the foundation of the primitive church. 
The son of Jonas was its most active, and, as it were, its first stone (laid 
on Christ, the chief corner-stone). He was also the rock against which 
the first tempest from without spent its fury. Beyond this, the narrative 
of Saint Luke lends no countenance to any hierarchical notions." The 
church passed through an experience of three hundred years before any 
organized body of professed Christians attached the Romish sense to 
Matt. xvi. 18. " Everything is natural and spontaneous in the conduct of 
St. Peter. He is not official president of a sort of Apostolic college. He 
acts only with the concurrence of his brethren, whether in the choice of 
a new Apostle (Acts i. 15), or at Pentecost (Acts ii. 14), or before the San- 
hedrim. Peter had been the most deeply humbled of the disciples, there- 
fore he was the first to be exalted. John's part being at this time incon- 
spicuous, no other Apostle is named with Peter, because he fills the 
whole scene with his irrepressible zeal and indefatigable activity."— 

Even if Peter had been made by Christ the primate of the Apostles, 

230 CHAPTER Till. 

-there is not a shadow of Bible proof that Peter either had the right or 
attempted to confer such primacy upon a successor, still less upon the 
bishop of Kome, where there is* no Bible proof of Peter's ever having 
been. The Catholic traditions about Peter's presence in Home are irre- 
concilable contradictions. Peter was married; the popes forbid clerical 
marriage. Peter had no silver or gold ; the popes have their millions. 
In the council at Jerusalem Peter assumed no special authority, much 
less infallibility, while James presided and his judgment prevailed ; the 
popes claim infallibility. Peter was publicly rebuked for his inconsist- 
ency by Paul, a younger Apostle, at Antioch ; the popes are the lords Of 
Catholicism. Peter in his epistles shows the deepest humility, and 
"prophetically warns against filthy avarice and lordly ambition, the be- 
setting sins of the papacy." Peter emphatically teaches " the general 
priesthood and royalty of believers, obedience to Grod rather than man, 
■condemnation of mental reservation in Ananias and Sapphira, and of 
simony in Simon Magus, opposition to the yoke of legal bondage, salva- 
tion in no other name but that of Jesus Christ." 

" From its very birth the Christian church is called to defend itself 
against the attacks of its adversaries, and to contend for the claims of 
truth. The opposition to Christianity assumes from the outset various 
forms. The first to be encountered is that of scoffing unbelief. This foe 
has not yet sharpened and polished the weapons with which in subsequent 
times it will wound by the hands of a Celsus and a Lucian. But was not 
the laugh of the scorner heard on the very day when the Holy Spirit de- 
scended upon the church 1 Did not his voice cry, ' These men are full of 
new wine V And from the scorner's point of view it was a fair conclu- 
sion. The supernatural is absurd to those- who discern nothing beyond 
the circle of the visible ; and herein is its peculiar glory. The laugh of 
unbelief has never ceased in all these eighteen centuries to ring through 
the world. But ridicule alone was not enough. Calumny and false in- 
sinuations must be enlisted in the same cause. The miracles of the primi- 
tive church were incontestable ; they could not be brought in question, 
but they might, like those of Jesus Christ, be ascribed to witchcraft and 
to the powers of darkness. The arts of magic were much believed in at 
this epoch, as in all periods of religious crisis. There was, therefore, pro- 
found subtilty in likening the Apostles to common magicians. Such an 
idea is evidently present in the question of the Sanhedrim to Peter and 
John, after the healing of the impotent man : ' By what power or by 
what name have ye done this 1 ' (Acts iv. 7). The enemies of the Apos- 
tles did not admit that they were the organs of Divine power. The influ- 
ence, then, by which they made so much stir, must be diabolical or magi- 
cal. Side by side with this open unbelief, the primitive church had to 
encounter the ignorance and prejudices of a people of formalists and 
materialists. They had, with the Divine blessing, to establish the claims 
of Jesus Christ ; that is, of a humble and crucified Messiah before a 


nation which was ready to believe only in a glorious king— a new Macca- 

" To meet all objections, the church had ready a simple and popular 
method of defense. We at once admit that they appealed without hesi- 
tation to the testimony of reason for all the facts coming within its com- 
petence. Thus in reply to the absurd charge of drunkenness brought 
against the disciples, Peter urges that it is but the third hour of the day 
— the hour, that is, of morning prayer, before which the Jews never pre- 
sumed to eat or drink (Acts ii. 15). But the advocates of Christianity do 
not pause long on such vindications. They have a line of argument 
peculiarly their own. 

" It is to be observed that the miracles are rather the occasion than 
the cause of the defense which accompanies them. Peter does not say, 
' Believe because of this amazing gift of tongues, or these miraculous 
-cures.' He says, on the contrary, 'Believe in the reality, the divinity, of 
the miracles on the scriptural and moral grounds, which show their 
necessity and establish their lawfulness.' These miracles certainly con- 
tributed to the rapid spread of the new faith by the impression they pro- 
duced upon the people; but so little are they the pivot on which the de- 
fense of the Apostles turns, that they are not the proof, but rather the 
■object of the proof. We except one miracle, which is the essential mira- 
cle of Christianity. The resurrection of Christ is not merely a marvel ; it 
is also a great religious fact. It is the glorious seal of redemption. 
Therefore it occupies the first place in the preaching of the Apostles. 
Peter constantly appeals to it, both before the people and before the San- 
hedrim (Actsii. 32; iii. 15; iv. 10; v. 30). The Apostles regarded them- 
selves, pre-eminently, as the witnesses of the resurrection. Nothing in 
fact gave so solid a foundation to the new religion as this splendid tri- 
umph of Jesus Christ over death. It was the proof of His Divine mission 
and, of that of the church, and the seal affixed by the hand of ■ God to 
teaching in His name. 'Between us and you,' the Apostles seem to say, 
' God has judged ; by raising up Jesus, He has sovereignly declared that 
He was indeed Christ the Lord.' Next to the proof drawn from the res- 
urrection of the Lord, that whieh is most prominent in the discourses of 
Peter is the evidence from Scripture. He sets himself to show the har- 
mony of the facts, in process of accomplishment, with Jewish prophecy. 
The first defender Of the church could take no other ground. An appeal 
addressed to Jews by Christians of Jewish extraction must be made to a 
tribunal recognized by all, and this was no other than Holy Scripture. If 
the Apostles at Jerusalem succeeded in showing that the facts of which 
they were the witnesses had been foretold in the Scriptures, every up- 
right Jew must be enlisted on their side. The Christian defense did not 
rise, in this its first stage, to the height to which it was carried by, St. 
John and St. Paul. In form and spirit it was limited and characterized 
by the views so prominently set forth in the first Gospel." — Pressense. 
In his discourses Peter quotes freely from the Old Testament Scrip- 


tures, pointing to the scenes occurring then and there in his day ; and 
while he charges home npon the people their guilt in murdering the 
blessed Savior, he fails not to urge repentance for that great crime, with 
a promise of forgiveness on the part of the offended Majesty of Heaven. 
The transition from the Old Covenant to the New was gradual and 
admirably accomplished. While it is true that the Apostles declared the 
truth of Christ in all its essentials, it is equally true that they enveloped 
that truth in Jewish forms. They had their own organization and held 
their meeting separately from the synagogue or the temple, yet they 
attended the stated worship of the temple during the supernatural period, 
circumcised their children, and observed many formalities appertaining 
to Judaism. The bonds between the Old and New dispensation were not 
suddenly snapped asunder, but suffered to become weaker and weaker, 
until they entirely disappeared ; and upon the destruction of the temple 
the new church found herself standing alone, unconnected with any of 
the forms of the Levitical worship. 


" Every great truth which is to win a triumphal way must become in- 
carnate in some one man, and derive, from a living, fervent heart, that 
passion and power which constrain and subdue. So long as it remains in 
the cold region of mere ideas, it exercises no mighty influence over man- 
kind. The truths of religion are not exceptions to this law. God, there- 
fore, prepared a man who was to represent in the primitive church the 
great cause of the emancipation of Christianity, and whose mission it 
was to free it completely from the bonds of the synagogue. This man 
was St. Paul, and never had noble truth a nobler organ. He brought to 
its service an heroic heart, in which fervent love was joined to indomita- 
ble courage, and a mind equally able to rise to the loftiest heights of 
speculation and to penetrate into the deepest recesses of the human soul. 
All these great qualities were enhanced by absolute devotedness to Jesus 
Christ, and a self-abnegation such as, apart from the sacrifice of the Re- 
deemer, has had no parallel upon earth. His life was one perpetual of- 
fering up of himself. His sufferings have contributed, no less than his 
indefatigable activity, to the triumph of his principles. Standing ever in 
the breach for their defense — subject to most painful contradictions, not 
only from the Jews but from his brethren — execrated by his own nation 
—maligned by a fanatic and intolerant section of the church, and threat- 
ened with death by those Gentiles whose claims he so boldly advocated— 
he suffered as scarcely any other has suffered in the service of truth ; but 
he left behind a testimony most weighty and powerful, every word sealed 
with the seal of the martyr." With the exception of Peter in the case of 
Cornelius, Paul was the first Apostle to the Gentiles , and being more es- 
pecially called to that work, he devoted his noble life to it, and visited 
many countries, and that repeatedly— preaching the unsearchable riches 


of Christ, and thus inaugurating, as it were, the universal triumph of 

" It was needful that the door of the church should be opened to the 
thousands of pTOselytes from Corinth, Athens, Ephesus and Kome, who 
came up to it and knocked. But the great Apostle of the Gentiles was 
not satisfied with this irresistible argument from facts ; he added to it 
reasoning equally able and eloquent, and, armed with dialectics perfectly 
adapted to the habits of mind of his opponents, he victoriously established 
his principles. 

" The epistles in which these reasonings have in part come down to 
us, bear on every page the impress of his heart and mind ; they show us 
the whole man, and the very style depicts in vivid characters his moral 
physiognomy. His polemics are especially admirable, because with Mm 
a negative always leads to a weightier affirmation ; he never destroys 
without replacing, and, like his Master, only abolishes by fulfilling. He 
is not only an incomparable dialectician in the subversion of error, but 
he is able also to discern all the consequences of a truth, and to grasp its 
marrow and inner substance. This great controversialist is, therefore, 
at the same time, the first representative of that true Christian mysticism 
which St. John was so fully to develop. St. Paul triumphed over Juda- 
ism only by putting in its place Christianity in all its breadth and beauty. 
What holiness, strength, nobleness of character he displayed in the course 
of his ministry, his history shows. Stt Paul is the type" of the reformer in 
the church ; in every fresh struggle for the church's freedom, his will be 
the track in which courageous Christians will follow. No true reforma- 
tion can be wrought in any spirit other than that of Paul — a spirit equally 
removed from the timidity which preserves that which should be de- 
stroyed, and the rashness which destroys that which should be preserved. 

" When God is forming a powerful instrument for the accomplishment 
of His designs, the process of preparation is long and gradual. Every 
circumstance was brought to bear on the education of the chosen witness, 
and every experience, even of wrong and error, is made to enhance the 
power and completeness of the testimony rendered. When a man is called 
to effect some great religious reformation, it is important that he should 
himself have an experimental acquaintance with the order of things which 
he is to reverse or transform. The education of Saul the Pharisee was to 
him what the convent of Erfurt was to Luther. It was well that he who 
was to break the yoke of Jewish legalism should himself have first suffered 
under its bondage. Thus while the question of the emancipation of Chris- 
tianity had been stated by men belonging, like Stephen, to the most liberal 
section of Judaism, the Hellenist Jews, it was to receive its final solution 
from a man who had himself felt the full weight of the yoke. 

" Saul belonged to a Jewish family rigidly attached to the sect of the 
Pharisees. His name, which signifies ' The desired one,' has led some 
commentators to suppose that he being born like Samuel, after hope long 
delayed, was, like him, specially consecrated by his parents to the service 


of God, and therefore sent from his early childhood to Jerusalem to 
study the sacred writings in the most famous school of the age. However 
this may be, it is evident that his mind had a natural bent toward such 
studies. He may have received some intellectual development in his own 
city. Strabo tells us that literary and philosophical studies had been 
carried so far at Tarsus that the schools of Cilicia eclipsed those of Athens 
and of Alexandria. It appears, however, from the evidence of Philostra- 
tus, that a light and rhetorical school of learning predominated at Tarsus ; 
more attention was paid to brilliance of expression than to depth of phil- 
osophical thought. The life of the East there reveled in boundless luxury, 
and the corruption of manners reached its utmost length. The young 
Jew, endowed with a high-toned morality, may well have conceived a 
deep disgust for this Pagan civilization ; and these first impressions may 
have tended to develop in him an excessive attachment to the religion of 
his father^. 

" We may, probably, attribute to his abode at Tarsus the literary cul- 
ture displayed in his writings. He familiarly quotes the Greek poets, and 
poets of the second order, such as Cleanthes or Aratus (Acts xvii. 38), 
Menander (1 Cor. xv. 33) and Epimenides (Titus i. 12). According to the 
custom of the rabbis of the time, he had learned a manual trade, and, as 
the Cilician fabrics of goats' hair were famous for their strength, he had 
chosen the calling of a tent-maker.* 

" Jerusalem was the place of his religious education. He was placed 
in the school of Gamaliel, the most celebrated rabbi of his age (Actsxxii. 
3). We know how fully the scholastic spirit was developed among the 
Jews at this period. To the companies of the prophets had succeeded the 
schools of the rabbis ; the living productions of the Divine Spirit had been 
replaced by commentaries of minutest detail, and the sacred text seemed 
in danger of being completely overgrown by rabbinical glosses, as by a 
parasitic vegetation. The Talmudic traditions fill twelve large folios and 
2,947 leaves. 

" Whilst an ingenious and learned school, formed at Alexandria, had 
contrived, by a system of allegorical interpretation, to infuse Platonism 
into the Old Testament, the school at Jerusalem had been growing in- 
creasingly rigid, and interdicted any such daring exegesis. It clung 
with fanatic attachment to the letter of the Scriptures ; but, failing to 
comprehend the spirit, it sank into all the puerilities of a narrow literal- 
ism. Its interpretations lacked both breadth and depth ; it surrendered 
itself to the subtilties of purely verbal dialectics. Cleverly to combine 
texts— to suspend on a single word the thin threads of an ingenious argu- 
ment—such was the sole concern of the rabbis. Gamaliel appears to have 

* By this occupation Paul supported himself during his Apostleship. His churches, like the 
Christians in general of the first and succeeding centuries, were of the lower and poorer classes in 
society; and he chose not to burden them, but to labor for his own necessities, as well as for those 
with him. He collected money for the poor Jewish Christians in Palestine, but not for himself. 
Only as an exception did he receive gifts from the Philippian brethren, who were peculiarly dear 
to him." Yet he enjomB upon the churches to care for the temporal needs of their spiritual teach- 


been the most skilled of all the doctors of the law. He is still venerated 
in Jewish tradition under the title of ' Gamaliel the Aged.' The ' Mishna ' 
quotes him as an authority. We are inclined to believe that he may have 
been less in bondage than the other doctors of his day to narrow literal- 
ism, and that he may have maintained a spirit more upright and elevated. 
His benevolent intervention on behalf of the church at Jerusalem distin- 
guishes him honorably from those implacable Jews who were ready to 
defend their prejudices by bloody persecutions,. The fact of his having 
had a disciple like Saul of Tarsus, who must have been through his whole 
life characterized by a grave moral earnestness, leads us to suppose a 
true superiority in the teaching of Gamaliel. He had not got beyond the 
standpoint of legalism, but this he at least presented in its unimpaired 
and unabated majesty. He was not a man to delude the conscience with 
subterfuges, and his disciples were therefore disposed to austerity of life, 
and were distinguished by a scrupulous fidelity to the religion of their 

" Saul of Tarsus embraced the teachings of his illustrious master with 
characteristic earnestness and ardor, and, it must be added, infused into 
it all the passionate vehemence belonging to his nature. At the feet of 
Gamaliel he became practiced in those skillful dialectics which were the 
pride of the rabbinical schools, and he thus received from Judaism itself 
the formidable weapon with which he was afterward to deal it such mor- 
tal blows. Here he gained a profound knowledge of the Old Testament. 
Gifted with a strong and keen intellect, he in a few years acquired all the 
learning of his master. He thus amassed, without knowing it, precious 
materials for his future polemics ; but his moral and religious develop- 
ment in this phase of his life is of more importance to us than his intel- 
lectual acquirements. With all his knowledge he might have became, at 
the most, the first of Jewish doctors, surpassing even Gamaliel, and shed- 
ding some glory on the decadence of his people ; but he could never have 
derived from that vast learning the spirit of the reformer, which was to 
make him immortal in the church.. It is in the depths of his inner life 
that we must seek the distinctive character of his early religion ; he has 
himself accurately described it when he says, that being ' taught according 
to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers,' he ' was zealous toward 
God'" (Actsxxii. 3). 

Saul was no hypocrite, and, therefore, the burning words of rebuke 
spoken to his sect in general by our Lord did not apply to him. He was 
conscientious and honest in all his devotional exercises, and verily 
thought that salvation was attainable by the strict observance of the 
Judaistic rites and ceremonies. He says himself that he was " as touch- 
ing the law blameless " (Phil. iii. 6). And he again says: "I profited in 
the Jews' religion above many my equals (in years) in mine own nation, 
being more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my fathers " (Gal. i. 
14). Yet this is the same man who, by the grace of God, was made will- 
ing to count all things loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ 


Jesus, his Lord. For, says he, " when the commandment came, sin re- 
vived, and I died ; and the commandment which was ordained to life I 
found to be unto death" (Rom. vii. 9, 10). After his baptism he conferred 
not with flesh and blood, but went forth immediately preaching Jesus to- 
the heathen (Gal. i. 16). Yea, saith he, " Unto me, who am less than the 
least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gen- 
tiles the unsearchable riches of Christ" (Eph. iii. 8). The spirit that was 
mighty in Peter to the circumcision, was powerful in Paul to the Gentiles 
(Gal. ii. 8). He was the great Apostle of the Gentiles, and he magnified 
his office. He could not adduce any external connection with the Savior 
in the days of his flesh, as could the other Apostles ; he had not seen the 
historic Christ, so to speak, but he had seen the ascended and glbrified 
Christ. " This sight of Him, however, was not a mere vision ; it was 
miraculous and positive, and it confers on St. Paul an authority in no 
way inferior to that of the twelve Apostles. But it is equally true that, 
in this respect, he more nearly represents the numerous generations of 
Christians who have had no outward relations with the incarnate Savior. 
Again he stands apart from that symbolic number of the twelve, which 
points to the ancient tribes of Israel. He is the Apostle of the church as 
it bursts the confines of Judaism ; the Apostle of mankind rather than of 
a nation.* Lastly, he did not receive his office by transmission : Ananias, 
who laid his hands on him, was a simple believer. His Apostolate was 
conferred on him by a direct revelati'on. It stands in no relation to any 
positive institution, but it carries its own glorious witness in its results." 
The revelation " which he received in the temple at Jerusalem bore di- 
rectly on his mission to the Gentiles (Actsxxii. 21) ; and thus presupposed 
an enlargement of his religious views." — Pressense. 

His journeys were extensive, and ranged in different and distant por- 
tions of the Roman Empire. He was usually accompanied by one or more 
brethren in these travels, and the labors, exposures and persecutions that 
they experienced were wonderful indeed. Paul made four principal 
journeys in the discharge of his Apostolic and ministerial duties among 
the Gentiles. 

"First Journey. — From Antioch in Syria to Seleucia; by sea to Sala- 
mis in Cyprus; by land to Paphos; by sea to Perga; to Antioch in 
Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe ; back from Derbe to Lystra, Iconium, 
Antioch in Pisidia, Perga, Attalia; by sea to Seleucia and Antioch in 
Syria (Acts xiii., xiv.). 

" Second Journey. — From Antioch in Syria by land to Tarsus, Derbe, 
Lystra, Iconium, Antioch in Pisidia; through Phrygia, Galatia . and 
Mysia, to Troas; by sea to Neapolis; to Philippi, Thessaloniea, Berea ; 
by sea to Athens ; by land to Corinth ; by sea to Ephesus ; by sea to 
Ctesarea ; by land to Jerusalem ; back to Antioch in Syria (Acts xv. 40- 
xviii. 22). 

•It is, however, thought by many that Paul was specially chosen of God to fill the place 
vacated bv the treason of Judas : the selection of Matthias by the eleven (Acts i. 26) beinsr regarded 
as of no Divine sanction or validity. 


" Third Journey.— Prom Antioch in Syria, through Cilicia and Cappa- 
-docia to Galatia and Phrygia ; through the province of Asia to Ephesus ; 
from Ephesus to Macedonia (probably by sea) ; to Corinth (probably by 
land) ; back to Macedonia (probably by land) ; by sea to Troas ; by land 
to Assos ; by sea along the coast of Asia to Miletus, Rhodes, Patara ; by 
.sea to Tyre ; by land to Csesarea and Jerusalem (Acts xviii. 22-xxi. 15). 

" Fourth Journey— From Csesarea by sea to Sidon and Myra (in 
Lycia) ; by sea round the south side of Crete, across the sea of Adria to 
Melita ; by sea to Syracuse, Rhegium, Puteoli ; by land to Rome."— E. 

Have the ministerial labors of any man ever surpassed those of the 
Apostle Paul 1 Because he was not chosen an Apostle by the other Apos- 
tles, and did not derive his authority as such from them or any institu- 
tion in Judea, many doubted his Apostleship and caused divers accusa- 
tions to be preferred against him ; but it was absolutely certain that the 
.signs of an Apostle attended his labors and ministry, and there were no 
Teasonable grounds for disputing the same. 

The first Apostles could point to the work in Jerusalem and in 
Samaria, but he could point to that which was done at Antioch, Paphos, 
Iconium, Derbe, Lystra, Philippi, Corinth, and to all the churches 
founded by him in various parts of the world. The council held by the 
Apostles and Elders in Jerusalem sanctioned the authority of Paul's 
Apostolate, his doctrine preached unto the Gentiles, and their release 
:from the burdens of the Jewish ritual. Of this council it may be said 
that it was purely democratic. It was no autocratic college of Apostles, 
assembling by themselves and sending forth their infallible decrees as 
their pretended successors presume to do, but it was an assembly in which 
all present had a voice — Peter no more than any other, and the one who 
spoke last and to whom all gave heed was not an Apostle, for he was 
James the Lord's brother. James, the brother of John, had been slain 
by Herod before this time.* This council, after all, appeared to be only 
a, compromise in the interest of the peace of the church at that time. It 
was not a final settlement as to the relation of the two covenants. Jew- 
ish Christians were required or allowed to observe the law for a season, 
and Gentile Christians, in the course of time, ate of meats offered to idols 
and things strangled. Not the slightest authority was given by this 
council, either in precept or example, to those held under the authority of 
Constantine the Great, and all those held subsequently under the influ- 
ence of Romish authority. The decrees of the council in Jerusalem were 
passed in a free conference of Christians in the behalf of Christian free-^ 

"The James 'mentioned In Acts xil. 17, xv. 13 and xxi. 18 was undoubtedly the same person: 
and it is evident that he was the same with him whom Paul calls ' ' James the Lord's brother 
(Gal. i. 19), and whom Mark (vi. 3) mentions as beinff, together with Joses, Jude and Simon, a 
brother of Jesus. But it is the most difficult question in church history to decide whether lie was 
the same with the Apostle James, the son of Alpheus (commonly called James the Less, to distin- 
guish him from James the son of Zebedee and brother of John). From the latest and most 
thoroxiKb. investigations it is most probable that James the Lord's brother was a different person 
from James the Apostle, the son of Alpheus. The former was also called James the Just and was 
"the first pastor of the church of Jerusalem, and wrote the epistle of James, and suffered martyr- 
dom Just before the destruction of Jerusalem He was noted for his morality and wisdom. 


dom. Those of Rome were held in behalf of worldly interests, human 
passions, and pride, tyranny and oppression. 

After the council of Jerusalem the Apostles and brethren separate, 
never to meet again in council upon the shores of time. Paul goes off to 
his labors among the Gentiles, and some in one direction and some in 
another. If we inquire into the peculiar character of the work, labors 
and preaching of the Apostles to the Gentiles, we shall find them to differ 
somewhat from those of the foregoing period. 

" The Divine Spirit works not less mightily in Paul than in Peter, but 
the apostolic office is more distinctly observable. The thousands con- 
verted on the day of Pentecost and in Solomon's porch were acted upon 
together by a sudden and irresistible influence, produced by the first out- 
pouring of the Holy Spirit. Conversions in masses like these do not occur 
in this second period of the church. The proselytes are many, but they 
are made personally, one by one. When we come to examine Paul's 
teaching, we shall see how wise he was in the adaptation of his discourse 
to the circumstances of his hearers, and how admirably he sought and 
found the point of contact between those he addressed and the gospel he 
preached. His ministry is accompanied with miracles, but he has less 
frequent recourse than earlier preachers to this method of persuasion. 
In many places he founded churches without the aid of external miracles. 
In these missions of the Apostle to the Gentiles, therefore, the Divine 
Spirit works more directly upon the conscience and Jess by external mani- 
festations. Man cannot derive any glory to himself from this fact ; for 
though God's method of intervention assumes a different form, it is none 
the less to this sovereign intervention of grace that the most beautiful 
fruits of the Apostle's labor are to be ascribed."— Pressense. 


" As in the first period of the Apostolic age, the principal part is- 
enacted by St. Peter, and in the second by St. Paul, so in the third period 
the paramount influence is that of St. John. His natural disposition and 
peculiar gifts account for this delay in the exercise of his Apostleship. 
With a soul meditative and mystical, he had neither the impetuous zeal 
of Peter nor the indefatigable activity of Paul. On him Christianity had 
wrought most intensively ; he had penetrated into the deepest meaning 
of the teaching of Christ, or rather he had read the very heart of the 
Master. It was his vocation to preserve the most precious jewels in the 
treasury of Christ's revelations, and to bring to light the most sacred and 
sublime mysteries of the gospel. In order to fulfill this mission, he must 
needs wait until the church was ready for such exalted teaching. The 
first storms of division must subside. Just as the prophet heard the still 
small voice which was the voice of God, only after the sound of the tem- 
pest and the roar of the thunder ; so the Apostle of supreme love could 
not speak till a calm had succeeded to the storm stirred up by the pole- 
mics of St. Paul. His work was not more important nor attested with a 


diviner seal than that of the great controversialist of the apostolic age ; 
the two are closely connected, and the latter is the natural sequence to 
the earlier. The revelation of love could not be complete till Judaeo- 
Christianity had finally succumbed, and had carried with it in its fall all 
the barriers within which it had sought to limit the grace of God. So 
true is this that we find St. Paul himself sounding the first notes of the 
hymn of love, and thus inaugurating the work of St. John. The former 
sowed in tears, the latter reaped in joy. The one resisted to blood ; the 
other received for the church the prize of the well-fought fight. This 
diversity in the missions of the two Apostles is manifested in the diver- 
sity of the methods employed by them in order to establish the truth of 
which they are the organs. While St. Paul wields the weapons of war- 
fare in his irresistible and impassioned dialectics, St. John is satisfied 
with expounding doctrine. He does not dispute ; he affirms. It is clear 
that he has been led into the possession of the truth by a path widely 
divergent from that of St. Paul— by the path of intuition, of direct vision. 
His language has the calmness of contemplation. He speaks in short 
sentences, strikingly simple in form ; but that simplicity, like a quiet 
lake, holds in its depths the reflection of the highest Heaven. 'He has 
filled the whole earth with his voice,' says John Chrysostom, ' not by its 
mighty reverberations, but by the Divine grace which dwelt upon his 
lips. That which is most admirable is, that this great voice is neither 
harsh nor violent, but soft and melting as harmonious music' 

" It is very far from the truth, however, to regard St. John as the type 
of feminine gentleness, as he is represented in legend and in painting, 
which is only another form of legend. The ancient church had a far 
worthier conception of him when it gave to" St. John the Evangelist the 
symbol of the eagle soaring to the sun, as though to signify that the 
mightiest and most royal impiilse— that which carries farthest and high- 
esl^-is love. The soul of the Apostle of Ephesus is as vigorous as that of 
Paul. He was called the Son of Thunder before grace had subdued his 
natural vehemence ; and something of this early ardor always remained 
with him. In proportion to his love of truth was his hatred of error and 
heresy. Such love is a consuming fire, and, when it sees its object de- 
spised or wronged, it is as ardent in its indignation as in its adora- 
tion. The truth which St. John loved and served was no mere abstract 
doctrine; it was to him incarnate in the person of Jesus Christ. He 
was ever the beloved disciple of the Master, the disciple admitted to 
His most tender and intimate friendship; and the church has ever pic- 
tured him in the attitude in which he is represented in the Gospels at the 
Last Supper, leaning on the bosom of the Lord. It was by the power of 
love so strong and deep that he. was enabled to fulfill his mission of con- 
ciliation, and to harmonize all the apparent contradictions of the apos- 
tolic age in the rich synthesis of his doctrine. Let us now inquire how 
he was prepared for this glorious vocation. 

"John was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman of the Lake of Gennes- 


aret, who dwelt at Bethsaida (Matt. iv. 21 ; Mark i. 19 ; Matt. x. 2). It is 
not proved that he was actually poor, as Chrysostoni maintained, for his 
lather had ' hired servants ' (Mark i. 20) ; his mother was among the 
women who ministered to Jesus of their substance (Luke viii. 3) ; and 
John himself had a house of his own (John xix. 27). Be this as it may, 
however, he was of obscure and humble origin. His mother was among 
the earliest followers of the Savior. John, as well as Peter, was a disci- 
ple of the Forerunner ; the preaching of John the Baptist answered to 
the needs of his heart, which was eagerly waiting for the hope of Israel. 

" Peter and John did not at once leave all to be Christ's disciples (John 
ii. 35-42). The Master gave time for their first impressions to deepen be- 
fore He called them to forsake family and fishing-nets and to come after 
Him (Matt. iv. 18-22 ; Mark i. 19, 20 ; Luke v. 1-11). John appears to have 
been very young at this time ; his grave and thoughtful nature peculiarly 
fitted him to receive the education which Jesus Christ imparted to His 
disciples, and which consisted in impressing on them the features of His 
own likeness. 

"John, Peter and James were, as we know, admitted to special inti- 
macy with the Savior. There is no reason to suppose that John had, at 
first, a much clearer comprehension than the other disciples of the doc- 
trine of Christ. He shared their carnal conceptions of the earthly king- 
dom of the Messiah (Matt. xv. 20-28), and exhibited sometimes the nar- 
row spirit of the sectary (Luke ix. 49, 50). His invocation of wrath upon 
the Samaritans displays an alloy of human passion, blended with his af- 
fection for the Savior (Luke ix. 54). But this affection was so real and 
true that it was sure to lead to all the developments of the religious life. 
He proved his love in a way not to be mistaken at the time of Christ's 
passion. He followed Him into the court of the high priest, and even to 
the foot of the cross (John xix. 26). He is the only one of the Apostles 
who witnessed the last sufferings of Christ; and probably for this reason 
he was chosen to render the most emphatic testimony to His eternal glory 
in the bosom of the Father. 

" We can well imagine what an ineffaceable image of unparalleled 
love and sorrow would be left on the soul of John by this scene. Who 
can tell with what feelings he caught those last words of the God-Man 
spoken almost in His parting agony, which committed to him the mother 
of his Lord as a sacred legacy? (John xix. 27). He was also one of the 
first to see the risen Christ (John xx. 8). All these memories, and many 
more connected with them, were to be successively illuminated by the 
Holy Spirit till they should form in the mind of John a perfect whole. 
But he was not himself capable, immediately after the Pentecostal effu- 
sion of the Spirit, of receiving, in all its fullness, this Divine revelation. 

"During the earlier period of the apostolic age we see John by 
Peter's side, lending him efficient help, but leaving to him the initiative 
in speech and action (Acts iii. 1 ; viii. 14, 25). He enjoyed much consid- 
eration, but did not exert a preponderating influence ; nothing is recorded 


of his share in the council at Jerusalem, though he appears to have been 
present (Gal. ii.9). At this time he still adhered to the Mosaic law (for 
Jewish converts), as did Peter and James— a course of conduct confirmed 
by the decisions of the council at Jerusalem. There are no means of as- 
certaining in what year he left that city ; but he was no longer there in 
the year 60, when Paul made his last visit (Acts xxi. 17, 18). Nicephorus 
asserts that he remained in Jerusalem until the death of Mary ; but this 
gives us no exact information, inasmuch as the date of that event is en- 
tirely unknown. There is one whole period of the life of the Apostle of 
which we possess no details (that are to be implicitly relied on). But if we 
have no precise records of his life during these years, his writings give 
evidence that the time was not lost in reference to his own development. 
He learned to contemplate one aspect of the person and doctrine of his 
Master, which had not presented itself to any of the other Apostles with 
equal distinctness ; this was the profound mysterious fact of His eternal 
Divinity, His pre-existence and incarnation. •- 

" We are free to suppose that the period of his life about which we 
have no information was devoted (under the directing grace of God) to 
climbing that spiritual Tabor, on the summit of which the only and eternal 
Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, was to appear to him in all the 
glory of His Divinity. The Apostle, like Mary, pondered in his heart all 
that he knew of his Master ; in the silence of devotion he listened to His 
living voice, and under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit discerned more 
and more of the mystery of His being. Augustine says, ' While the three 
other evangelists remained below with the man Jesus, and spoke little of 
His Divinity, John, as though impatient of treading the earth, rose from 
the very first words of His gospel, not only above the bounds of earth, 
air and sky, but above the angels and celestial powers, into the very 
presence of Him by whom all things were made. Not in vain do the 
Gospels tell us that he leaned on the bosom of the Savior at the Passover 
Feast. He drank in secret at that Divine spring: De illo pectore in 
secreto bibebat.' 

"All the life of St. John, during the period when scarcely a trace of 
him is to be found in the apostolic church, is summed up in these words : 
' The time was to come when the Apostle would emerge from his ob- 
scurity and would in his turn exert a wide and deep influence over the 
churches of the first century. According to the testimony of Clement of 
Alexandria and Irenssus, St. John, after the death of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, took up his residence at Ephesus. No city could have been better 
chosen as a centre from which to watch over the churches, and follow 
closely the progress of heresy. At Ephesus the Apostle was in the centre 
of Paul's mission-field in Asia Minor, and not far from Greece. Chris- 
tianity had achieved splendid conquests in the flourishing cities of that 
country ; but it had also encountered dangerous enemies. It was there 
that false Gnosticism,* first of all, showed itself, and perpetually sought 

* This was an aggregation of corruptions from all the countries where Christianity was dis- 


new adherents. The Apostle Paul had spoken before his death of its 
rapid progress (1 Tim. vi. 20, 21). In his second epistle to Timothy (i. 15- 
18) he seems to point out Ephesus as the city most threatened -with 
heresy, where consequently the presence of an Apostle would be espe- 
cially needed. St. John made this city his settled abode, without, how- 
ever, devoting himself exclusively to the important church there 
founded. Ephesus was the centre of his apostolic activity, but that 
activity extended over a wide area. Clement of Alexandria tells us how 
the Apostle visited the churches, presiding at the election of bishops (or 
pastors) and restoring order where it had been disturbed,' etc. 

" It is not possible to determine accurately at what date St. John suf- 
fered for the gospel. The ' Fathers' differ as to the time of his banish- 
ment to Patmos. We are inclined to place it shortly after the death of 
St. Peter and St. Paul. His exile may have been protracted during some 
years. The Revelation appears to us to have been written long before 
the gospel. It carries us back into a period very little removed from the 
fearful persecution under Nero, which was the great typal war of Anti- 
christ against Christ. The mode of thought, the form of language, the 
prominent ideas, the historical allusions, all suggest this date ; and, in 
the absence of any decisive external evidence, we are free to give full 
weight to the internal. 

" With reference to the gospel and epistles, tradition is agreed in the 
date affixed to them. These writings are the slowly ripened fruit of all 
the labors of the apostolic age ; but at the same time, like every other 
good gift, they come down from Heaven, and bear the undeniable seal of 
inspiration. They clearly belong to a period when heresy was rife, and 
especially those forms of heresy which, denying the corporeal reality of 
the Savior's sufferings, contained the first germ of Docetism.* John did 
not indeed design his gospel to be a systematic refutation of the errors of 
Cerinthus or of any other heretic. He was satisfied with setting forth 
true Christian Gnosticism t in opposition to false Oriental or Judaizing 
Gnosticism ; and his Gospel is beautifully characterized by Clement of 
Alexandria as pre-eminently the gospel of the Spirit. We should do injus- 

seminated— a combination of Platonic philosophy, Alexandrian Judaism, dualistic Parsism, pan- 
theistic Buddhism, and phantasmal Christianity. A false Gnosticism exalted knowledge above 
faith, hope, love, humility, and every other Christian virtue. It represented God as an infinite, 
unfathomable, unnamable abyss, eternally and unconsciously evolving attributes or seons, the 
lowest of which, f ailing, combined with dead, empty, eternal matter, and produced a weal pr 
evil Deuuurgus or Artificer who made this world ; it represented Christ as the most perfect of 
the asons, but declared his human life an illusion ; and it represented th* 1 Holy Spirit as a subor- 
dinate aeon. The system degenerated into utter infidelity and sensuality, especially with the 
Ophite Gnostics. It originated in the first century, flourished in the second, and gradually lost 
importance after the middle of the third, but was to a great degree revived in the Manichaeisin of 
the fourth and fifth centuries. 

. » While the Judaizing Ebionites of the first century, like the modern Socinians and Unita- 
rians, denied the Divinity of Christ, the pseudo-spiritualistic Docetae, a branch of the Gnostics, 
considering matter essentially evil, denied His real humanity, regarding His entire earthly life 
and death as a deceptive show or a mere vision. 

+ Instead of the term Gnosticism Mr. Pressense should here have written knowledoe. The term 
Gnosticism (now properly restricted to what Mr. P. calls false onosticism) is derived from the 
Greek word .ononis, meaning knowledae. A true Scriptural knowledge of Divine things is highly 
commended by the Apostles (1 Cor. i. 6; viii.7: xii.R; 2Cor.iv.6; x.6; 2Peteri,6 6- ill 18) A 
false gnosis, opposing inspiration, is denounced (1 Tim. vi. 20, 21). 


tice to the fourth Gospel were we to regard it as a mere polemical writing, 
or as only the complement of the synoptics (Matthew, Mark and Luke).. 
The latter supposition cannot be reconciled with the admirable unity 
of composition to be observed in the Gospel of John. It is full of a crea- 
tive inspiration. The style is altogether unlike that of a mere commen- 
tator who is completing by a gloss a text already given. John epitomises 
in his Gospel the substance of his preaching at Ephesus and in the other 
churches of Asia Minor. According to Jerome, he had no intention at. 
first of preserving his discourses in writing, but agreed to do so at the 
express request of the churches. 

" We have no detailed information of the last years of the Apostle.. 
Two incidents have come down to us which agree perfectly with what we 
know of him. Irenseus relates that, going one day into the public baths- 
at Ephesus, and hearing that Cerinthus was also there, he immediately 
went out, exclaiming that he feared the house might fall, because of the- 
presence of so great an enemy of the truth. Jerome tells us how the aged 
Apostle, no longer able to preach at any length, would be carried into the 
assemblies of the Christians to speak the simple words, ' Little children,, 
love one another.' To his brethren and disciples who asked him why he- 
thus repeated himself, he replied, ' It is the Lord's commandment, and 
when it is fulfilled, nothing is wanting.' This hatred of error and this 
holy love give us the perfect portraiture of John. It does not appear that 
he died a violent death. He fell asleep in Christ at a very advanced age,, 
at the commencement of the reign of Trajan (about A. D. 98 or 99). 

"Augustine tells us that in his time there was a very current belief 
that the Apostle was not dead, but was only sleeping in his grave. Evi- 
dently, this impression arose from a wrong interpretation of the words of 
Christ spoken to Peter with reference to John : ' If I will that he tarryr 
till I come, what is that to thee 1 ' (John xxi. 22). Perhaps also the Chris- 
tians may have found it hard to believe that the Apostle, whose influence 
was still so great, had really passed from the world. They were not 
altogether wrong. As Lucke has said, ' He lives, and will ever live, by 
his writings, and the future belongs to him even more than the past.' " — 

" Paul is, in his statement of doctrine as in his life, the man of con- 
trasts and antitheses. He aims to show how deep is the gulf between; 
human nature and God, that he may the more exalt the grace which has- 
bridged the chasm ; and he traces vigorously the line of demarcation be- 
tween the Old Covenant and the New. It is not so with John. Having- 
attained gradually, and without any sudden shock, the highest elevation 
of Christian truth, he starts from the summit and gently comes down? 
again. He does not even pause to establish the superiority of the gospeL 
over the law. With him that is a settled point, an admitted principle, 
from which he deduces the consequences. John does not commence, like- 
Paul, with man and his misery, but with God and His perfections. His 
doctrine, by this character of sustained elevation, and by the part as- 


signed in it to love and to the direct intuition of Divine things, bears the 
impress of mysticism, but of a mysticism which is essentially moral, in 
which the great laws of conscience are always maintained, and which is 
as far removed from Oriental pantheism as from Pharisaic legalism. 

"At the summit of his doctrine St. John places the idea of God. God 
is the Absolute Being, the great I Am, whom no eye hath seen or can see. 
He is a Spirit (John i. 18 ; iv. 24). All perfection dwells in Him ; He is at 
once light, life and love. As He is Absolute Being, so He is Absolute, 
Eternal Life, the inexhaustible source, the sole principle of every being 
(1 John v. 20). But this life is at the same time light (1 John i. 5). Light 
represents perfect knowledge and spotless purity (1 John iii. 20). God 
knows all things ; God is holy. But John does not pause at this abstract 
conception of moral good. He gives us a concrete notion of it when he 
tells us that God is love (1 John iv. 16). This He is as essentially as He is 
lif e and light. Love is not only a manifestation of His being ; it is His 
very essence. Never before had this sublime thought been expressed 
with such clearness ; it had been discerned only by glimpses. Under the 
Old Covenant the love of God was subordinate to His justice. Under 
the New, this limited view had for a long time prevailed. St. Paul in- 
sisted with much force upon the love of God, but he considered it rather 
in its historical manifestation for the salvation of men than in its eternal 
principle. It is on this eternal principle that St. John dwells. He sees in 
the cross not only reconciliation between man and God, but also the reve- 
lation of the true name of God, of His very being. He. is love ; the God 
who is love is the true God (1 John v. 20). Love is so assuredly the abso- 
lute truth, that he who loveth is ' of the truth.' He is a partaker of the 
nature of God (1 John iv. 7). Thus truth or light is inseparable from 
love; it is not simple knowledge or mere theory. St. John does not 
recognize the ray of light which has no flame. Truth is, as it were, full 
of life ; it is life as it is love. To be of the truth is to be born of God, to 
possess Him, to be what He is : it is, therefore, to have love in one's self. 
The object of knowledge being the God who is love, it is natural that 
true knowledge should be inseparable from love. To the Apostle, 
love is not one of the attributes of God (simply) ; it is God Himself. The 
metaphysical attributes are the attributes of the Divine love. God is 
holy, infinite, almighty love, knowing everything, everywhere present. 
John delights, therefore, to give Him the name of Father— that wondrous 
name which commands at once tenderness and reverence (John i. 14, 18 ; 
1 John iii. 1)." 

This eternal and invisible Being is revealed to the world by 
the doctrine of the Word, by whom the worlds were made, and 
who came into this world to reveal the Father to His people and 
to lay down His life for them (John x. 15). "In the beginning was 
the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 
The same was in the beginning with God." "And the Word was made 
flesh, and dwelt among us (and we beheld His glory, the glory as of 


the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth." " No mart 
hath seen God at any time ; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom 
of the Father, He hath declared Him" (John i. 1, 2, 14, 18). The Father 
and the Son are one (John x. 30). The Holy Ghost, the Comforter, pro- 
ceeding from the Father and the Son, is recognized by John also as God. 
He is the author of the new birth (John iii. 8). He takes up His abode in 
the church and abides with her forever. He brings all things to her re- 
membrance, whatsoever the Savior hath said to her. He testifies of 
Christ. He glorifies Him, and takes the things of Jesus and shows them 
to His saints (John xiv. 26; xv. 26; xvi. 13-15). He also convinces the 
world of sin, of righteousness and of judgment (John xvi. 8). 

"John recognizes the intrusion of a principle of discord into the 
world. The power of sin has been let loose. He does not enter into any 
argument on the origin of evil. He affirms the fact, and is content without 
proving it. A kingdom of darkness has set itself in opposition to the 
kingdom of light, of which God is the Sun. The devil has had a great 
influence upon man, seducing him into evil. He is not, indeed, to be re- 
garded as Ahriman the eternal, confronted with the eternal Ormazd ; no, 
the principle of light was before the principle of evil. Satan himself was. 
born (or created) in the light, for it is said, 'He abode not in the truth' 
(John viii. 44). It is evident that John supposes a fall in his case, no less, 
than in ours, and that, consequently, in the origin of things, all was light 
and purity, as became a creation called into being by the Word. The 
cause of evil is entirely moral. ' Sin,' says the Apostle, ' is the trans- 
gression of the law' (1 John iii. 4). There is a law for the creature. It is 
this law which John calls the old and new commandment, the command- 
ment of love based upon the very being of God (1 John ii. 5-10). The 
blessed destiny of the moral creature is to become like his Creator, con- 
formed to His nature. The creature, soon after being made, voluntarily 
took part against God; that is to say, he rejected life, love and light. 
Thus the world became dark from the day in which it turned from God. 
It is now plunged in moral night ; all the higher elements are stifled in 
man ; the outward and sensible life predominates ; the lust of the flesh, 
the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, enshroud it in threefold dark- 
ness (1 John ii. 16, 17). It is given over to a lie, because it has set itself 
against good and love— that is, against God and the Word. Its prince is 
he who was a liar and murderer from the beginning (John viii. 44), and 
who, having fallen himself, has dragged after him in his descent all those 
who have freely, and under no external constraint, followed his sug- 

" The Word, which was the organ of creative love, is also the organ 
of the compassionate love of the Father. The whole work of salvation 
rests upon Him. This work is twofold. It is both internal and external ; 
for it is to effect the reconciliation between God and man. It is not 
enough that God should draw near to man by a series of revelations ; it 
is also necessary that man should be inclined toward God. In truth, that 


lie may come to the fountain of living waters, man must be athirst (John 
xvii. 37). He must be born from above in order to receive the Redeemer, 
who comes down from Heaven. Only ' he who is of God heareth the 
Tvordsof God' (John viii. 23-49). The voice of the good Shepherd is 
known only by His sheep (John x. 27). In other words, the soul must 
have recovered the sense of Divine things, and there must be an affinity 
between it and the truth, in order that it may come to the light. 

" The incarnation is the only reparation of the fall. We know with 
-what emphasis St. John insists upon the reality of the incarnation in op- 
position to the heresies of his time, which, by a spurious spiritualism, re- 
garded the body of the Savior as a sort of delusive semblance. ' Every 
spirit,' he says, ' that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is 
of God' (1 John iv. 2, 3). Writing his Gospel and epistles in presence of 
those dualistic tendencies, which identified evil with the corporeal ele- 
ment, he felt himself called upon to magnify this glorious aspect of His 
incarnation. He does not dwell on the humiliation of Christ as St. Paul 
•does, but there is no contradiction on this point between the Apostles. 
If the glory of the only begotten Son of the Father is apparent to John 
through the veil of mortal flesh, that glory is, nevertheless, revealed in 
shrouded splendor. He shows us Jesus Christ as subject to the weak- 
nesses and suffering conditions of human life ; He is weary, He groans, 
He weeps, He dies. His death is undoubtedly a lifting up, in a spiritual 
point of view (John iii. 14) ; and it was important to prove this in contra- 
diction to Cerinthus, who regarded His death as only illusory. St. John 
gives emphasis to the truth, that it is both glorious and real : ' This is He 
that came by blood.' But death is still death — that is, the depth of 
humiliation. He is subject to a certain abasement : but He is subject to 
it voluntarily ; it is an act of His Divine freedom. The Son has power to 
lay down His life, and has power to take it again (John x. 18) ; thus, in 
our aspect, He is glorious in His humiliation. Yet more, to the Apostle 
of love the highest glory is that which comes from love. For him, as for 
Pascal, this is the supreme order of greatness. Thus regarded, what 
glory can be compared with the glory of Him who gave His life for His 
brethren on the accursed tree 1 

" After so much suffering and strife, endured from the beginning of 
the world, Divine love will at length win a glorious victory on the very 
scene of its conflicts. Even the brilliant colors of the Apocalypse fail to 
depict this triumph, for St. John exclaims in his first epistle : ' It doth 
not appear what we shall be ; but we know that when He shall appear, 
we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is' (1 John iii. 2). To be 
made like God— is not this the highest possibility of the development of 
the creature 1 Is it not the realization of the sublime purpose of the re- 
deeming Word 1 Is it not the fulfillment of the prayer of Christ, ' That 
they all may be one ; as Thou, Father, art in me, and I in Thee, that they 
also may be one in us?' (John xvii. 21). Having ascended to these 
heavenly heights, the theology of John is complete ; no mysticism can 


soar above it, however bold its flight. The perfect union of the creature 
with the Creator through the Word is the ultimate expression of the doc- 
trine of love ; beyond it there is nothing. This is, therefore, the closing 
utterance of the apostolic age ; the conclusion and not the refutation of 
all that has gone before ; the conciliation of all contradictions in the 
church ; in a word, the last revelation from Heaven, absolute truth, God 
Himself. Freed from all error, comprehended in all its depth, it will ever 
he the grandest result wrought out by the historian of theology, who, 
bending over the book in which it was inscribed by the aged saint of 
Ephesus, seeks to decipher it from age to age." — Pressense. 


Says Pressense : " So far from being in opposition to the other writ- 
ings of St. John, this book comprehends all the essential points of his 
theology, but in the condition of germ not yet fully developed. There is 
no stronger evidence of this agreement than the place given in the Reve- 
lation to the person of Jesus Christ. Everything centres in the Savior. 
He is called the ' Lion of the tribe of Judah,' and the ' Root of David '— 
expressions which point to His humanity (Rev. v. 5; xxii. 16). His 
Divinity is no less distinctly recognized. He is the Alpha and Omega, the 
first and the last, the beginning and the end (Rev. i. 17; ii. 8 ; xxii. 13). 
Clothed in a vesture dipped in blood, He is called the Word or the Word 
of God, and He is followed by the armies of Heaven. The Revelation is 
full of the idea of redemption. It delights in representing the Savior 
under the image of the Lamb slain, whose blood cleanses from all sin 
(Rev. y. 9). The heavenly hosts adore Him. The King of humanity, as 
He was once its victim, He holds the keys of hell and of death (Rev. i. 18 ; 
iii. 21). He is the Divine Head of the church, its guide and defense (Rev. 
iii. 19). The church, in spite of a Jewish symbolism, which is of easy inter- 
pretation, is clearly distinguished from the synagogue. It comprehends 
a 'multitude of every nation and kindred and people and tongue' (Rev. 
v. 9). It is composed of those who have washed their robes in the blood 
•of the Lamb, and who are walking in the way of holiness (Rev. vii. 14, 15 ; 
xiv. 3, 4). The Apocalypse rests, therefore, on the same doctrinal basis 
as the fourth Gospel. 

" The Revelation is not a recital of doctrine— it is, primarily, a book 
of prophecy ; it opens a wide and glorious horizon to Christian hope and 
paints it with glowing colors. It bears the impress of the age in which it 
was written. It raises the events of that time to the height of solemn 
symbols ; thus it is at the same time the book of revelations and an im- 
portant historical record. It was written during a time of persecution, 
and in it, as has been well said, we breathe the very atmosphere of mar- 
tyrdom ; while, at the same time, it is illuminated throughout with the 
certainty of triumph. Contrasting the glory of the church above with the 
indignities heaped on the church below, the Revelation seems to drown 
the cries and the blasphemies of earth in the songs of the blessed and of 


the angels. After depicting the conflict and the sufferings of the saints, 
and the terrible judgments of God upon their persecutors, it opens a vista, 
of the heavenly places. It is one of the grandest conceptions of the sacred 
writer, perpetually to link together earth and heaven, and to show in the 
events of religious history the counterpart of other events, of which the 
abode of the blessed is the scene. The sealed book which contains the 
mystery of the destinies of humanity, is at the foot of the throne of God. 
From thence resound the seven trumpets which declare the doom of the 
wicked ; from thence do the angels pour forth their vials of wrath. While 
for the visible church, all is humiliation and suffering or weary waiting,, 
all is glory for the church invisible ; yet never was the mysterious link 
uniting the two more plainly manifested. ' These which are arrayed in 
white robes, whence came they 1 ' ' These are they which came out of 
great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in' 
the blood of the Lamb. Therefore are they before the throne of God, and 
serve Him day and night in His temple; and He that sitteth on the throne 
shall dwell among them. They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any 
more ; neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat. For the Lamb 
which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them 
unto living fountains of water ; and God shall wipe away all tears from 
their eyes' (Rev. vii. 13-17). 

" But the sacred writer is not content with proclaiming in a general 
manner the suffering and triumph of the church. The further he pro j 
ceeds in his delineation of the struggle between Christianity and Anti- 
christ, the more definite does he become in detail, though he makes use of 
a stately symbolism, sometimes strange and always full of variety. Just 
as ancient prophecy was subject to rhythmical conditions, and uttered its 
most passionate inspirations in conformity to the rules of Hebrew poetry, 
so the prophet of the New Testament arranged his abundant materials in 
harmonious order. The Apocalypse has a rhythm of its own, taking the 
word in its wide acceptation. The seven trumpets follow the seven seals, 
and these again are succeeded by the seven vials. In the three cycles of 
revelations there is always a pause after the sixth link of the series to 
prepare for the last link, which is itself destined to bring in a new series. 
This series is not immediately introduced. The prophet seems to be lost 
for awhile in meditation on the history of the world and of the 1 church. 
After the three series, intended to be all prophetic of the same visita- 
tions, we have the descriptions of the great conflict, which is itself 
divided into three acts : 1st. The fall of Babylon (Rev. xviii., xix;) 2d. 
The combat with Antichrist and Satan, terminated by the reign of Christ 
over His own (Rev. xx. 1-6). 3d. The last struggle and the last victory, 
the new Heaven and the new earth (Rev. xx. 11 ; xxii.) Such is the plan of 
the Apocalypse. We find in it the same gradation as in the prophecy of 
Christ referring to the last times (Matt. xxiv. 8-51). Thus the agonies 
and convulsions of nature which are to precede the final judgment, the 
wars, famines, pestilences, earthquakes, the darkening of the sun, the 


falling of the stars, the universal terror— all these signs, given in brief 
touches by the Master, are dwelt upon by the inspired disciple in bold 
symbolism. The terrible rider on the red horse who comes forth at the 
opening of the second seal to take peace from the earth, is the personifi- 
cation of war ; as the man mounted upon the black horse, and with the 
pair of balances in his hand, represents famine. The earthquakes and 
the darkening of the sky are heralded by the opening of the sixth seal. 

" The first trumpets and the first vials announce the same order of 
judgments, and both have reference to the commencement of the prophecy 
of Matthew's Gospel. Jesus Christ, after predicting the chastisements 
and judgments of God in nature, declared His judgments in history, and, 
first of all, the destruction of Jerusalem. St. John, looking beyond this 
terrible event, proclaims another judgment of God. Sentence is to be 
passed now, not upon Jerusalem, but upon Rome, the impure and bloody 
Babylon, the incarnation at that time of the genius of evil. What a grand 
delineation does the evangelical prophet give of this diabolical paganism 
— now as the beast with seven heads and ten horus, opening its mouth to 
pouT out blasphemy against God ; now as the great whore, robed in pur- 
ple and scarlet, making the inhabitants of the earth drunk with the wine 
of her fornications, herself drunk with blood of the martyrs of Christ, 
having ascended out of the bottomless pit and going into perdition ! 
What an impression was such a prophetic cry calculated to produce, 
uttered as it was in the presence of the Roman Colossus, still standing in 
all the pride of its great power ! ' Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great 
city ! ' (Rev. xiv. 8). ' Rejoice over her, thou Heaven, and ye holy Apos- 
tles and prophets ; for God hath avenged you on her,' etc., etc. 

" But the church has not only to fight against Antichrist without ; it 
has also to resist Antichrist within ; to do battle, that is, with heresy and 
false prophecy. 'Many false prophets shall arise and shall deceive 
many,' said Jesus Christ (Matt. xxiv. 11). St. John represents false 
prophecy under the image of a beast coming up out of the earth, in 
appearance like a lamb, but speaking as a beast, doing great wonders, 
and deceiving them that dwell on the earth by his miracles (Rev. xiii. 11- 
14). Behind this visible opponent, the Apostle shows us the invisible 
enemy, the dragon, the old serpent, which gave power to the beast (Rev. 
xhi. 4). The conflict is unto blood alike in the prediction of the Savior 
and in the Apocalypse. The two witnesses, Moses and Elijah, are types 
of all the confessors of Christ ; though put to death, the Spirit of life from 
God enters into them again, and they triumph (Rev. xi. 9-11). 

" Thus in the Revelation, as in the prophecy of Jesus Christ, are un- 
folded the judgments of God as manifested in nature and in history, and 
the sanguinary and victorious struggles of the church with her many 
adversaries. The inspired writer has added in his picture new features, 
drawn from the historical events of the time, and interpreted by the 
Spirit of prophecy; but the words of St. John have not, any more than 
the words of Christ, an application restricted to his own age." 


The seven churches of Asia Minor addressed by Christ through John 
in the second and third chapters of Revelation are properly regarded as a 
miniature of the whole Christian church at all times. " There is no con- 
dition, good, bad or mixed, of which these seven short epistles do not 
present a sample, and for which they do not give suitable and wholesome 
direction. Here, as everywhere, the written word of God and the history 
of the apostolic church evince their applicability to all times and circum- 
stances, and their inexhaustible fullness of instruction, warning and en- 
couragement for all states and stages of religious life. 

" By the ' angel' of each church cannot be meant holy heavenly be- 
ings, who cannot be charged with doctrinal and practical errors, but, in 
accordance with the enigmatic symbolism of the book of Revelation, the 
pastor of each church, as representing the entire membership. Pastors 
are thus reminded that, like the angels above, they below should fulfill 
God's commission to them zealously and efficiently. 

"Each of the seven epistles commences with, 'I know thy works'— 
living faith will show living works, and dead faith dead works. Each 
epistle contains a promise ' To him that overcometh.' Each ends with, 
' He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.' 
The title of our Lord in each accords with the special address, and is 
mainly taken from the imagery of the vision in chapter first. Each of the 
addresses has a threat or a promise, and most have both. Their order 
seems ecclesiastical, civil and geographical : Ephesus first, as the Asiatic 
metropolis, nearest to Patmos, where John received the epistles to the 
seven churches ; also being that church with which John was especially 
connected ; then the churches on the west of Asia ; then those in the in- 
terior. Smyrna and Philadelphia/ — outwardly poor, small, persecuted and 
afflicted, but very faithful and spiritually flourishing — alone receive un- 
mixed praise ; they are exhorted to continued faithfulness. Sardis and 
Laodicea — the most wealthy, having a name to live but being dead, say- 
ing that they are rich and increased with goods, and have need of noth- 
ing, while being really wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked— re- 
ceive almost solely censure and terrible warning ; but there were a few 
even in Sardis who had not defiled their garments ; and with the truly 
penitent ones in Laodicea Christ promised to come in and sup. Ephesus, 
Pergamos and Thyatira have a mixed character, and receive both com- 
mendation and censure ; Ephesus is commended for her orthodoxy, but 
censured for leaving her first love and her first works ; Pergamos is com- 
mended for her martyr faith, but censured for her lack of discipline, not 
excluding those who held licentious doctrines and practices ; and Thyatira 
is commended for her faith, and love, and patience, but is also censured 
for her looseness of discipline, retaining in her communion those who 
held Satanic principles and practices."— P. Sclmff. 

We learn, therefore, that Christ requires His churches to be faithful in 
doctrine, in practice and in discipline. 

Many suppose that the seven churches prophetically represent the 


:seven successive ages of the general church. Vitringa regards Ephesus 
as representing the church from A. D. 30 to 250 ; Smyrna from 250 to 311 ; 
Pergamos from 311 to 700 ; Thyatira from 700 to 1200 ; Sardis from 1200 to 
1517 ; Philadelphia from 1517 to 1617; and Laodicea from 1617 to the pres- 
ent time. Laodicea, it may be remarked, used to be the capital of the 
greater Phrygia, and a place of great size, splendor and luxury ; but it is 
now a perfect mass of ruins. 

The book of Revelation has earlier, clearer and ampler testimonies 
for its apostolic authorship than any other book in the New Testament. 
It was evidently intended to complete the volume of inspiration, no 
further or additional revelation to be given for the use of the church 
until Christ shall come (Rev. xxii. 18-20). "Scripture is one organic 
-whole, its books, though ranging over 1,500 years in their date of 
■composition, being mutually connected. The end is the necessary 
sequence of the middle, as the middle is the sequence of the begin- 
ning. Genesis represents man in his innocence and bliss, followed by 
man's fall through Satan's cunning, and man's consequent dooming to 
death and exclusion from paradise and its tree of life and delightful 
rivers. Revelation represents, in reverse order, man first sinning and 
dying, then conquering sin and death through the blood of the Lamb ; the 
■first Adam and Eve represented by the Second Adam, Christ, and the 
«hurch, His spotless bride, in paradise, with access to the tree of life, and 
■the crystal waters of life flowing from the throne of God. As Genesis 
foretold the bruising of the serpent's head by the woman's Seed, so Reve- 
lation declares the accomplishment of that prophecy (xix., xx.)." — A. B. 

"While John, in the Revelation, had in view, primarily, the over- 
throw of Jerusalem and of heathen Rome, the two great foes of Chris- 
tianity at that time, his vision was not confined to these momentous 
events. It extends even to the remotest future when death and Hades 
shall be no more, and a new Heaven and a new earth shall appear. Al- 
though the fulfillment is predicted as being near at hand, he puts a Mil- 
lennium and a short intervening conflict before the overthrow of Satan, 
the beast, and the false prophet. We have an ' analogy in the prophecy 
of the Old Testament and the eschatological discourses of our Lord (in 
Matt, xxiv., xxv., Mark xiii., and Luke xxi.), which furnish the key for 
the understanding of the Apocalypse. He describes the destruction of 
Jerusalem and the general judgment in close proximity, as if they were 
one continuous event. He sees the end from the beginning. The first 
catastrophe is painted with colors borrowed from the last, and the last 
appears as a repetition of the first on a grand and universal scale. It is 
the manner of prophetic vision to bring distant events into close prox- 
imity, as in a panorama. To God a thousand years are as a day. Every 
true prophecy admits of an expanding fulfillment. History ever repeats 
itself, though with new variations. The Apocalypse is not a prophetical 
manual of church history and chronology in the sense of a prediction of 

252 CHAPTER Till. 

particular persons, dates and events. This would have made it useless to 
the first readers, and would make it useless now to the great mass of 
Christians. It gives, under symbolic figures and for popular edification, 
an outline of the general principles of Divine government and the leading 
forces in the conflict between Christ's kingdom and His foes, which is 
still going on under ever- varying forms. In this way it teaches, like all 
the prophetic utterances of the Gosples and epistles, lessons of warning 
and encouragement to every age. We must distinguish between the 
spiritual coming of Christ and His personal arrival, or parousia. The 
former is progressive, the latter instantaneous. The spiritual coming 
began with His ascension to Heaven (see Matt. xxvi. 64, ' Henceforth ye 
shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming 
on the clouds of Heaven '), and goes on in unbroken succession of judg- 
ments and blessings (for the history of the world is a judgment of the 
world) ; hence the alternation of action and repose, of scenes of terror and 
scenes of joy, of battles and victories. The personal arrival of the Bride- 
groom is still in the unknown future, but is as certain as the first advent 
of Christ. The hope of the church will not be disappointed, for it rests 
on the promise of Him who is called ' the Amen, the faithful and true 
witness' (Rev. iii. 14)."— P. Schaff. 

There are three methods of interpreting the book of Revelation — 
the Prceterist, the Futurist and the Historical (or continuous). The Praet- 
erist maintains that the prophecies in Revelation have already been ful- 
filled — that they refer chiefly to the triumph of Christianity over Juda- 
ism and paganism, signalized in the downfall of Jerusalem and of Rome, 
Against this view it is urged that if all these prophecies were fulfilled 
some 1,400 years ago (the Western Roman Empire fell A. D. 476), their 
accomplishment should be so perspicuous as to be universally manifest, 
which is very far from being the case. The Futurist interpreters refer 
all the book, except the first three chapters, to events which are yet to 
come. Against this view it is alleged that it is inconsistent with the re- 
peated declarations of a speedy fulfillment at the beginning and end of 
the book itself (i. 3 ; xxii. 6, 7, 12, 20). Against both these views it is ar- 
gued that, if either of them is correct, the Christian church is left with- 
out any prophetic guidance in the Scriptures, during the greater part of 
its existence ; while the Jewish church was favored with prophets during 
the most of its existence. The Historical or Continuous expositors be- 
lieve the Revelation a progressive history of the church from the first 
century to the end of time. The advocates of this method of interpreta- 
tion are the most numerous, and among them are such famous writers as 
Luther, Sir Isaac Newton, Bengel, Faber, Elliott, Wordsworth, Heng- 
stenberg, Alford, Fausset and Lee. The ablest living expositors of this 
class consider the seven seals, seven trumpets, seven thunders and seven 
vials as all synchronous, or contemporaneous, or parallel, a series of 
cyclical collective pictures, each representing the entire course of the 
world (as connected with the church) down to the end of time ; just as 


the seven churches in the first three chapters represent the universal 
church, the message to each pointing to the second coming of Christ. So 
the introduction in the first chapter, and the conclusion in the last chap- 
ter, refer to the beginning and the end of time, and to the second coming 
of Christ. Three times in the last chapter is His quick coming predicted. 
For these reasons the book of Revelation has been called the " Book of 
the Prophecy of Christ's Coming." It is the most difficult and sublime 
book of the Bible. While foretelling the righteous and terrific judgments 
of God upon the sins of man, it shows that all things are absolutely sub- 
ject to the Divine foreknowledge and control (Acts xv. 18 ; Psalms lxxvi. 
10 ; xlvi. 6 ; Matt. xxiv. 22) ; and it abounds in the strongest consolation to 
the tried people of God, revealing the certainty of their final triumph 
over all their enemies, and their sure entrance into eternal bliss. Hence, 
it has been impressively remarked that " the book spreads itself out be- 
fore us like the mantle of dusky night, broidered over with brilliant 
stars like jewels — enlivening the hope, patience, perseverance and love of 
the church of God, and affording her sufficient light concerning the future 
to enable her to find her way in situations of the greatest obscurity, while 
presenting an impenetrable veil to the profane gaze of the worldly mind." 
Scarcely are any two leading interpreters agreed as to the exact events 
alluded to by each prophecy ; no doubt many of the prophecies are still 
future, and cannot be understood until their fulfillment. While the 
prophecies may have one, or more than one, typical, imperfect, historical 
fulfillment, there can be no question that they also imply a higher spir- 
itual fulfillment. 

It is unfortunate that King James's, or the Authorized Version of the 
Bible, always translates by the same term "beast" the two different 
Greek words zoon and therion in the book of Revelation. Zoon occurs 
twenty times in the Revelation (iv. 6-9 ; v. 6, 8, 11, 14 ; vi. 1, 3, 5-7 ; vii. 
11 ; xiv. 3 ; xv. 7 ; xix. 4), and should be rendered living being; in classi- 
cal Greek it denotes man and the nobler animals below him, and also it 
denotes a symbolical figure. Therion occurs thirty-seven times in the 
book of Revelation (vi. 8; xi. 7; xiii. 1-4, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18; xiv. 9, 11 ; 
xv. 2; xvi. 2, 10, 13; xvii. 3, 7, 8, 11-13, 16, 17; xix. 19, 20; xx. 4, 10), 
and is properly rendered wild beast or monster. There are four living 
beings (or Zoo) mentioned in Revelation. Four is the emblem of crea- 
tion as revealing the glory of God (Gen. ii. 10 ; Isaiah xi. 12 ; Psalm cvii. 
3 ; Luke xiii. 29 ; Matt. xxiv. 31, etc.). The four living beings are most 
probably of the same character as the cherubim of the tabernacle and 
temple and in Ezekiel, and the seraphim in Isaiah. They have one, two 
or four faces, and two, four or six wings, and contain parts of one or 
more of four leading animal forms, man, ox, lion and eagle, and 
especially represent man as the summation (microcosm) and lord of the 
"terrestrial creation, concentrating in himself the highest created ener- 
gies, and testifying to the power, majesty, omnipresence and omniscience 
of God, as manifested by the universe of created Life. Instead of being 


angels, or spirits that were never embodied, they are, in Revelation, em- 
phatically distinguished from " all the angels " (Rev. v. 11 ; vii. 11) ; and 
it is plainly set forth, in Rev. v. 8-10, six. 4, 5, that the four living beings 
denote not only men, but the same class of men as the twenty-four Elders, 
redeemed men, men endowed with true or spiritual or eternal life, who are to 
live with God and worship Him forever. 

On the other hand, the wild beasts or monsters (theria) of the book of 
Revelation represent the Satanized everlasting enemies of God who are 
to be cast into the lake of eternal fire (xix. 20 ; xx. 10). As God has His 
two witnesses, so Satan or the Dragon has his two, the First and the Sec- 
ond Apocalyptic Beasts (Rev. xiii. 1, 11). The term beast denotes man 
severed from God, resting on his own physical or intellectual strength, 
or material resources — the combination of sensual, lawless, God-opposing 
elements (Psalms lxxiii. 22 ; xlix. 12 ; lxviii. 30 ; 2 Peter ii. 12 ; 1 Cor. xv. 
32). The four successive world empires are represented in Daniel (vii.) 
as beasts coming up out of the stormy sea of political commotions (Rev. 
xvii. 15). The First Apocalyptic Beast rises out of the sea (xiii. 1) or out 
of the bottomless pit (xvii. 8), and has seven heads and ten horns, each 
horn having a crown upon it, and upon his heads the name of blas- 
phemy ; he has the power and authority of the Dragon, and makes war 
upon the saints and overcomes them ; and all the world wonders after the 
beast, and worships him, except those whose names are written in the 
Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world (xiii. 
1-10). The First Beast shows himself to be the direct representative of 
the Dragon, who also has seven heads and ten horns (xii. 3), and who, 
first in human history, assumed the lowest beastly nature, that of the 
serpent (Gen. hi.). The First Beast represents the World-Power opposed, 
to God— the seven heads implying the assumption of Godhead, and carica- 
turing the seven spirits of God (Rev. i. 4) ; and the ten horns implying- 
the whole cycle of worldly opposition to the Divine perfections. The 
seven heads seem to be the seven world-monarchies — Egypt, Assyria, 
Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, and the Germanic Empire (the German 
hordes that conquered Rome) ; though many scholars think the last or 
seventh is not yet developed ; it is certain, from the interpretation of the 
angel to John, that at least six of these heads have already appeared (xvii 
10), and that the sixth was Rome, which reigned over the earth while 
John was living. Pagan Rome deified her emperors, and worshiped, it 
is said, 30,000 idols, and dominated the civilized world, and massacred the 
saints of God in ten persecutions. Christianity seemed, for a brief 
period, to give its idolatry a deadly wound, in the fourth century ; but 
that wound was healed, that is, the idolatry was restored by the apostasy 
of Papal Rome to picture- worship, Mariolatry (the worship of Mary), and 
the adoration of the Pope and the eucharist. The ten horns of the First 
Beast seem to be ten kings who are to be subordinate to this world-power 
in its last development (xvii. 12). The Second Apocalyptic Beast is the 
same as the False Prophet (xiii. 11-18 ; xix. 20; xx. 10) ; and also seems, 


in most respects, identified with the great, richly-dressed, blasphemous, 
murderous whore, Mystery Babylon, who rides upon the First Apocalyp- 
tic Beast, and is drunken with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus (xvii. 1- 
18) ; the same as the " little horn" on the fourth beast in Daniel vii., and 
the " man of sin," or " son of perdition," predicted by Paul in 2 Thess. ii.; 
and, in its full development, is the chief and last of the "false christs 
and false prophets " foretold by Christ (Matt. xxiv. 24), and of the " Anti- 
christs" foretold by John in his first epistle (ii. 18). He rises out of the 
earth, that is, out of civilized and consolidated and peaceful society, and 
is of the earth, earthy, worshiping earthly idols and not the God of 
Heaven — it is a beast, all the time, notwithstanding that it has two horns 
like a lamb, mocking Christ, and appearing mild and innocent, yet really 
having the spirit of the Dragon, and, out of the abundance of its heart, 
speaking and acting like the Dragon. While the First Beast was a politi- 
cal power, this adds to the features of the First Beast hypocrisy and de- 
ceivableness, and is a pseudo-spiritual power, prophesying and working 
deceptive miracles for the First Beast, and making an image to the First 
Beast;, and commanding all to worship the image, and killing those that 
refuse, and setting a mark in the right hands or foreheads of the idola- 
trous worshipers, and letting none buy or sell except such as have the 
mark or name of the beast, or the number of his name. The Second 
Beast (or False Prophet), although assuming the garb of religion (see 
Matt. vii. 15), is more oppressive than the first. The Dragon, Beast and 
False Prophet, " the mystery of iniquity," form a hellish Anti-Trinity, 
counterfeit of " the mystery of godliness," God manifest in Christ, wit- 
nessed to by the Spirit. " The Dragon personates the Father, assigning 
his authority to his representative, the Beast, as the Father assigns His 
to the Son ; while the False Prophet, like the Holy Ghost, speaks not of 
himself, but tells all men to worship the Beast, and confirms his testi- 
mony by miracles, as the Holy Ghost attested Christ's Divine mission. 
The mark in the right hand and forehead implies prostration of the body 
and intellect to the Beast ; or the mark in the forehead shows profession, 
and in the hand shows work and service for the Beast. The mark may 
be, as in the sealing of the saints, not visible, but symbolical of alle- 
giance." The number of the Beast is said to be the number of a man, 
and is 666. Countless attempts have been made to solve this enigma. 
Before the invention of the Arabic digits, numbers were generally repre- 
sented by letters ; so that every name, by the addition of the values of 
its letters, had a certain numerical value. From the language of the 
angel to John (Rev. xvii. 18), it seems certain that Rome was at least 
primarily meant ; and the most scholarly solutions point to Rome. The 
language in which John wrote the book of Revelation, like that of the 
remainder of the New Testament, is Greek ; and the numerical value, in 
Greek, of each of the following words, or phrases, is 666 : — Lateinos (Lati- 
nus, said to have been the first king of the Roman aborigines, from whom 
they derived their name of Latin) ; E Latine Basileia (the Latin king. 


dom) ; Italike Ekklesia (Italian church) ; Paradosis (tradition) ; Euporia 
(wealth). Vicarius Filii Dei (a Latin phrase, meaning Vicar of the Son 
of God, blasphemously assumed by the Pope) ; Vicarius Oeneralis Dei in 
Terris (Vicar General of God on earth), have the numerical value, in 
Latin, of 666. Also the word Romiith (Roman), in Hebrew, has for its 
numerical value 666. Latin is Rome's language in all official acts. 

Let it be especially remembered that "the only two Greek nouns 
in all the New Testament, whose numerical value is exactly 666, 
are Paradosis and Europia, precisely the two expressing the grand 
corrupters of the church, Tradition, the corrupter of doctrine, and 
Wealth, the corrupter of practice. The only unquestionable 666 in the 
Old Testament is the 666 talents of gold that came in yearly to Solo- 
mon, and were among his chief corrupting influences (1 Kings x. 14; 
2 Chron. ix. 13). The two horns of the earth-beast represent the two 
phases of idolatry which ever corrupt the church, literal and spiritual, 
image-worship and covetousness. In Pelletan's ' Profession of Faith in 
the Nineteenth Century,' Wealth is addressed ' Divine Son-Messiah-Re- 
deemer-dumb confidant of God — begotten by mysterious conception, who 
hast saved men from misery, redeemed the world,' etc." As the woman 
divinely clothed with the sun, and having the moon under her feet, and 
upon her head a crown of twelve stars, and persecuted by the Dragon 
(Rev. xii.), represents the true church, so the woman humanly arrayed in 
purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, 
and sitting upon the scarlet-colored beast, and having upon her forehead 
the name Mystery, Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abomina- 
tions of the Earth, and drunken with the blood of the saints, represents 
the false or apostate church with her daughters, whether Roman, Greek 
or Protestant, not loving Christ, the heavenly Bridegroom, but giving its 
affections to worldly idols — corrupted by tradition and wealth. The 
name Babylon given to the head of the image of the world-powers in the 
second chapter of Daniel is given in Revelation to the harlot. This con- 
nects her with the fourth kingdom, Rome, the last part of the image. 
Her sitting upon seven mountains or hills (Rev. xvii. 9), and her being the 
city which in John's time reigned over the kings of the earth (Rev. xvii. 18), 
also prove her to be Rome. Babylon means confusion, and well describes 
the rival claims of apostate Rome and her apostate daughters, and the 
"confused noises and blood-rolled garments " of their many wars upon 
each other and upon the followers of the Lamb, the Prince of Peace (Isa. 
ix. 5, 6) ; but all these persecutors shall stumble, and their "confusion" 
shall be " everlasting " (Jer. xx. 11). The harlot is at last to be deprived 
of all her carnal possessions by the world-powers (Rev. xvii. 16), and to 
be visited with the righteous and eternal judgment of God (Rev. xviii., 
xix.). And then it is probable that some infidel supplanter of the papacy, 
the fully developed false-prophet, under a false spiritual guise, will as- 
sume even more blasphemous pretensions than the pope, (still, however, 
identified with Rome), and will openly avow atheism, and deify Satan in 


himself, and combine in himself worldly wisdom and worldly power, and 
■endeavor to destroy all who will not worship him, and he will be met by 
the King of kings and Lord of lords, and be cast with the beast alive (not 
annihilated) into the lake of eternal fire (Rev. xix.). Even in Babylon 
God has a people, and they are exhorted to come out of her, lest they par- 
take of her sins and plagues (Rev. xviii. 4); just as the believers in Christ 
tame out of Jerusalem before its terrible destruction by the Romans 
(Matt. xxiv. 15, 16).— A. B. Fausset. 

In regard to the time when all these events shall take place, it is al- 
togetlier uncertain. Christ told His Apostles that it was "not even for 
them to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in His 
own power " (Acts i. 7) ; and that the day and hour of the coming of the 
Son of man were unknown to any man and to the angels, and even to 
Himself in His humanity, and known only to the Father (Mark xiii. 32). 
Therefore all His people are to watch (Matt. xxiv. 42). What is called 
the Year-Day theory is popular with many writers, though rejected by 
several recent and able scholars. This theory is sought to be based upon 
such passages as Lev. vii. 5 ; Deut. xvi. 9, 10, 16 ; Num. xiv. 33, 34 ; Ezek. 
iv. 5, 6 ; Dan. ix. 24 ; and maintains that a day in prophecy means a year 
in history. It is replied that prophetical numbers are symbolical, and 
can hardly be thought to be also literal ; that the above passages are ir- 
relevant, especially the main passage in Daniel ix. 24, where the word 
translated tveeks simply means sevens; that the theory is contrary to the 
words of Christ about our not knowing the times or the seasons ; and 
that if it is applied to any prophetical numbers, it should be applied to 
all, and that would make the Millennium (Rev. xx. 1-7) last 360,000 years. 
Scarcely any Year-Day theorist applies his theory to the Millennium. 
Still, he insists that, in the latter days, many were to run to and fro, and 
knowledge was to be increased, and the book of prophecy was to be 
sealed only to the time of the end (Dan. xii. 4) ; and that, as the begin- 
nings of the periods are uncertain, although we know the periods them- 
selves, their ends are also uncertain, so that Christ's words would still be 
true. The three years and a half, or time, times and dividing of time, or 
42 months, or 1,260 days, so often mentioned in prophecy, are the same 
period ; and, if the Year-Day theory be true, they denote 1,260 years. As 
for the fall of Mystical Babylon, we cannot tell the exact date, even if 
she were to continue 1,260 years. Pope Boniface III., in A. D. 606, re- 
ceived from the Emperor Phocas the title of " Universal Bishop ; " Pope 
Theodore I., in A. D. 648, assumed the title of " Sovereign Pontiff," and 
was the last pope whom a bishop dared to call brother ; Pope Stephen 
III., in A. D. 754, by acknowledging the usurper Pepin as the lawful king 
of France, received from him the three territories of Rome, Ravenna and 
Loinbardy, the beginning of the temporal power of the popes. Reckoning 
thei=#,B60 years from these dates, we should reach A. D. 1866, 1908 and 
2014; or, if only 360 days are reckoned to a year, A. D. 1849, 1891 and 1997. 
If the latter date were correct, and there was then to be a persecution of 


God's people, unprecedented in horror, and lasting a literal period of 
three years and a half, as many suppose, it would make the fall of Romish 
Babylon about A. D. 2000. (All future dates are, of course, except to 
God, uncertain.) As shown by Rev. xix. 17-21, "the world, at its highest 
development of material and pseudo-spiritual power, is but a decorated 
carcass round which the eagles gather," as literal Jerusalem was at its 
destruction by the Romans (Matt. xxiv. 15-28). The one was a lively type 
of the other. 

" The destruction of Satan's representatives, the beast and the false- 
prophet, to whom he gave his power, throne and authority, is followed 
by the binding of Satan himself a thousand years (Rev. xx. 1-7). The 
Jewish rabbis thought that, as the world was created in six days, and on 
the seventh God rested, so there would be six millenaries (or six thou- 
sand years), followed by a Sabbatical Millennium" (one thousand years). 
If there were exactly 4,000 years before the birth of Christ, this opinion, if 
true, would make the dawn of the Millennium about 2000 A. D.; but, as 
we have stated before, there are 200 different opinions of the exact inter- 
val between the creation of Adam and the birth of Christ, so that the 
matter is, as to its date, quite uncertain. Whether the thousand years of 
Satan's confinement in the bottomless pit, mentioned six times in the 
twentieth chapter of Revelation, are to be before or after the second 
advent of Christ, does not very plainly appear from the Scriptures, and 
is still a warmly contested point with the ablest Bible scholars. As the 
Old Testament Scriptures predicted the first coming of Christ — not only 
spiritually, in mercy or judgment, but also literally, personally and visi- 
bly ; so, in the most unmistakable language, do the New Testament 
Scriptures foretell His second coming — not only spiritually, in mercy or 
judgment, but also literally, personally and visibly (Acts i. 11 ; iii. 20, 21 ; 
Matt. xvi. 27 ; xxv. 31 ; xxvi. 64 ; Mark viii. 38 ; 1 Cor. iv. 5 ; xi. 26 ; xv. 23 ; 
Philip, iii. 20; 1 Thess. iv. 14-18; Heb. ix. 28; Rev. i. 7). By many an- 
cient Jewish Christians, and by the church generally from 150 to 250 A. 
D., during a period of great persecution, and by some learned individuals 
and some transient parties since, it was and has been believed that there 
would be two future personal advents of Christ, one before and another 
after the Millennium, or thousand years' confinement of Satan. John 
Gill (A. D. 1697-1771), perhaps the most learned, able, sound, upright and 
humble Baptist minister since the days of Paul, was thoroughly per- 
suaded that Christ would come personally upon the earth again just be- 
fore the Millennium, and destroy His enemies, and reign personally with 
His saints on earth a thousand years ; and, in the second volume of his 
Body of Divinity, he advances a large number of powerful Scripture ar- 
guments in support of this position. And, in the present age, such dis- 
tinguished Bible scholars as Alford, Ebrard, Auberlen, Birks, Elliot, 
Fausset, Lange and others, advocate the same opinion. This belitef is 
based chiefly on "these two classes of passages: 1st, Those which seem 
to connect the future advent with the restoration of Israel, the destruc- 


tion- of Antichrist, or the establishment of a universal kingdom of right- 
eousness on earth, such as Isa. xi., xii.; lix. (compared with Rom. xi. 25-27); 
Jer. xxiii. 5-8; Ezekiel xliii.; Daniel vii. 9-27; Joel iii. 16-21; Zech. xiv.; 
Roin. xi. 1-27; 2 Thess. i. 1-18 ; Acts iii. 19-21. 2d, Those passages which 
speak of the coming of the Lord as imminent (in connection with those 
which declare that there is to be a period of generally diffused peace and 
righteousness preceding the first consummation), such as Matt. xxiv. 
42-44; Mark xiii. 32-37; Luke xii. 35-40; 1 Thess. v. 2, 3; Titus ii. 11-13; 
James v. 7. 8." Mr. E. E. Craven, American Editor of Lange's Commen- 
tary on the Book of Revelation, believes that, as in the earlier Old Testa- 
ment prophecies, only one advent of Christ seems to have been contem- 
plated, but in the later (compare Daniel ix. 25, 26 with vii. 13, 14) there 
was a prediction of two such advents, separated, as we now know, by 
millennia ; so, while in the earlier portions of the New Testament, only 
one future advent of Christ seems predicted, in the later portions (com- 
pare Rev. xix. 11-16 with xx. 11-15) there are indications of two — one to- 
establish a universal kingdom of righteousness on earth, and the other to- 
terminate the present order of things in a general judgment. 

But it is the opinion of the great majority of Bible scholars that there 
will be but one more personal advent of Christ, and that it will be after 
the Millennium. They maintain that the idea of a pre-millennial advent 
is Jewish in its origin, and Judaizing or materializing in its tendency ; 
that it disparages the present, the dispensation of the Holy Ghost ; that 
it is inconsistent with the Scriptures, which teach that Christ comes but 
twice, to atone and to judge (Heb. ix. 28); that the Heavens must receive 
Christ until the times of the restitution of all things (Acts iii. 21); that 
Christ's kingdom is not of this world, but spiritual (Matt. xiii. 11-44 ; John 
xviii. 36 ; Rom. xiv. 17) ; that it was not to be confined to the Jews (Matt. 
viii. 11, 12); that regeneration is the essential antecedent of admission to- 
it (John iii. 3-5); that the blessings of the kingdom are purely spiritual, 
as repentance, pardon, faith, etc. (Matt. iii. 2, 11 ; Acts v. 31 ; Gal. v. 22, 
23, etc.); that the kingdom of Christ has already come, He having sat 
upon the throne of His Father David ever since His ascension (Acts ii. 
29-36 ; iii. 13-15 ; iv. 26-28 ; v. 29-31 ; Heb. x. 12, 13 ; Rev. iii. 7-12), so that the 
Old Testament prophecies predicting this kingdom must refer to the 
present dispensation of grace, and not to a future reign of Christ on. 
earth in person among men in the flesh ; and that the church is to be 
complete at His next coming (1 Thess. iii. 13 ; 2 Thess. i. 10). These 
scholars believe that the very difficult passage in Rev. xx. 1-10 has the- 
following meaning : That " Christ has in reserve for His church a period 
of universal expansion and of pre-eminent spiritual prosperity, when the 
spirit and character of the noble army of martyrs shall be reproduced 
again in the great body of God's people in an unprecedented measure (as 
Elias is said to have lived again in John the Baptist), and when these 
martyrs shall, in the general triumph of their case, and in the overthrow 
of that of their enemies, receive judgment over their foes, and reign in 


the earth; while the party of Satan, called 'the rest of the dead,' shall 
not flourish again until the thousand years be ended, when it shall pre- 
vail again for a little season. Three considerations favor this interpreta- 
tion : It occurs in one of the most highly figurative books of the Bible ; 
this explanation is perfectly consistent with all the other more explicit 
teachings of the Scriptures on the several points involved ; the same fig- 
ure, that of life again from the dead, is frequently used in Scripture to 
«xpress the idea of the spiritual revival of the church (Isa. xxvi. 19 ; Ezek. 
xxxvii. 12-14; Hosea vi. 1-3; Rom. xi. 15 ; Rev. xi. 11). And three con- 
siderations bear against the literal interpretation of Rev. xx. 1-10 : The 
doctrine of two literal resurrections, first of the righteous, and then, af- 
ter an interval of a thousand years, of the wicked, is taught nowhere else 
in the Bible, and this passage is a very obscure one ; it is inconsistent 
with what the Scriptures uniformly teach as to the nature of the resur- 
rection-body, that it is to be spiritual, not natural, or ordinary flesh and 
blood (1 Cor. xv. 44), whereas this interpretation represents the saints, or 
at least the martyrs, as rising and reigning a thousand years in the flesh, 
and in this world as at present constituted ; and the literal interpretation 
of this passage contradicts the clear and uniform teaching of the Scrip- 
tures that all the dead are to rise and be judged together at the second 
coming of Christ (John v. 28, 29 ; Rev. xx. 11-15; Matt. xxv. 31-46 ; Acts 
xvii. 31 ; 2 Cor. v. 10; 2 Thess. i. 6-10), which is to be immediately suc- 
ceeded by the burning of the world, and the revelation of the new 
Heavens and earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness (Psalm cii. 26, 27 ; 
Isa. li. 6 ; Rom. viii. 19-23 ; Heb. xii. 26, 27 ; 2 Peter ill. 10-13 ; Rev. xx. 

" The Scriptures, both of the Old and New Testaments, clearly reveal 
that the gospel is to exercise an influence over all branches of the human 
family, immeasurably more extensive and more thoroughly transforming 
than any it has ever realized in time past, which end is to be gradually 
brought about by the Spirit of Christ in the present dispensation (Matt. 
xiii. 31, 32 ; xxviii. 19, 20 ; Psalms ii. 7, 8 ; xxii. 27, 29 ; lxxii. 8-11 ; Isaiah 
ii. 2, 3; xi. 6-9; lx. 12; lxvi. 23; Daniel ii. 35, 44; Zech. ix. 10; xiv. 9; 
Rev. xi. 15). The period of this general pre valency of the gospel will 
continue a thousand years, and is hence designated the Millennium (Rev. 
xx. 2-7). The Jews are to be converted to Christianity (but not probably 
restored to Palestine) either at the commencement or during the continu- 
ance of the Millennium (Zech. xii. 10 ; xiii. 1 ; Rom. xi. 26-29 ; 2 Cor. ill. 
15, 16). At the end of these thousand years, and before the coming of 
Christ, there will be a comparatively short season of apostasy and violent 
■conflict between the kingdoms of light and darkness (Luke xvii. 26-30 ; 2 
Peter iii. 3, 4; Rev. xx. 7-9). Christ's advent and the general resurrec- 
tion and judgment will be simultaneous, and then will follow the confla- 
gration of the earth, and the introduction of a new and higher order of 
things, adapted to the resurrection-bodies of the saints (Dan. xii. 1-3 ; 
John v. 28, 29 ; 1 Cor. xv. 23 ; 1 Thess. iv. 16 ; Rev. xx. 11-15 ; Matt. vii. 21- 


23; xiii. 30-43; xvi. 24-27; xxv. 31-46; Rom. ii. 5, 16; 1 Cor. iii. 12-15 ; 2 
Cor. v. 9-11 ; Acts xxii. 31 ; 2 Thess. i. 6-10 ; 2 Peter iii. 7-13 ; Rev. xxi. 1." 
—A. A. Hodge, in Outlines of 1 heology. Such has been the general belief 
of the Christian church from the close of the Scripture canon to the pres- 
ent time. Mr. Charles Hodge (in his Systematic Theology), however, 
makes the wise remark : " Experience teaches that the interpretation of 
unfulfilled prophecy is exceedingly precarious. There is every reason to 
believe that the predictions concerning the second advent of Christ, and 
the events which are to attend and follow it, will disappoint the expecta- 
tions of commentators, as the expectations of the Jews were disappointed 
in the manner in which the prophecies concerning the first advent were 

In reference to the highly important discourse of Christ in Matthew 
xxiv. and xxv., it is to be observed that Christ is answering three distinct 
questions of His Apostles : 1st, When the temple and city of Jerusalem 
were to be destroyed ; 2d, What were to be the signs of His coming ; and 
3d, What was to be the time or the sign of the end of the world (Matt. 
xxiv. 3). The questions, perhaps, amounted to but one in the minds of 
the disciples at that time, because they probably supposed that these 
three events were to be simultaneous. It is in accordance with the entire 
analogy of Scripture prophecy to understand that these predictions had 
a primary and lower fulfillment in the destruction of Jerusalem, but will 
have a final and higher fulfillment in the destruction of this sin-polluted 
world. So the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah were intended to fore- 
tell, not only the deliverance of national Israel from Babylonian cap- 
tivity, but also the far more important redemption of spiritual Israel 
from the bondage of sin and Satan. 

For the declarative glory of God, the righteousness and mercy of His. 
dealings are to be displayed before the assembled universe on the most 
solemn and final day of judgment (Matt. xi. 22, 24 ; xxv. 31-46 ; Luke x. 
14; Acts xvii. 31 ; Heb. vi. 2 ; 2 Peter ii. 9 ; iii. 7-13 ; 1 John iv. 17 ; Rev. 
xx. 11-15). The time and place and duration of that momentous scene 
have not been revealed to mortals. Christ, the Mediator between God 
and man, the Savior of sinners, He who loved and gave Himself for His 
chosen people, embracing every truly humble soul, is to be the judge 
(Matt. xxv. 31, 32 ; xxviii. 18 ; John v. 27 ; Acts x. 42 ; xvii. 31 ; Rom. xiv. 
10 ; Philip, ii. 10 ; 2 Tim. iv. 1) ; otherwise His little ones " would sink in 
despair before the terrible bar." The persons to be judged are men and 
angels (Eccles. xii. 14 ; Psalm i. 4 ; 2 Cor. v. 10 ; Rom. xiv. 10 ; Matt. xii. 
36, 37 ; xxv. 32 ; Rev. xx. 12 ; Matt. viii. 29; 1 Cor. vi. 3 ; 2 Peter ii. 4). 
" The saints will be present, not to have their portion assigned (for that 
was fixed long before, Matt. xxv. 34 ; Eph. i. 3, 4 ; 2 Thess. ii. 13 ; 1 Peter 
i. 1-5; John v. 24), but to have it confirmed forever, and that God's 
righteousness may be vindicated in both the saved and the lost (Rom. 
xiv. 10 ; 2 Cor. v. 10), before the universe." The books that are to be 
opened are the book of the law (Gal. iii. 10), the book of conscience (Rom. 


ii. 15, 16), and the book of God's omniscience (Heb. iv. 13) ; and, besides 
these, another most precious book, the book of God's fatherly remem- 
brance, mentioned at the close of the Old Testament (Mai. iii. 16-18 ; iv. 
1-3), which is the same as the Lamb's book of life, mentioned at the close 
of the New Testament (Rev. xiii. 8 ; xx. 12-15 ; xxi. 27)— a book contain- 
ing the names of all those redeemed to God by the blood of the Lamb out 
of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation (Rev. v. 9, 10 ; i. 5, 
6 ; xvii. 14; Isaiah xxxv. 10 ; liii. 5-11 ; Jer. xxiii. 6 ; Matt. i. 21 ; John x. 
15, 27-30 ; xvii. 2, 3, 9, 10, 20-24 ; Acts xiii. 48 ; Rom. v. 19-21 ; viii. 28-39; 
1 Cor. i. 26-31), their names being written therein, not for their works, 
but for Christ's work for and in them — the LamVs book of life (Rom. iii. 
10-20; vi. 23; xi. 6). The saints are justified freely by God's grace 
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus (Rom. iii. 24), or justified 
by faith, the gift of God (Rom. v. 1 ; iv. 16 ; Gal. v. 22 ; Eph. i. 19 ; Philip, 
i. 29 ; Heb. xii. 2). Faith being appreciable by God and the believer 
alone (Rev. ii. 17), and works beiug appreciable by all, the saints' " works 
of faith and labors of love " are published as the external and evidential 
test to indicate their preparedness for glory, and to vindicate the right- 
eousness of God (1 Thess. i. 3, 4; Matt. xxv. 34-40 ; vii. 16-20 ; Gal. v. 22, 
23; Eph. ii. 1-10). Acquitted by the free mercy of God, while humbly- 
feeling their own utter unworthiness, the saints are shown to be the chil- 
dren of God by their divinely inspired deeds of mercy to His people 
(Matt. xxv. 34-40 ; James ii. 13-26 ; Eph. v. 1, 2). True faith worketh by 
love, which is the fulfilling of the law, and the proof that we have passed 
from death unto life, and are the justified children of God (Gal. v. 6 ; vi. 
15 ; Rom. xiii. 10 ; 1 Cor. xiii. 13 ; 1 John iii. 14-18 ; iv. 7, 8, 11, 13, 20 ; v. 
1 ; Rom. iii. 24-26 ; v. 1-5). As for their sins, while they themselves can 
never forget them, and can never cease to be deeply grateful to Him who 
loved them and washed them from their sins in His own blood (Rev. i. 5), 
their covenant God has long since promised, not only to forgive, but to 
remember their sins no more (Jer. xxxi. 31-37). Being thus accepted in the 
Beloved, and freely justified by His grace (Eph. i. 6, 7; Rom. iii. 24), the 
saints will become assessors with the Judge, and heartily indorse His 
righteous judgments (Psalm cxlix. 5-9 ; 1 Cor. vi. 2, 3 ; Rev. xx. 4 ; xix. 
1-5). In the light of the " Great White Throne " (Rev. xx. 11) all decep- 
tion will be banished, the secrets of all hearts will be revealed, every in- 
dividual will appear in his true character (Eccles. xii. 14 ; 1 Cor. iv. 5 ; Mai. 
iii. 18) ; the wicked, though seeking to justify themselves, will be justly 
condemned by the holy law of God and by their own consciences (Rom. 
iii. 19 ; ii. 12-16 ; Gal. iii. 10), and will be sentenced to everlasting misery, 
while the righteous are welcomed to everlasting blessedness (Matt. xxv. 

" The chief objections to the doctrine of endless punishment," says 
Prof. W. G. T. Shedd, " are not Biblical, but speculative. The great 
majority of students and exegetes find the tenet in the Hebrew and Greek 
Scriptures. Sin is voluntary ; and endless sin must receive endless pun- 


ishnient. The unsubmissive, rebellious spirits of the lost go, with like- 
minded companions, to ' their own place,' which they prefer to Heaven. 
History shows that the disbelief of the doctrine of the endless punish- 
ment of the wicked is most prevalent in the most corrupt times — itself 
being both a sign and a cause of the corruption." 

God said to our first parents in the garden of Eden that in the day 
they ate of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil they should surely 
■die ; but Satan afterwards came in the form of the serpent, and flatly 
contradicted God, telling them that they should not surely die. So, in 
the present age of widespread infidelity, Satan, in the hearts of both the 
professing and non-professing "Christian" world, assures men that, 
though they go on in sin and impenitence and unbelief till temporal 
death, they will not die everlastingly — thus meeting with point-blank 
■contradiction the repeated, multiform, emphatic, indubitable assurances 
of God in the Scriptures. This soothing, infernal poison, a combination 
of Arminianism and Universalism, is pervading and leavening the great 
masses in the Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican 
•communions. In the minds of multitudes, a terminable purgatory is tak- 
ing the place, for all men, of an interminable hell — the idea being derived, 
not from the inspired Scriptures, but from the ancient Persian heathens, 
from whom the Jews obtained it and incorporated it in their Apocrypha 
and Talmud ; the Catholics derived it from the Jews, and Protestants 
•derived it from the Catholics. According to this insidious deception, 
men after death are to be sent into purifying fires, chastened for their 
ains, instructed in Divine truth, and given another chance to repent and 
save themselves, and go to Heaven. High ecclesiastical office, preten- 
tious scholarship, splendid eloquence, soul-moving rhetoric, and encyclo- 
paedic erudition, followed by countless hosts of lesser lights, zealously 
array themselves against the plainest declarations of the written word 
of God and in defense of this Satanic delusion. They urge that the doc- 
trine of eternal punishment is by far the most objectionable part of the 
Bible to skeptics ; and, unless this harsh and cruel doctrine is toned down, 
the infidel world never will receive the Bible. But there are other teach- 
ings of the Scriptures that are intensely offensive to the carnal mind— • 
such as the total depravity of man, salvation by grace alone, the plenary 
inspiration of the Scriptures, the Divinity of Christ, the atonement, the 
resurrection, the holiness of God, etc. All these and all other peculiar 
features of Christianity must be removed from the Bible, or explained 
away, before the unregenerate world will be willing to receive it. It will, 
therefore, be much better for all who profess the name of Christ never to 
begin the work of toning down and explaining away the Scriptures. 

The present writer has read, with deep attention, the most recent and 
elaborate arguments advanced against the Bible doctrine of the everlast- 
ing duration of future punishment ; he has compared these reasonings 
with themselves, with the original Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, and 
with the latest and most authoritative lexicons, and he is constrained to 


declare his belief that, for the very perfection of sophistry, these infidel 
treatises have no equal in the entire range of human literature. The 
same methods of explanation would make anything mean nothing. 

The terms almost invariably used in the Scriptures to denote everlast- 
ing duration are olam in the Old Testament and aion and aionios in the 
New Testament. While these terms, both in and out of the Bible, some- 
times certainly signify indefinite duration, it is admitted by the best lexi- 
cographers that their common meaning is everlasting ; they are the most 
frequent terms used in the Bible to denote the everlasting duration of God, 
and the everlasting duration of the happiness of saints in glory ; it is there- 
fore most scriptural to understand that, when they are applied to the duration 
of the punishment of the wicked, they also mean everlasting. The Scriptures, 
being addressed in the main to God's people, dwell more upon the per- 
fections of God and the future happiness of His saints than upon the 
future punishment of the wicked. In the Old Testament olam is used 40 
times in reference to God, 94 times in reference to the future happiness 
of His people, and 11 times in reference to the punishment of the wicked. 
In the New Testament aion is used 14 times and aionios 3 times in refer- 
ence to God ; aion 9 times and aionios 51 times in reference to the happi- 
ness of the righteous beyond the grave ; and aion 5 times and aionios 7 
times in reference to the future punishment of the wicked. In all these 
cases the reference is to the future duration of God and of the human 
race ; and the making of a radical distinction in the meanings of these 
same terms, so that they shall denote infinite duration in reference to the 
righteous, and finite duration in reference to the wicked, is, says Professor 
Moses Stuart, "without a parallel in the just principles of interpretation. 
The conclusion is plain, and philologically and exegetically certain. It 
is this : either the declarations of the Scriptures do not establish the facts 
that God and His glory and praise and happiness are endless, nor that the 
happiness of the righteous in the future world is endless, or else they 
establish the fact that the punishment of the wicked is endless." In Mat- 
thew xxv. 46 the very same Greek word, aionios, is used by Christ, in the 
same sentence, in reference both to the duration of the punishment of the 
wicked and the duration of the happiness of the righteous. The plurals 
and reduplications and supplementations of these three terms are used 
several times in the Scriptures to express the duration of the existence 
and glory of God, and of the future happiness of His people ; so also are 
they sometimes used to express the duration of the future punishment of 
the wicked (Psalm ix. 5 ; Revelation xiv. 11 ; xv. 7 ; xix. 3 ; xx. 10). The 
extreme position has even been taken that aionios has no reference to 
duration whatever, but simply means spiritual, supra-sensuous, beyond and 
above time ; and that aionian (or eternal) life may last bU(t ten minutes, and 
aionian (or eternal) death may last but ten minutes. Now the Lord Jesus 
Christ is, on this and on every other subject, a higher authority than any 
creature ; and in John x. 28 He defines aionian (or eternal) life to be im- 
perishable or indestructible life ; and in Matthew xxv. 41, 46, He defines 


aionian (or eternal) fire or punishment or death (Rev. xx. 14, 15) to 
be the same as the punishment of the devil and his angels, which, in 
Jude 6, is declared to be aidios, a term never meaning anything but ever- 
lasting ; and in Mark ix. 43 Christ declares that this "fire" is asbestos, 
unquenchable, inextinguishable ; and in Mark ix. 44, 46, 48, the "worm" is 
described as ateleutetos, undying, endless. In Mark ix. 43-48 "the fire" 
signifies the wrath of God, and "the worm" signifies remorse of con- 
science. The " great gulf fixed " between the righteous and the wicked 
after death is declared by Christ in Luke xvi. 26 to be impassable. Not a 
particle of all the quibbling about olam, aion and aionios will apply to 
stich unmistakable passages as Mark ix. 43-48, John iii. 3, 36, Luke xvi. 
26 ; Revelation xxi. 8 and xxii. 11. 

The Scriptures everywhere represent the doomed state of the wicked 
after death as a finality ; they contain not one syllable to justify the 
belief that there is any repentance, or forgiveness, or radical change of 
state in the world beyond the grave. Even the eye of the Apostle ' of 
love, as he stands upon the last and loftiest heights of inspiration, sees 
only endless misery for the wicked. The filthy and unjust then will re- 
main guilty rebels against God and wretched sufferers forever. The 
severe punishment inflicted by an avenging Judge, instead of softening 
and reconciling, will harden and exasperate the criminal. That a Most 
Holy God has an infinite hatred of sin is shown by the Noachian deluge, 
the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Pharaoh and his host, and 
of Jerusalem, by the numberless and indescribable miseries of men in all 
ages of the world, and by the awful summons that one soul every second 
receives to quit these mortal shores and appear in the presence of its God. 
And the infinite hatred of a Most Holy God against sin is shown infinitely 
more than it could have been shown by all the sufferings of all the human 
race forever, by the bleeding unutterable agonies op the meek ani> 
lowly and spotless Lamb of God in Gethsemane and on Calvary 
while He expiated the sins of His spiritual Israel. "It is far less 
possible that the bitter cup should pass from the lips of the finally impenitent 
than that it should have been taken from the trembling hand of the holy and 
harmless Son of God. n 

The unanswerable refutation of the entire body of argument used by 
the infidel " restoration] st" is that this feeble, carnal, heathen and un- 
godly system wholly does away with the atonement of Christ and the 
sanctification of the Spirit, the most fundamental truths of Holy Writ, 
and substitutes, in their stead, satisfaction rendered to Divine justice, 
and purification obtained by each human being, by the actual individual 
sufferings of each sinner in this and the future world. If this doctrine be 
true, there is no salvation, in the true sense of the term, for any member 
of the Adamic race. 

The Scriptures and arguments already adduced thoroughly refute 
also the position of those who advocate the annihilation of the wicked 
at or after death, or what they call a conditional immortality. 


More fully, clearly and emphatically than all the prophets and Apos 
ties does the Lord Jesus Christ, the incarnate God of eternity, the Savior 
of men, the last Supreme Judge of the human race, describe to us -the 
awful state of the impenitent dead. May we have the wisdom, by Divine 
grace, as well upon this as upon every other subject, to turn from all other 
masters and to hear Him. 

It seems, according to the Scriptures, that the sufferings of the lost 
will arise : " from the loss of all earthly good ; from exclusion from the 
presence and favor of God; from the unrestrained dominion of sin; from 
the operations of conscience ; from despair ; from evil associates ; from 
bodily tortures ; and from the everlasting duration of their sufferings." 

" When Christ comes again it will be to be admired in all them that 
believe. Those who are then alive will be changed in the twinkling of 
an eye ; their corruptible shall put on incorruption, and their mortal shall 
put on immortality. Those who are in the graves shall hear the voice of 
the Son of man and come forth to the resurrection of life, their bodies 
fashioned like unto the glorious body of the Son of God. Thus changed, 
both classes of believers shall be ever with the Lord. The place of the 
final abode of the righteous is sometimes called a house, as when the 
Savior said, 'In my Father's house are many mansions' (Johnxiv. 2); 
sometimes ' a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is 
God' (Heb. xi. 10). Under this figure it is called the new or heavenly 
Jerusalem, so gorgeously described in the twenty-first chapter of the 
Apocalypse. Sometimes it is spoken of as ' a better country, that is an 
heavenly' (Heb. xi. 16); a country through which flows the river of the 
water of life, and ' on either side of the river was there the tree of life, 
which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month ; 
and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there 
shall be no more curse ; but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be 
in it ; and His servants shall serve Him : and they shall see His face ; and 
His name shall be in their foreheads. And there shall be no night there ; 
and they need no candle, neither light of the sun ; for the Lord God 
giveth them light : and they shall reign forever and ever ' (Rev. xxii, 
2-5). Sometimes the final abode of the redeemed is called a ' new Heavens 
and a new earth' (2 Peter iii. 13). 

" As to the blessedness of this heavenly state we know that it is in- 
conceivable : ' Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered 
into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that 
love Him' (1 Cor. ii. 9). 

" ' We know not, O we know not 

What joys await us there ; 
What radiancy of glory, 

What bliss beyond compare.' 

"We know, however : (1.) That this incomprehensible blessedness of 
Heaven shall arise from the vision of God. This vision is beatific. It 
transforms the soul into the Divine image ; transfusing into it the Divine 


life, so that it is tilled with the fullness of God. This vision of God is in 
the face of Jesus Christ, in whom dwells the plenitude of the Divine glory 
bodily. God is seen in fashion as a man ; and it is this manifestation of 
God in the person of Christ that is inconceivably and intolerably ravish- 
ing. Peter, James and John became as dead men when they saw His 
glory, for a moment, in the holy mount. (2.) The blessedness of the re- 
deemed will flow not only from the manifestation of the glory, but also 
of the love of God ; of that love, mysterious, unchangeable and infinite, 
of which the work of redemption is the fruit. (3.) Another element of the 
future happiness of the saints is the indefinite enlargement of all their 
faculties. (4.) Another is their entire exemption from all sin and sorrow. 
(5.) Another is their intercourse and fellowship with the high intelligences 
of Heaven ; with patriarchs, prophets, Apostles, martyrs, and all the re- 
deemed. (6.) Another is constant increase in knowledge and in the use- 
ful exercise of all their powers. (7.) Another is the secure and everlast- 
ing possession of all possible good." — 0. Hodge. 

" The everlasting duration of the happiness of the righteous is shown 
by its being called eternal or everlasting life, eternal glory, a house 
eternal in the Heavens, an eternal inheritance, an everlasting kingdom, 
a continuing city, a better country, a being ever with the Lord, in ac- 
•cordance with the eternal purpose of God and the everlasting covenant 
of grace ; were there any fears of its ever ending, it could not be perfect 

" As to whether there will be any degrees in the final happiness of 
the saints, those passages of Scripture usually brought to support it 
usually belong to the militant, not to the triumphant, state of the church. 
The arguments against degrees in glory are : (1.) That all the people of 
God are loved by Him with the same everlasting love. (2.) They were 
all chosen together in Christ before the foundation of the world. (3.) 
They are all equally interested in the same everlasting covenant of grace. 
(4.) They are all equally redeemed with the same precious blood of 
Christ. (5.) They are all freely justified by the same righteousness of 
Christ. (6.) All are equally the predestinated and adopted children and 
heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. (7.) They are all raised up 
from the same low and lost estate by Christ to be kings and priests unto 
God."— John Gill. 

The church is a unit, and must ultimately triumph over all opposition. 

The Apostle Paul represents the church as the body of Jesus Christ, 
as may be gathered by reference to the following Scriptures : Rom. xii. 
5; 1 Cor. vi. 15; x. 17; xii. 27; Eph. i. 23; iv. 12; v. 23, 30; Col. i. 18, 24; 
ii. 17. " He thus represents it as an organic living system of various 
members, powers and functions, and at the same time as the abode of 
Christ and the object of His redeeming and sanctifying influence upon 
the world. Christ is, in one view, the ruling head ; in another the invisi- 
ble, all-pervading soul of this body. Christ without the church were a 
head without a body, a fountain without a stream, a king without sub- 


jects, a captain without soldiers, a bridegroom without a bride. The 
church without Christ were a body without soul or spirit, a lifeless corpse. 
The church lives only as Christ lives or works in her. At every moment 
of her existence she is dependent on Him, as the body on the soul, or the 
branches on the vine. But on His part He perpetually bestows upon her 
His heavenly gifts, and supernatural powers, continually reveals Him- 
self in her, and will dwell in her during her entire militant state, when at 
last all the principalities and powers of earth will yield free obedience to 
Him, and adore Him as the eternal Prophet, Priest and King of the re- 
generate race." — Sehaff. 

Such is the character of that society, of that church, of that kingdom 
that was ushered into the world in the days of the Csesars, and which has 
never taken one step backwards, but amidst fires and faggots, prisons 
and deaths, has marched steadily onward, conquering and to conquer, 
through the great Captain of her salvation, and will eventually fill the 
world with the glory of God. 



The church of the first century was a spiritual kingdom set up in the 
-world by the Son of God in fulfillment of the Jewish economy and in 
opposition to all other religions of earth ; and this militant kingdom of 
Immanuel, notwithstanding the combined secular powers of the world, 
progressed to such an extent that, in about seventy years after the cruci- 
fixion of Christ, it pervaded portions of every province of the Roman 
Empire. In it is an aggressive principle against sin, though purely of love 
to mankind, that will never cease its action until time shall be no more. 

Many errors had crept into the church from time to time in different 
parts of the world ; but that system of discipline which had been estab- 
lished by Christ and His Apostles had proved effectual in removing these 
errors in faith and practice. " The Apostolic Age is the fountain-head of 
the Christian church, as an organized society separate and distinct from 
the Jewish synagogue. It is pre-eminently the age of the Holy Spirit— 
the age of inspiration and of legislation for all subsequent ages. Here 
springs, in its original freshness and purity, the living water of the new 
creation. Christianity comes down from Heaven as a supernatural fact, 
yet long predicted and prepared for, and adapted to the deepest wants of 
human nature. Signs and wonders and extraordinary demonstrations of 
the Spirit, for the conversion of unbelieving Jews and heathens, attend its 
entrance into this world of sin. It takes up its permanent abode with 
our fallen race, to transform it gradually, without war or bloodshed, by a 
quiet, leaven-like process, into a kingdom of truth and righteousness. 
In virtue of this original purity, vigor and beauty, and the permanent 
success of primitive Christianity, the canonical authority of the New 
Testament, the single but inexhaustible volume of its literature, and the 
character of the Apostles, those inspired organs of the Holy Spirit, those 
humanly-untaught teachers of mankind, the Apostolic Age has an incom- 
parable interest and importance in the history of the church. It is the 
immovable ground-work of the whole. It holds up the highest standard' 
of doctrine and discipline." — P. Schaff. 

The church of the first century forms the standard and example for 
the church of all future ages. Should there exist now on earth a body of 
professed Christians who occupy the same ground in faith and practice as 
that of the church of the first century, they are right ; and if any should 


be found occupying a different position, they are wrong. The true 
church of Christ and false or merely nominal churches are to be distin- 
guished by a comparison with the apostolic standard. 


1. The apostolic church consisted only of those persons who had 
been convicted of sin by the Holy Spirit, and who had given signs of re- 
pentance towards God, and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as the Son of 
God. Their faith was the faith of God's elect (Titus i. 1), a steadfast 
and earnest adherence to the doctrine of the Apostles and prophets (Acts 
ii. 42 ; Eph. ii. 20 ; Jude 3), including the total depravity of the human 
race in consequence of the fall of our first parents, the special eternal 
eleotion of God's people to everlasting life, the particular redemption 
purchased by the blood of Christ for all His people, the effectual calling 
and the final perseverance of the saints to glory. In all spiritual matters 
Christ was their only Head, King and Lawgiver, as He spoke either per- 
sonally or by His Spirit in the writers of the Old and the New Testament 
Scriptures. One word of their Lord and Master was worth all the words 
of all uninspired men. They chose to obey God rather than man. The 
Jewish and heathen doctrine of salvation by human works they utterly 
eschewed, while they heartily embraced as their only hope the Christian 
and Bible doctrine of a free and full salvation by the sovereign and un- 
merited grace of God. In other words, this first and chief mark of the 
apostolic church was a regenerated or converted membership, who had been 
born of the Spirit of God, who had vital, revealed, experimental religion, 
who were the quickened, the circumcised in heart, the new creation, 
saints, beloved of the Lord, children of God, the saved, added to the 
church by the Lord, the elect vessels of mercy, who worshiped God in 
the Spirit, living stones built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to 
offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ, a chosen 
generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people, that they 
should show forth the praises of Him who had called them out of dark- 
ness into His marvelous light. 

This mark utterly excludes the unregenerate world and unconscious 
infants from membership in the apostolic church. As Noah was a spir- 
itual child of God, and all the human race since the flood are his descend- 
ants, infant membership, if fully carried out, would sweep the whole 
world into the church. Three of the evangelists inform us that some 
little children were brought to Jesus, who blessed them, though they were 
unbaptized ; and who, though this was the occasion above all others for 
it, said not one word about their baptism or their admittance into His visi- 
ble church. He uttered those forever precious and memorable words, 
" Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such 
is the kingdom of God." Mark says that He was " much displeased" when 
His disciples rebuked those who brought the children to Him. Bible 
Baptists have always believed that all children who die in infancy are 


regenerated by the almighty grace of God and go directly home to the 
loving arms of Jesus ; and these with the adult believers compose more 
than one-half of the human race. As "Jesus Christ is the same yester- 
day, to-day and forever " (Heb. xiii. 8), it must still be " much displeasing '■' 
to Him that little children should not be suffered, but forbidden, to come 
to Him for -any reason whatever, whether the lack of water-baptism or 
anything else. The language of Christ in Mark xvi. 16, " He that believ- 
eth not shall be damned," shows with perfect clearness that not want of 
water -baptism, but want of faith, is the cause of damnation ; and as the , 
grace of faith is "the gift of God" (Eph. i. 19; ii. 8; Gal. v. 22; Phil. i. ' 
29 ; Hebrews xii. 2), it is as easy for Omnipotence to bestow it upon a 
dying infant as upon a living adult. The practice of infant baptism (or 
infant church membership) is a weak, thoroughly antiscriptural, idola- 
trous superstition, which most probably arose in North Africa in the third 
century * from the false idea of the magical, regenerating, saving power 
of water, and which did not become general until the fifth century, thus 
securing its triumph in the Dark Ages about the same time with the 
establishment of the papacy ; and it is worthy only of the Dark Continent 
and the Dark Ages. " It originated from that inborn human principle of 
self -righteousness which supposes it so necessary for man to do something 
to secure his acceptance with God that even the infant, who cannot com- 
ply with the condition itself, must do so by its substitute." It is a vain 
human tradition which utterly makes void the commandments of God — 
those commandments requiring baptism after repentance and faith, as 
fitly symbolical of those internal graces ; while the human tradition re- 

* It is claimed that Irenaeus was born A. D. 97, and that he makes one allusion to infant bap- 
tism. The fact is that both the date and place both of Irenaeus's birth and death are unknown. 
The ablest scholars believe that he was born between A. D. 120 and 140; and some suppose that he 
died A. D. 202. His book against Heresies was composed, says Mr. Scbaff, between the years 177 
and 192. In that book he says that ' ' our Lord came in order that through Himself He might save 
all men, infants, and little ones, and children and youths and elders, even all who through Him 
are born again unto God." The expression 'born again" is said, in the early so-called 
' ' Fathers, " habitually to mean * ' baptized ; " but it remains to be proved that it always has that 
meaning, and that it has that meaning in the sentence just quoted from Irenaeus. The phrase 
* ' through Him, " instead of ' * through water, " militates emphatically against the idea of baptis- 
mal regeneration in this passage— so admit the German scholars. 

The earliest undoubted reference to child baptism is by Tertullian of N